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hbl.brtl PE 1628.S8 1874 

Etymological and pronouncing dicti 

3 T153 DD5M0MDL, fi 


























This work, the result of the labours of many 
years, is designed to supply a full and com- 
plete pronouncing, etymological, and explan- 
atory Dictionary of the English Language, 
containing an unusual number of scientific, 
technical, and other terms, in a handy form 
for general reference, and at such a price as 
will put it within the reach of persons of the 
most moderate means. Many new and im- 
portant features will be found in the work. 

The Dictionary "Words.— These are printed 
in a bold, black type, and in single letters, 
that being the form in which words are usually 
presented to the reader. Capital letters begin 
such words only as proper names, and others 
which are always so printed. This distinc- 
tion will be of considerable use to the learner. 
English phrases, familiar colloquialisms, and 
slang and other terms useful for reference by 
the general reader, have been freely inserted 
and defined. The addition of participial ter- 
minations will be found a useful feature. 

The Grouping of Words.— The Dictionary 
words are grouped under a leading word, from 
which they may be presumed naturally to fall 
or be formed, or simply follow in alphabetical 
order. Only, however, are they so grouped 
when they are derived from the same leading 
root, and when their alphabetical order may 
not be materially disturbed. When words 
occur in a group out of their alphabetical 
order, they will also be found in their place 
ith a simple reference to the heading under 
hich they are grouped. Care has been taken 
not to group to such an extent as to create diffi- 

culty in consulting the work, but the alphabet- 
ical order of words in respect of their terminal 
letters is in no case attended to in the group- 
ing. The plan of grouping will be found to 
have important advantages. The words the 
most nearly related are immediately presented 
to the eye in a bold, black type, and not scat- 
tered over several pages, merely because their 
terminal letters are different. 

The Pronunciation.— The Dictionary words, 
for pronunciation, are respelt phonetically 
with italic letters, and divided into syllables 
by dots instead of hyphens, and accented. 
The pronunciation has been carefully revised, 
in conformity with the best modern usage, by 
the Rev. P. H. Phelp, M.A. Cantab., to whom 
the Author has also to acknowledge his great 
obligations for very valuable assistance he has 
afforded in other departments of the work. The 
scheme of phonotypes or sound-symbols is fully 
detailed in a Table at the beginning of the 
work, and again briefly repeated, for the con- 
venience of reference, at the bottom of each 
two consecutive pages. The leading word of 
each group is uniformly respelt and marked 
in full ; but the succeeding ones, especially 
when the seat of the accent is the same, 
have, generally, only the terminal parts re- 
spelt, the full respelling of the leading word 
being sufficient to indicate the first part. 

The Etymology of Words.— For the roots, 
or the supposed roots, enclosed within brack- 
ets, the works of the best and most recent 
authorities have been carefully consulted. In 
the words given as derived from the non-clas- 


sical languages— that is, not from the Latin 
and Greek — Wedgwood, Latham, and Max 
Midler have been generally followed. When 
a Latin or Greek noun is given as a root-word, 
the genitive case is frequently added in order 
to exhibit the literal elements more promi- 
nently to the learner. For the same reason, 
in Latin verbs, the supine in urn is often pre- 
ferred to the infinitive in re. It must not be 
supposed that all the root-words given within 
the brackets indicate really the ultimate sources 
of the English words. In a very large class of 
English words they really are so, as in scien- 
tific terms, and words directly derived from the 
Latin or Greek, or in the case of that large class 
which are merely imitative of natural sounds 
or natural appearances. The root-ioords are 
meant to show— (1) the probable origin of the 
English words ; (2) their primary meanings ; 
or, (3) their equivalents in other languages. 
The root-ivords may be considered as a core for 
a group of related English words. Apart from 
this their chief use in an educational point of 
view, their meanings will be found highly use- 
ful in enabling the general reader to ascer- 
tain, in most cases, without difficulty, the pri- 
mary significations of the English words. When 
no meaning is attached to a root-word, it is to 
be considered as an analogue— that is, it has 
the same sense as the leading Dictionary 
word. In regard to a numerous class of Eng- 
lish words usually considered as derived from 
the literary Latin, or from the Latin through 
the French, Italian, or Spanish, the best au- 
thorities now teach precisely the opposite. 
Such words are really derived from some one 
of that large class of related European lan- 
guages called the Eomance, including the 
French, Italian, and Spanish ; or from a source 
common not only to them, but also to English 
and literary Latin. Literary or classical 
Latin had its origin in the unwritten lan- 
guages and dialects of Italy. When the 
former ceased to be a living tongue, the 
latter still survived. In the same way, the 
present substratum of literary English has 
not sprung from the Anglo-Saxon of Wes- 
sex only, but from it and the languages and 
dialects, however derived, spoken in every 
part of Great Britain. While these facts 
must be distinctly borne in mind by the 
student, it is convenient to retain the fiction 
of derivation from or through the literary 
Latin in regard to the classes of words re- 
ferred to. In this view, the exact equiva- 
lents of English words in Italian, French, or 
Spanish, will be found highly useful and sig- 

It will be observed in numerous instances 
that successive entries occur of words spelt 
precisely in the same way, and that they are 
so entered because they are derived from dif- 
ferent roots, and have, of course, different sig- 
nifications. This fact of itself will afford a 
striking example of the advantage of having 
related words grouped under their common 
root-words, instead of the usual plan of Eng- 
lish Dictionaries of having the most contra- 
dictory senses placed under the same word 
which itself, in two, three, or more of these 
senses, has quite a different origin, though 
spelt in the same way. 

The Meanings. — The meanings of the 
words are those usually given, but they have 
been simplified as much as possible. In the 
way of definition there will be found, however, 
a vast quantity of entirely new matter. The 
separate entries made, in works of the same 
kind, to indicate distinctions in the significa- 
tions of verbs, when used transitively and in- 
transitively, have been abandoned, as confus- 
ing to the learner, and as practically useless ; 
at the same time, however, the distinctions 
themselves have generally been retained. No 
attempt has been made to render the defini- 
tions exhaustive ; yet in these the work is 
very full. Very frequently words in a group 
ending in nes, ble, and bly, especially the 
last, are not followed by definitions. When 
so found, the meanings are easily formed : 
Thus, distinctness, state of being distinct ; 
distinctly, in a distinct manner ; bleakness, 
state of being bleak; bleakly, in a bleak 
manner ; improvable, that may be improved ; 
improvably, in an improvable manner ; im- 
provableness, state of being improvable : 
Thus, ble, meaning "that may be;" bly, 
manner ; and ness, state of being. 

The Appendices.— They are— a note in re- 
gard to prefixes being placed first— (1) A full 
list of postfixes in alphabetical order, having 
their origin indicated, and followed by exam- 
ples of their use ; (2) A list of common abbre- 
viations, with their meanings, and their full 
uncontracted forms, when not English, within 
brackets ; (3) A very full list of Latin, French, 
and other phrases, the name of the language, 
and their signification in English. 

Concluding Remarks. — Such is a brief 
outline of the nature and contents of the 
present work. In a work necessitating so 
great an amount of research, and the elabora- 
tion of so great a mass of matter from such 


a variety of sources during the unremitting 
labour of many years, there cannot but occur 
matter and arrangement that may call for 
adverse criticism, or at least call forth differ- 
ence of opinion. Where, too, there is such a 
variety of type, symbols, and marks employed, 
and so many elaborate details, errors may oc- 
cur. It is believed, however, that these will 
be found but few in number, and of little im- 
portance. Besides the Rev. Mr Phelp, already 
referred to, highly-qualified gentlemen were 
engaged on the revision of the proof-sheets as 
they were passing through the press. The 
Author begs to acknowledge his obligations to 
those gentlemen for their important services. 
Dr Page, Professor of Geology in the Durham 
University of Physical Science, Newcastle, 
and author of well-known works on Geology 
and Physical Geography, specially attended 

to the correctness of the numerous scientific 
terms introduced into the work. 

To give a list of authorities used in compil- 
ing the present work would serve no good 
end. Suffice it to say that numerous works 
have been diligently consulted and compared, 
including the best and most recent authori- 
ties. While the Author's field of review has 
been a very extensive one, and while he has of 
necessity trodden a path common to authors 
of works of the same kind, it is hoped that no 
undue use of materials from other works has 
been made. The most laborious care has 
been employed, and considerable expense in- 
curred, in securing accuracy. The Author 
trusts that this work will secure public appro- 
bation, and fulfil, in the opinion of those best 
able to judge, the objects for which it is chiefly 

Edinburgh, October 1871. 


In this Edition a considerable number of 
important corrections have been introduced 
into the body of the work. A Supplement 
and a List of Proper Names have also been 
added. The Supplement contains about 450 
additional words— chiefly such new scientific 
and other words as are now becoming current 
in our popular literature. Several emendations 
referring to the body of the work, and new ex- 
planatory matter, have also been inserted in 
the Supplement. The List of Proper Names 
consists of (1) Scripture proper names taken 
afresh from the authorised version, (2) all the 
proper names found in the Apocrypha, (3) 
common classical names, and (4) common 
historical and other names — all respelt for 
pronunciation according to the method em- 
ployed in the Dictionary. In placing the ac- 
cent, the authority of Smart and Dr Smith 
has been followed— chiefly the latter. In re- 

spelling the proper names, and employing the 
sound-symbols used in the Dictionary, a dis- 
tinctness and precision have been given to the 
pronunciation of them never before attempted. 
Dr Page and the Rev. Mr Phelp have care- 
fully read • over the Supplement. Mr Phelp, 
and two other gentlemen well known in the 
literary world, kindly took the trouble care- 
fully to go over the List of Proper Names, and 
adapt their pronunciation to English usage. 
It will be observed, however, that though the 
pronunciation according to English idiom and 
usage has been preferred, the strictly classical 
has been sufficiently often indicated. It is 
hoped that, with these improvements and ad- 
ditions, this work will not only maintain the 
high position which it has already attained, 
but find increasing favour with the general 

Edinburgh, September 1874. 




ATION of words, vii 












Note.—(-) is the mark dividing words respelt phonetically into syllables; ('), the accent indicating on 
which syllable or syllables the accent or stress of the voice is to be placed. The marks ( ■") and ( ") 
above the vowels are to be understood as having relation to the character of the sound alone, not to 
the prolongation, or the reverse, of the sound— that is determined in ordinary cases by the accent- 
uation of the word. The mark ( ") above the symbols aw, div, ob, and 6y, designates these as diph- 
thongal sounds. 

Sound-symbols Representing the Sounds as SoZds^mboTand Afar** 

1&&S Amplified" in the Words. ^^Tonu^aUon^ 

d mate, fate, fail, aye, there mat, fat, fal, a, fhar. 

d mat, fat mat, fat. 

d far, calm, father .fdr, kdm, fafh'er. 

aw fall, laud, law .fowl, Idwd, law. 

6 mete, meat, feet, free met, met, f6t,frS. 

<b met, bed met, old. 

e her, stir, heard, cur her, stir, herd. Jeer. 

% pine, ply, height .pin, pli, hit. 

t pin, nymph, ability .pin, nlmf, d-bW-l-tl. 

6 note, toll, soul not, tol, sdl. 

6 not, plot not, plot. 

<5 move, smooth m&v, smdfh. 

oT«> noun, bough, cow ndwn, bow, kdw. 

oy boy, boil boy, bdyl. 

ob woman, foot wdbm'an, fdbt. 

u pure, due, few pur, du, fu. 

u bud, come, tough bud, hum, tUf. 

ch chair, match chdr, mdch. 

g game, gone, gun gam, gon, gun. 

j judge, gem, gin .juj, jSm, jln. 

k king, cat, cot, cut king, kdt, kot, kut. 

s sit, scene, cell, city, cypress sit, sen, sel, slt'l, sl'-prls. 

sh shun, ambition shun, dm-blsh'un. 

th thing, breath thing, brlth. 

th there, breathe fhar, breth. 

z zeal, maze, muse zel, mdz, muz. 

zh , azure, vision a'-zhdbr, vizh'iln. 


a. or adj.. . .adjective 

ad adverb 

agri agriculture 

alg algebra 

anat anatomy 

anc ancient 

arch architecture 

archteol archaeology 

arith arithmetic 

astrol astrology 

astron astronomy 

bot botany 

chem chemistry 

chron chronology 

com. .common 

com commerce 

comp comparative 

conch conchology 

conj conjunction 

contr contraction 

dim diminutive 

dyn dynamics 

E ...east 

E. I East Indies 

eccles ecclesiastical affairs 

Eng. hist... English history 

engin engineering 

entom entomology 

etym etymology 

Fahr. Fahrenheit 

far farriery 

fem feminine 

fort fortification 

gen gender ; genitive 

geog geography 

geol geology 

geom geometry 

gram grammar 

her heraldry 

hist history 

hort horticulture 

imp imperfect participle 

impera imperative 

infln infinitive 

instr instrument 

int interjection 

inteiTog. . ..interrogative pronoun 

lit literature 

masc masculine 

math mathematics 

mech mechanics 

med medicine 

meta metaphysics 

mil military affairs 

min mineralogy 

mod modern 

myth mythology 

N north 

n noun 

nat. hist.... natural history 

nay / navigation or naval af- 

1 fairs 

neut neuter 

nom nominative 

obj objective 

opt optics 

ornith ornithology 

paint painting 

palteon palaeontology 

path pathology 

pers person 

pert pertaining 

phil philosophy 

phren phrenology 

phys physiology or physical 

phi plural 

poss possessive 

pp perfect participle 

pref. prefix 

prep preposition 

pres present 

pron pronoun 

prov provincial 

pt past tense 

rel relative pronoun 

rhet rhetoric 

R. N royal navy 

R.Cath. Ch. Roman Catholic Church 

S south 

Scrip Scripture 

sculp sculpture 

sing singular 

superl superlative 

surg surgery 

surv surveying 

theol theology 

trig trigonometry 

U. S United States 

v verb 

W west 

W. I West Indies 

zool zoology 

Alb Albanian 

Amer American or America 

Ar Arabic 

AS Anglo-Saxon 

Bav Bavarian 

Beng Bengalee 

Bohem Bohemian 

Bret... ..... Breton 

Celt Celtic 

Chald Chaldee 

Chin Chinese 

Dan Danish 

Dut Dutch 

Eng English 

Esthon Esthonian 

F French 

Fin Finnish 

Flem Flemish 

Fris Frisian 

Gael Gaelic 

Geno Genoese 

Ger German 

Goth Gothic 

Gr Greek 

Gris Orisons 

Heb Hebrew 

Hind Hindustani 

Hung Hungarian 

Icel Icelandic 

Ind India or Indies 

Ir Irish 

It Italian 

L Latin 

Lang Languedoc 

Lap Lapland 

Lim Limousin 

Lith Lithuanian 

Mai Malayan 

Manx language of Isle of Man 

( Latin of the middle 
mid. L. . . ^ ages> or ]ate Latin 

Milan Milanese 

Norm Norman 

Norm. F Norman French 

N. Fris North Frisian 

old Eng old English 

old F old French 

old Fris old Frisian 

old H. Ger. .old High German 
Pers Persian 

Piedm Piedmontese 

Pol Polish 

Port Portuguese 

Prov Provencal 

prov. Eng. .provincial English 

Rom Roman 

Russ Russian 

Sam Samaritan 

Sans Sanscrit 

Scand Scandinavian 

Scot Scotland or Scotch 

Serv Servian 

Sic Sicilian 

Slav Slavonic 

Sp Spanish 

Sw Swedish 

Swab Swabian 

Syr Syriac 

Tent Teutonic 

Turk Turkish 

Venet Venetian 

W Welsh 

Wal Walachian 

Wall Walloon 

Westph Westphalian 






A, a, the first letter of the alphabet in most lan- 
guages; an adjective of number, signifying one ; the 
indefinite ait :-.-le — used before adjectives or nouna 
that begin with a consonant or with the sound of a 
consonant; an Anglo-Saxon prefix signifying at, to, 
in. or on; a Greek prefix, also its form an, signifying 
without, not; a Latin prefix, with its forma ab and 
abs, signuVing/zw/i or away. 

A 1, a one, a mark to denote a ship of the first class 
as to newness and being seaworthy. 

Aaronic, 3. aron'tk; also Aaronlcal, a. d-ron'l-kdl, 
of "r pen. to Aaron or his priesthood. 

ab, ab, a Latin prefix; also a and abs, signifying 
from or away. 

A.B., first letters otArtium Baccalaureus—dr'shl- 
™, of arts : bdk'kd-ltiie'-rl-iis, bachelor — meaning 
Bachelor of Arts, an academic title. 

aback, ad. d-bak' (AS. on-baec), on the back; back- 
ward*, as used by sailors; by surprise; unexpectedly. 

abacus, n. dV-d-kiU (L., from Gr. abakos, a board for 
calculations), a counting frame ; In arch., the crown- 
ing table of a column. 

Abaddon, n. db'ld'ddn (Heb. abnd. to be lost or 
destroyed), the destroying angel of the bottomless 

abaft, ad., prep. dod/HAS. teflon, after, behind), 
a seaman's term; at or towards the stern or lander 
p irt of a ship; I ehinci 

abandon, v. a-bdn'dun (F. abandonner, to desert), 
to give up; to d-s-rt; to forsake entirely: aban doning, 
imp.: abandoned, pp.: adj., wholly forsaken; given 
up; extremely profligate or corrupt: abandonment, 
iu a giving up wholly; a total desertion: aban doner, 
it. the person who gives up. 

abase, v. n-bdi' (F. abuiaser. to lower— from L. ad; 
basis, the foot or base), to bring low; to degrade; to 
cast down: abasing, imp.: abased, pp. db>X<t': 
abase meat, n the act of humbling or bringing low. 

abash, v. a-b'Uh' {old F. esbahir, to set agape, to 
confound), to confuse with guilt; to make ashamed: 
abashing, imp.: abashed, pp.d-bitshf, confounded; 
put to s:;-r.' _•- : abashment, n. confusion from shame. 

abate, v. d-baf (F. abattre, to beat down: It. abbnl- 
en, to overthrow), tolessen ; t> lower in price ; to grow 
1--3-, to s :'s..;-: aba'ting, imp.: abated, pp.: abat- 
able, a. 4-bd'td-bl, that can be lessened <>r abated: 
abate'ment, n. a reduction; a lessening; the sum 
abated: aba ter, n. the person or tiling that abates. 

abatis, n. ab'-d-tU or ab->)-*?. also spelt ab'attis 
(F. ab»ttr*. to beat down), piles of trees or their larger 
brar.i-hes. with sharpened points outward, laid down 
f ■ r the ? rotevtion of troops. 

abattoir, n. ub-dt-udr' (F.), a public slaughter- 

abb, n. ab (AS.), the yam of a weaver's warp. 

abba, it ah'ba (Chaldee). a father; a name given 
in the East to church dignitaries— hence baba, papa. 
pope: abbacy, 11. ab'bdsi, the dignity or rights and 
privileges of an abbot: abbatial, a. d-ba'sMdl : also 
abbatical, abdt'tkdl. of an abbey: ab'be, n. tib'-bi, a 
father; a title of courtesy or honour given to persons 
in many Catholic countries who have given themselves 
to the study of divinity: abbess, n. aborts, aladyplaced 
over a nunnery. Among persons living secluded front 
the world in religious houses, the miles are called 
monks, and the. females nuns. The residence of a 
monk is called a monastery, and that of a nun a p.'in- 
nery. abbey, n. ab'bl, plu. abbeys, db'biz, a monas- 
tery; a residence of persons secluded from the world, 
either male or female; abbot, n. ab'but, the sup. rvr 
or chief person over an abbey or monastery: al> bot- 
ahip, n. the oitiee of an abbot. 

Abbeville flints, ab'-vil, rude flint, implements, in 
the form of spearheads, 4c, found in great abui d- 
ance in the post-tertiary sands and gravels of the river 
Somme, near Abbeville, in Prance. 

abbreviate, v. Abbri'vi-di (L. ah; brevis, short). 
to shorten; to reduce to a smaller size; to abridge: 
abbreviating, imp.: abbreviated, pp.: abbrevia- 
tion, n.db-bre'-vl-d-shfin, the act of shortening; apart 
of a word used for the whole: abbre viator, n. one 
who: abbreviatory, a. -tor'-l, shortening: abbrevia- 
ture, n. •vl-a-tCu', an abbreviation. 

abdicate, v. db'-dl-kut (L. ab; dico, I proclaim or 
make known), to give up a right : to renounce an off* i 
of power: ab'dica'ting, im;>.: abdicated, pp. : abdi- 
cation, n. ab-dl-kd'y.'tun, the act of gi\ ing u;> ; a sur 
rendering: ab'dicant, 11. -f.ilnt, also" ab'dica tor, -Av- 
tor, one who: abdicative, a. dl'ulkd'-tiv, causing or 
implying abdication. 

abdomen, 11. db-dO'mSn (I,., from abdo, I conceal), 
ihe lower part of the belly: abdominal, a. db-di'mi'i- 
7i(1l, belonging to the lower be!iv : &hdominou3, a. 
Ob-ddm'-i-nds, having a large belly: abdominales. 
11. plu. db-dOm'-t-nd'-lrz. h\ zovl., the soft tinn-d fishe* 
which have their ventral fins placed on the abdomen, 
behind the pectorals. 

abduce, v. dbdns'; also abduct, v. ab-ddkf (I., 
or?): duco, I lead), to lead or draw from ; to sej arate: 
abdu'eing, imj>. : abduced, pp. ab-dust'i abduc- 
ting, imp.: abduc'ted, pp.: abduc'tor.n. one who; in 
ouat., a muscle that draws a limb or a part outwards: 
abduction, it. db-dOk'shiin, in met'., a drawing away 
from ; a carrying away by fraud or open violence : ab- 
duceut.a. abdutCvt. separating; drawing back. 

abed, ad. a-beif (AS.), on or in bed. 

abele, 11. d-bclc (.Pol. bidlo, white), the white poplar- 

mate, mat, for. Ttu>; mite, mSt, her; pine, 
pure, bad; chair, game, jog, 

;,m»,' vote, not. tntkte; cote, bdy.fvli; 
. shun, thing, then, zeal. 



pleasing or gratifying to a receiver; agreeable in 
person or by services; welcome: acceptably, ad. <?/:• 
efpVd-bll : accep'tableness, n. : acceptability, n. 
•bil'itl: acceptance, n. dhsipt'flns, the receiving 
with approval; a written promise to lay money: 
aocept'or, n. the person who gives a written promise 
to pay money: acceptation, n. dk-iiptu-fkun, recep- 
tion, the meaning or Beuse in which a word or expres- 
sion is generally understood. 

access, n. (Ik-sis' or dk'vte (I, acccssus, a coming 
to), admission to; approach, or means of approach: 
accessible, a. dk-sts-sl-bi, easy of approach; affable: 
acces'aibly, ad. -l-bli: accessibility, n. -bO'lti: ac- 
cession, n. i!k-<(.<h'tin (L. ad; cestio, a yielding or 
gi viii;; up), an increase; an addition; an arriving at; 
that which is added: accesslonal, a. dk-sesh'&frdt, 
additional: accessorial, a. ak'sis-sO-rl-OJ. relating to 
an accessary: accessary, a. Ok'$e'<-^lr'-l; also spelt 
-sory -tor'-i, aiding in doing something, or privy to 
it: additional: n. anything additional; one who aids 
or gives countenance to a crime: ac cessar'ily, ad. 
-ill: ac'c*3sar'ine3», n 

aeelaceatura, n. dk'shS-dk'd-to'nl (It. acciaccata), 
in music, a grace-note. 

accident, n. dk'-sl-diinl [L.acciden-', gen. accidcntis, 
Slipping, happening to), something talcing place un- 
expectedly; an event not foreseen; a duality not es- 
sential: accidental, a. ak'->i-d<}>:t'-al, happening by 
chance; casual: n. anything non-essential: accident- 
ally, ad. -ll : ac'culentalnes3, n. : accidence, n. ak- 
sl-dins, a book containing the definitions and rules of 
grammar as they fall from or succeed each other. 

a:cipens2rid3e, n. plu. dk'sfp-Sn-sir'-l-de' (L. accipen- 
ser, the sterge* m), the sturgeon family— a limited group 
of ganoid fishes ; tJih existing species are chiefly of 
larg« si/e. 

accipitres, n. plu. dk-fip'l-trc~3 (L. acripiter, a 
hawk— from (tccipio, I seize), in ornith., a. term applied 
to the ri'.paciot'.s birds, as eagles, faleons, hawks, &c: 
accipitrin?. p.. dk-glp'-l-trin, hawk-like; rapacious. 

acclaim, v. dk-klam' {I., ad; clamo, I cry out), to 
applaud: n. a shout of joy: acclaim'ing, imp.: ac- 
claimed, pp. -kLlmd': acclamation, n. dk'k'.a-pid- 
shiln, apnlau.e expressed by the voice, or by a noise 
With thr' hands or feet: acclamatory, a. dk-kldm'-d- 
tOr'l, expressing Joy or applause. 

acclimate, v. dkkll'mdt ; also acclimatise, v. 
Ok-klVmA-tUS (L ad; and climate, which see: F. 
ccc'hii'Xt^r), to accustom the body to live in a foreign 
country in a state of health; to inure a plant or 
animal +<> a climate not natural to it: acclimating, 
imp.: acclimated, pp. Sk-hll'mdtSd: acclimation, 
n. ak'UiirV-Auii: acolimature, n. dk-kli'md-tur'.- 
acclimatising, imp. iik-kU'ond-iit'tnii : acclima- 
tised, pp. itk-k'.i'iH'l-tUd': acclimatisation, n. ak. 

acclivity, n. dk-kllu'l-tl (L. u<< ,• dints, a slope), a 
slop*; rising ground; the face of a hill in going up: 
dt'.clivV'i, the. face of a hill in coining down: acclivous, 
a. ilk-k' i'v>l<, rising as a hill. 

accolade, n. dk'0-ldd' (L. ad; colhim, the neck), a 
word formerly used to designate the ceremony of con- 
ferring knighthood by a gentle blow of a sword, on the 
neck or shoulder. 

accommodate, v. Akkoyn'mO-ddt (L. ad; con, to- 
gether; modus, a measure, a limit), to make suitable 
for; to adapt to; to supply; to help; to lend: accom'- 
moda'ting, imp.: accommodated, pp.: accommoda- 
tion, n. akhni'itio-da'shnn, suitable convenience; 
what is furnished to supply a want: accom'ir.oda- 
tive, a. -da'dlv. furnishing accommodation; obliging: 
accom'modate'nsss, n.: accoru'ir.oda'tor, n. on.; who. 

accomp.-vay, v. ak-k&m'pit.-ni (K vcompagjier— 
from iwpniin ie, company), to attend or escort ; to go 
with as a companion; to bean associate: accompany- 
ing, imp.: accompanied, pp. tlk K >':in'f'in -id: atcom- 
panler, n. tik-kiWpd-nWri accompaniment, n. ak- 
ki'irit')>d>'lhi-\il, something that attends or is added 
by way of ornament or Improvement: accompanist, 
n. dk-'ki~un'pdrt-i.<t, in manic, the person who accom- 

accomplice, n. ilk-fcHm'pJfs (L. ad • con; pUro, 1 
fold: F. eomji'iV*). a companion in doing something 
wrong; a confederate, usually in an ill sense. 

accomplish, v. ak-frdm'-plt.'h (L. ad: cmnpleo, I fill 
completely/, to complete; to finish entirely; to bring 
to pass: accomplishing, imp.: accomplished, pp. 
.pHshf: adj. rich in aoviiwl qualities and manners; 
elegant; refined: accomplishment, n. the finishing 

entirely; attainment; fulfilment: completion; polite 
manners or education: pcconi'plisaer, n. one who: 
accomplishable, a. &k;k6m'-pllsh-(l-bli accomplish- 
ments, n. plu. polite acquirements. 

accompt , old spelling of account, which see. 

accord, v. Akkafcrd (L. ad; cor, gen. ccrdtt, the 
heart), to make to agree or correspond; to grant or 
give; to he suitable: n. agreement; consent; harmony: 
according, imp. : adj. agreeing; granting ; suitable: 
according to, prep, phrase : accord ed, pp.: accord'er, 
n. one who: accordance, n. akkordaris, agreement 
with a person: accord'ant, a. agreeable to; corres- 
ponding to : accord antly, ad. -It. accordingly, ad. -n .- 
accordion, n. ukkor'di-on, a keyed wind instrument. 

accost, v. dk-kOs? (F. accoster, to join side to side, 
to come up to), to speak first to; to address or salute: 
accosting, imp.: accosted, pp.: accostable, a. ak- 
kOit'-dbl, easy of access. 

accoucheur, n. dk'kilb-sher' (F. — from L. ad: F. 
conche, a bed), a surgeon who attends women in child- 
birth : accouchement, n. ak-hi'uA'-htono. \y.:.z in 
child-birth: accoucheuse, n. dk-k^o -s/i.Y, a midwife. 

account, n. Hk-kownf (L. ad; con, together; puto, 
I think— this word used to be written accompt), a sum 
stated on a slate or paper; a narrative or statement; 
regard; explanation a statement of prices, expenses, 
&c: v. to judge; to esteem; to value; to give rea- 
sons; to explain; to be liable: account'ing, imp.: 
accounted, pp.: accountable, a. dk-k-Mcnt'-a bl, liable 
to answer for one's conduct: accountability, n. -d- 
bll'd-tl, being liable to answer for one's conduct: ac- 
countably, ad. -b!t: accoant'ablenes3, n.: acconnt'- 
ant, n. one skilled iii accounts ; a clerk : account 'ant- 
ship, n. the otln.e of an accountant: accountancy, u. 

accoutre, v. Ok-kO'ter (F. accoutrer, to dress or 
equip), to dress or ecpiip for military service : accou- 
tring, imp. akkd'trliuj: accoutred, pp. ak-kC-fifd: 
accoutrements, n. plu. dk-k6 : :irhiints, military 
dress or equipments. 

accredit, v. ak-krSd'U fL. ad: credo, t believe or 
trust In), to give trust to: to procure honour or credit 
for: accrediting, imp.: accredited, pp. akkrid'Uid: 
adj. authorised to appear as one possessing the confi- 
dence of another, ora3 a public character. 

accretion, n. dk-krc'-shthi (L. ad; cresco, I grow, or 
cretum, to grow), increase by external addition of new 
matter: accretive, a. dk-kre'ttv, growing by external 
additions: accrescence, n. ak-kris'Sns. 

accrue, v. dk-krO' {L. ad; cresco, I grow), to arise 
from ; to proceed ; to come to ; to be added as increase 
or profit: accru'ing, imp.: accrued, pp. ak-kr6d': 
accru'ment, n. 

accumbent, a. dkkiim'bSnt (L. accitmbo. I lay my- 
self down upon— from ad; cub?, I lie down). leaning 
upon: reclining at meals: accum'bency, n. ->l. 

accumulate, v. akkii'muddt (L. uo.; cumulus, 
a heap), to heap or pile up; to collect cr gath-.r to- 
gether; to increase greatly: adl. heaped; collected: 
accu'mula'ting, imp.: accu'mula'ted, pp.: accumula- 
tion, n. -Id'shiin, the. act of heaping ui> or collecting 
together; tiie things accumulated: accumulative, 
a. taken as a whole or in the mass : accu'mula tively, 
ad. -la'tlv-ll: accu'mula'tor, n. one who gathers or 

accuracy, n. dk'ku-rils? (L. ad; euro, car-), cor- 
rectness; exactness: accurateness, n. dk-ku-rdt'nis, 
fiii dom from error or mistake: accurate, a. dk'k'l- 
rdt, very exact ; free from error or miscake : accura- 
tely, ad. -It 

accurse, v. dk-k/rs' (L. ad: AS.corsian, to execrate 
by the sign of the cross), to devote to destruction; to 
call down evil or misery upon : accursed, pp. ilk- 
hy.-t': adj. dk-h-r'sCd, doomed ; wieked ; execrable. 

accuse, v. dkkiiz (L. atxuso, I blame— from <;•/; 
ranaa. a cause), to charge with a crime or fault ; ; > 
blame; accusing, imp. : accused, pp. dk-kiizd': ac- 
cusation, n. dk'-kii-ziV'Jttni, being declared guilty of 
a crime or fault; the charge brought against any one : 
accu'ser, n. one who blames or charges s >me one 
with a fault or crime: accu'sable, a. -nbL charge- 
able with a crime: accusatory, a. tlk-kn'zd-*Or-t, 
that blames; tending to accuse: accusative, a ah- 
kii'zdtiv. the name for the cjise In Latin which is 
called m Knglish the objective; censuring: accu'- 
Batively, ad. -tir'U. 

accustom, v. akk&s'tum (L. ad: F. coutum*, cus- 
tom, habit), to make faioiliar with byhnhit or use ; 
to inure to: accustoming, imp.: accustomed, pp. 

nOUc, Tnu!,/.\r, hue; mite, m2t, h&r; pins, pin; v.M-:, ndt, vn've; 

ACE ! 

-tiirnd: adj. frequent ; usual: accus'tomar'y, a. -dr'-l, 
usual ; customary : accus'tomar'ily, ad. -l-ll. 

ace, n. as (L. as, a unit or pound: F. as.- It. asso, 
a single point of cards or dice), a unit ; a trifle ; a mark 
on a card. 

aceous, a'shus (L.), a postfix signifying resemblance 
to, or partaking of the qualities of a substance — as car- 
bonaceous, partaking of the qualities or appearance of 

aceldama, n. d-sel'dd-md or -Ml- (Ch. akel, a field; 
dama, blood), a field of blood. 

acephala, a. d-sef'd-ld (Gr. a, without; kephale, 
the head), applied to those molluscs that have no dis- 
tinct head— as the oyster, the scallop, &c. : aceph- 
alous, a. d-sef-d-liis, headless. 

acerb, a. d-serb' (L. acerbus, unripe, sour), sour ; 
bitter: acerbity, n. d-serb'l-tl ; also acerbitude, n. 
a-serb'-l-tud, sourness with bitterness; sharpness of 
temper and manners. 

aceric, a. d-ser'ik (L. acer, a maple-tree), of the 
maple-tree— as aceric acid, an acid found in its juice. 

acerose, a. ds'er-oz; also acerous, as'ir-us (L. acus, 
a needle, or chaff; acer, sharp), in hot., linear and 
sharp-pointed, applied to the leaves of the fir tribe ; 

acerval, a. d-ser'vdl (L. acervus, a heap), in heaps : 
acervate.v. d-ser'vat, to heap up: acer vating, imp.: 
acervation, n. as'ir-rd'-shun, act of heaping up. 

acescent, a. d-ses'Snt (L. acesco, I become sour), 
slightly sour; tending to acidity: acescence, n. 
d-ses'-ens; or acescency, d-ses'-en-si. 

acetabulifera, n. ds'e-tdb'ii-lif'-er-d (L. acetabu- 
lum, a sucker, a vinegar-cruet ; fero, I bear or carry), 
those cuttle-fishes whose arms or tentacles are fur- 
nished with rows of little cups or suckers : ac'etab- 
ulum, n. -n-lum, in zool., applied to such organs as 
the cuplike sucking-discs on the arms of the cuttle- 
fish; in anat., the socket of the hip-joint: plu. ac- 

acetarious, a. ds'6-td'ri-us (L. acetum, vinegar), 
applied to plants used as salads: acetar'y, n. Cis'-e- 
tcir'l, the acid pulp of certain fruits : acetate, n. ds'- 
etat; also acitite, n. ds'e-tit, a salt of acetic acid: 
ac'eta'ted, a. combined with vinegar : acetic, a. 
d-set'ik, of vinegar; sour: acet'ic acid, the pure acid 
of vinegar. 

acetify, v. dsSt'hfl (L. acetum ; facio, I make), to 
convert or change into acetic acid or vinegar : acet'- 
ify'ing, imp.: acetified, pp. -fid: acet'ifi'er, -fl'er, 
that which: acetification, n. d-set't-fl-ka'shun: ac- 
etone, n. ds'e-ton, pyro-acetic spirit: acetose, ds'd- 
toz; also acetous, a. d-se'tus, sour; sharp: acetos- 
ity, n. ds'e-tos'l-tl. 

ache, n. Ok (Gr. achos, grief, pain either in body or 
mind: Ger. ach, alas, applied to grief), a continued 
pain in a moderate degree ; also aching, n. : v. to be 
in continued bodily pain; to suffer grief: ach'ing, 
imp. : ached, pp. dkd. 

achieve, v. d-chev' (F. achever, to perfect, to 
complete — from L. ad; caput, the head), to finish or 
complete successfully; to carry on progressively to 
an end: achieving, imp.: achieved, pp. d-chevd' : 
achievement, n. an escutcheon; something done by 
continued exertion : achiev'er, n. one who : achiev- 
able, a. dchev'd-bl : achiev'ance, n. -dns, perform- 

achmite, n. dk'mlt (Gr. akme, a sharp point or 
edge), one of the hornblende family, found in long 
greenish-black crystals, terminating in sharp points. 

achroite, n. dk'-ro-lt (Gr. a, without; chroa, col- 
our), applied to the colourless varieties of tourma- 

achor, n. d'kor (Gr. achor, a soreness of the head), a 
species of scald-head with soft and scaly eruptions. 

achromatic, a. ak'ro-mdt'lk (Gr. a, without ; chro- 
ma, colour), free from colour ; object-glasses not pro- 
ducing colours, when rays of light pass through them, 
are termed achromatic lenses: achromatism, n. d- 
krom'd-Hzm; also achrom'atic'ity, n. -tis'-l-ti, state of 
being achromatic. 

acicular, a. d-sik'u-lar (L. acus, a needle; acicida, 
a little needle), formed like a net-die, applied to min- 
eral crystals which occur in slender needle-like prisms 
or prickles: acic'ularly, ad. -Idr'li : aciculite, n. 
d-slk'ii-llt, needle-ore; an ore of bismuth found im- 
bedded in quartz in long, thin, steel-grey crystals : 
aciform, a. ds'-i-fawrm (L. acus; forma, shape), needle- 

acid, n, ds'-ld (L. acidus, sharp to the taste— from 


acus, a needle), something which causes sourness to 
the taste : adj. sour ; sharp ; biting to the taste : acid- 
ity, n. d-sid'l-tl; also acidness, n. as'id-nSs, the 
quality of being sour: acidiferous, a. as'id-if'-cr-iis 
(L. acidus, sour ; J'ero, I bear), containing acid : acid- 
ify, v. d-sld'ifl (L. acidus; facio, I make), to make 
a body sour; to change into an acid: acidifying, 
imp.: acidified, pp. -fid : acidification, n. a-sid'-i- 
fi-kd'shiin, the act or process of changing into au 
acid: acidifi'er, n. d-sid'-l-fl'er, that which changes 
into an acid: acidifiable, a. d-sid'if-l'd-bl, that may 
be converted into an acid: acidimeter, n. Os'-l-dinl' 
e-ter (L. acidus: Gr. metron, a measure), an instru- 
ment used in testing the strength of acids. 

acidulate, v. d-sld'-u-ldt (L. acidulus, a little sour), 
to make slightly sour; to make moderately acid: 
acid ula'ting, imp. : acidulated, pp. : acid'ulous, a, 
slightly sour: acidulae, n. plu. d-sid'u-le, mineral 
springs rich in carbonic acid. 

acidaspis, n. ds'l-dds'pls (Gr. akis, a spear-point; 
aspis, a buckler), certain fossil crustaceans, so called 
from the central lobe of the head-plate projecting over 
the body in the form of a pointed stomacher. 

acinaceous, a. ds'-i-nd'shiis (L. acinus, a stone or 
seed in a berry), full of kernels : acenose, a. ds'e-noz, 
applied to mineral textures and surfaces which have 
a granulated appearance like the raspberry. 

acinaciform, n. ds'inds'-l-fawrm (L. acinaces, a 
straight sword or sabre), in bot., shaped like a Turkish 
sword or scimitar. 

acknowledge, v. dk-nol'-ej (L. ad, to; and know- 
ledge), to own ; to confess ; to admit to be true ; to 
assent to : acknowledging, imp. : acknowledged, 
pp. dk-nol'cjd: acknowledgment, n. dk-nol'-ej-mmt, 
the owning to be true ; confession ; the expression 
of thanks for a benefit received ; a receipt : acknowl- 
edger, n. one who. 

acme, n. dk'me (Gr. akme, the point), the highest 
point ; the top ; maturity or perfection ; the height or 
crisis of a disease. 

acne, n. dk'-ne (Gr. contr. from akmai, pimples on 
the face), a small hard pimple, chiefly affecting the 

acolyte, n. dk'6-llt (Gr. akoloutheo, I follow as a 
servant), in the Mom. Cath. Ch., one whose duty it is 
to prepare the elements for the offices, to light the 
church, &c, and to attend on the officiating priest. 

aconite, n. dk'6-nlt (L. aconitum: Gr. akoniton), 
the herb wolf's-bane, or monk's-hood; a deadly poison 
extracted from it: aconitine, n. d-kon'-l-tin, the alka- 
loid of aconite. 

acorn, n. a'kawm (AS. wcern: Icel. akarn: Dut. 
aker), the fruit of the oak-tree, formerly used as 
human food. 

acorns, n. dk'orus (L., from Gr. akoron), the sweet 
flag, or sweet rush. 

acotyledon, n. a'kdti le'don (Gr. a, without; kotu- 
ledon, a seed-lobe), in bot., a plant whose embryos or 
germs have no seed-lobes: acotyledonous, a. a'-ko- 
til-r'iio-nus, having no seed-lobes. 

acoustics, n. plu. d-kolv'stlks (Gr. akoustos, that 
may be heard), the science that treats of the cause, 
nature, and phenomena of sounds ; remedies for deaf- 
ness : acou'stic, a. -stlk ; also acou'stical, a. -sti-kal, 
relating to hearing or sound. 

acquaint, v. dk-kwanf (old F. accointer, to make 
known), to inform ; to give notice of; to make familiar 
with: acquainting, imp.: acquainted, pp.: acquain- 
tance, n. ak-kwant'-dns, acquaint'anceship, n. state 
of being acquainted ; knowledge of, either intimate or 
but a little. 

acquiesce, v. dk'kwl-gs' (L. ad; quiesco,! am quiet), 
to agree in; to rest satisfied with ; to assent quietlv: 
ac quies'cing, imp.: acquiesced, pp. dk'kici-esi' : 
ac'quies'cence, n. -es'-ens, agreement in; satisfaction 
with; also ac'quies'cency, n. -en-sl: ac'quies'cent, a. 
-ent, easy; submitting. 

acquire, v. dk-kwlr' (L. ad; quccro, I seek), to gain 
possession of something as one's own, as money or 
knowledge; to earn or attain: acquiring, imp.: ac- 
quired, pp. dk-kiulrd' : adj. gained; not natural: ac- 
quire'ment, n. something gained by study — as gram- 
mar, arithmetic, &c. : acquirable, a. -d-bl. 

acquisition, n. dk'kul-zish'im (L. ad; qimsitus, 
sought), something gained, as property; attainment in 
knowledge; a good name: acquisitive, a. dk-ku-lz'i- 
tlv, desiring possession: acquisitively, ad. -tiv'li: 
acquisitiveness, n. dk-kwls'l-tlv'-nes, in phren., the 
desire of the mind to gain or possess. 

colv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, di,ere, zeal. 


acquit, v. dk-kwlf (F. acquitter, to set free, to clear 
— from L. ad; quietum, to keep quiet), to elear from 
blame or guilt; to discharge: acquitting, imp.: ac- 
quitted, pp. : acquit'tal, n. a setting free; the being 
found not guilty: acquit'tance, n. -tans, a release 
from a debt; the writing or receipt to BhOW this. 

acre, n. d'-kir (AS. acer: Ger. acker, a field of culti- 
vated land), a portion of land containing 4810 square 
yards: acreage, n. d'-ker-dj, the number of acres in 
a piece of land : acred, a. d'kerd, possessing acres or 

acrid, a. dk'rld (L. acer, gen. acris, sharp), hot and 
bitter ; of a sharp or biting taste ; pungent ; corrosive : 
ac'ridness, n., or acridity, n. dk-rld-l-tl, sharpness; 
bitterness: acrimonious, a. dk'rl-mo'-ni-us (L. acre 
mania, sourness), sharp; severe; sarcastic— applied 
to manner of speaking: ac'rimohiousness, n. : acri- 
moniously, ad. -II: acrimony, n. ak'ri-m<»i-l, sharp- 
ness or bitterness in speaking: acritude, n. dk'-rl- 
tud, bitterness. 

acrita, n. dk'-rl- td (Gr. akritos, indistinct), a divi- 
sion of the animal kingdom, comprising the lowest 
classes of radiata, characterised by an indistinct or 
molecular condition of the nervous system. 

acroamatic, a. dk'-rd-dmdt'-ik; alsoac'roamat'ical, 
a. -t-kdl (Gr. akroama, a hearing), pert, to the more 
obscure or deeper parts of learning ; abstruse. 

acrobat, n. dk'ro-bdt (Gr. akros, high; baino, I go), 
a rope-dancer ; a vaulter ; a tumbler. 

acrocephalic, a. dk'-rO-sS-fdl'-lk (Gr. akros, high ; 
kephale, the head), high-headed, or pyramidal-headed 
— applied to the high-skulled tribes of the human 

acrodont, n. dk'-rO-dont (Gr. akros, high; odous, 
gen. odontos, a tooth), a term applied to certain fossil 
saurians from the manner in which their teeth were 
fixed: acrodus, a. ak'ro-diis, certain fossil fish-teeth, 
characterised by their enamel being covered with fine 
grooves, known by the name of fossil leeches. 

acrogen, n. dk'-ro-jen (Gr. akros, high; gennao, I 
produce), in hot., applied to plants which increase by 
growth at the summit or growing point : acrogenous, 
a. d-kroj'-i-nus, increasing by growth at the summit 
or growing points— as the tree ferns. 

acrognathus, n. dk'-rdg-na'-thus (Gr. akros, high, 
pointed ; gnathos, the jaw-bone), a genus of fossil fishes 
from the lower chalk, characterised by their deep jaws. 
acronyc, a. d-kron'-lk; also acron'ycal, -l-kal (Gr. 
akros, high, extreme; mix, gen. nuktos, night), in as- 
tron., a term applied to the stars when they either 
appear above or sink below the horizon at the time 
of sunset : acron'ycally, ad. -II. 

acropolis, n. d-krap-o-lis (Gr. akros, high; polis, a 
city), the highest part or citadel of a city. 

acrosaurus, n. dk'ro-saw'rus (Gr. akros, high ; 
sanros, a lizard), an extraordinary fossil reptile found 
in South Africa. 

acrospire, n. dk'r6-splr (Gr. akros ; speira, a spiral 
line), the shoot or sprout at the end of a germinating 
seed: ac'rospired, a. -splrd. 

across, prep., ad. d-kros' (AS. a, at, on: Icel. kross, a 
cross), from side to side ; laid over something so as to 
cross it. 

acrostic, n. a-krds'tlk (Gr. akros, high, extreme; 
stichos, a row or line), a short poem of which the first 
letters of the lines or verses form a word— generally 
a proper name: adj. pert, to: acros'tically, ad. -II. 

act, n. dkt (L. actus, done), a deed; a doing; power 
exerted ; an exploit ; a decree or law : v. to do ; to exert 
power ; to perform : acting, imp.: act'ed, pp.: action, 
n. dk'-shun, the state of acting or moving ; force exerted 
by one body on another ; a deed ; a battle : actionable, 
a. dk'-shun-d-bl, something in word or deed that may 
be carried to a court of law: ac'tionably, ad. -II: ac- 
tionary, n. dk'-shnn-dr'l -. ac'tionist, n. one who: ac 
tive, a. dk'-tlv, nimble; lively; not dull: ac'tively, ad. 
■II: activity, n. dk-tiv'-l-tl, nimbleness; the habit of 
diligence: actor, n. dk'-tir, he that acts or performs— 
fern, ac'tress: actual, a. dk'-tudl, real; what truly 
exists: actually, ad. -II: actuality, n. dk-ti'i-dl'l-tl, 
reality: actuary, n. dk'til-dr'l, a notary; the man- 
aging director of an insurance office : actualise, v. 
dk'-tii-d-llz', to realise; to make actual: ac'tualis'ing, 
imp. : actualised, pp. dk'-tu-d-Uzd' : actuate, v. die- 
tu-dt, to move ; to incite to action : ac'tuating, imp. : 
ac'tuated, pp. : actuation, n. dk'tu-d'-shun. 

acteosaurus, n. dk'-te-o-saw'-rus (Gr. acte, the sea- 
shore; sauros, a lizard), a fossil lizard-like animal of 
the chalk period having very small extremities. 


actinia, n. dc-ttn'-l-it (Gr. aktin, a ray), the sea-nne- 
mone, so called from the ray-like arrangement of its 
tentacles, whieh surround the mouth like the petals of 
a flower: plu. actiniae, a 1 . 

actinocrinus, n. ok'-tin-ak'rl-nus; also actinocri- 
nite, dk'tin-ok'rl-nit (Gr. aktin; krinon, a lily), a ge- 
nus of encrinites characterised by the thorn-like side- 
arms which project from the main column. 

actinolite, n. dk-tin'-a-llt (Gr. aktin, a ray; lithos, 
a stone); also actinote, n. dlc'-tln-Ot, a mineral com- 
posed of radiating or thorn-like crystals of a dark or 
greenish hue. 

actinometer, n. dk'-tln-ain'-H-tir (Gr. aktin; metron, 
a measure), an instrument for measuring at any in- 
stant the direct heating power of the solar rays. 

aculeate, a. d-ku'le-dt (L. acus, a needle), in hot., 
sharp-pointed; thorny; prickly: in zool., having a 
sting or prickles. 

acumen, n. d-ku'-mtn (L. acuo, I sharpen), sharp- 
ness; quickness; penetration; sagacity: acuminated, 
a. d-kU'ml-itd-tcd, sharpened to a point: also acu- 
minate and acu'minous, a. -nus: acumination, n. 

acupressure, n. d-ku-prSsh'ur (L. acus, a needle; 
pressum, to press), in svrg., the employment of needles 
instead of ligatures for tying arteries, &c. 

acupuncture, n. d-ku-pungk'-tur (L. acus, a nee- 
dle; punctus, a pricking), in svrg., the pricking a 
diseased part with a needle : acupunc'tura'tion, 11. 

acute, a. d-kuf (L. acutus, sharp -pointed), sharp; 
penetrating; opposed to dull or stupid: acutely, ad. 
-II: acute ness, n. 

ad, dd (L.), Latin prefix meaning to; it assumes, for 
the sake of euphony, the various forms of a, ac, af, ag, 
Hi, an, op, ar, as, at, according to the commencing 
letter of the primitive or root. 

adactyl, n. d-ddk'tll (Gr. a, without; daktulos, a 
finger), in zool., a foot or locomotive extremity without 

adage, n. dd'-dj (L. adagium, a proverb), a pro- 
verb ; an old saving. 

adagio, n. a-dd'jl-o (It.), slow time: ad. slowly. 

Adam, n. dd'dm, the first man: Adamic.a. a-ddm- 
Ik, pert, to : Ad'am's ap'ple, n., the prominent part of 
the throat: Adamites, n. plu. ad'-d-mlts, an ancient 
religious sect: Adamitic, a. dd'-d-mit'-lk, pert, to the 
time of Adam: pre- Adamite, a. pre-dd'-d-mlt, before 
the time of Adam. 

adamant, n. dd'-d-mdnt (L. adamas, a hard stone— 
from a, not ; damao, I subdue), what cannot be broken, 
tamed, or subdued; a stone or metal of impenetrable 
hardness: adamantine, a. dd'd-mdn'-tln, herd-heart- 
ed; not to be broken or subdued: also ad'aman'tean, 
a. -te-dn. 

adapis, n. dd'-d-pls (Gr. a, without ; dapis, a carpet), 
a fossil animal somewhat resembling a hedgehog, but 
three times its size. 

adapt, v. d-ddptf (L. ad; apfo, I fit), to fit; to make 
to suit: adapting, imp.; adapt'ed, pp.: adaptable, 
a. d-ddpt'-d-bl, that may be suited : adaptability, n. 
d-ddpt-d-bd'-i-tl, the being fitted or suited for: adap- 
tation, n. ad'up-ta'.-hun, the act of making suitable; 
fitness: adapt edness, n. 

add, v. dd (L. ad; do, I give), to put together; to 
join; to unite: adding, imp.: added, pp. dd'dSd : ad- 
dible, a. dd'-di-ll .- also additive, a. dd'-dl-tlv, that may 
be added: ad'dibillty, n. : addition, n. Od-dlsh'un, 
an increase ; uniting two or more numbers into one 
sum; something put to: additional, a. dd-dlsh'-undl, 
something more : additionally, ad. -If. 

addendum, n. dd-den'-dti-m, plu. adden'da, -dd (L.), 
an appendix; something added. 

adder, n. dd'dcr (AS. ccttr: low Ger. adder: W. 
neidr: Goth, nadrs), a poisonous serpent; a, viper: 
adder-fly or adder-bolt, n. dragon-fly. 

addict, v. M-dlkt' (L. ad; dicing said, named), to 
give one's self up to, as to a custom or habit— usually in 
an ill sense : addicting, imp.; addict'ed, pp.: addict'- 
edness: addiction, n. dd-dtk'-shfui. 
addition, Arc, see under add. 
addle, v. dd'dl (AS. adl, disease: prov. Sw. add, 
urine), to make corrupt : addle or addled, a. dd'dl J, 
rotten— applied to eggs; barren: addling, imp.: ad- 
dled, pp. : ad'dle-head'ed, a. of weak intellect ; also 
ad'dle-pat'ed, a. p&'tid. 

address, v.dd-dr6s'(V. adrcss-rr, to direct: L. direct- 
MS, made straight), to speak to ; to write a direction 
on a letter; to pay court to, as a lover: addressing, 
imp.: addressed, pp. dd-drdst': address', 11. a speak- 

mdte, mdt, far, laTu; mete, mtt, her; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 



ing to; direction on a letter; skill; manner or mode 
of behaviour: plu. addresses, ad-dr&s'-ez, courtship 
paid to a woman: addres'ser, n. one who. 

adduce, v. ad-dus' (L. ad; duco, I lead or bring), 
to offer ; to bring forward ; to cite ; to name : addu- 
cing, imp.: adduced, pp. ad-dust': addu'cer, n. one 
who : addu'cible, a. -si-bl : adduction, n. dd-duk'-sh An : 
adducent, a. dd-du'-sent, bringing forward or toge- 
ther: adductive, a. dd-duk'-tiv (L. ad; ductus, led), 
that adduces: adduc'tively, ad. -tiv-ll: adduc'tor, n. 
in anat., a muscle that contracts parts. 

adenology, n. dd'-e-nol'-o-ji (Gr. aden, a gland; logos, 
discourse), in anat., the doctrine of the glands ; their 
nature and their uses : adenose, a. dd'-e-noz; alsoade- 
nous, dd'-e-nus, gland-like: adenography, n. ad'-en- 
vtird-fi (Gr. aden; grapho, I write), a treatise on the 

adept, n. d-depf (L. adeptus, sot, obtained), one 
fully skilled in anything : adj. skilful. 

adequate, a. dd'-e-kwat (L. ad ; ocquatus, made equal 
or like), fully sufficient for; equal to: ad'equate ly, 
ad. -li: adequacy, n. dd'-e-kivd'-sl, the being equal to; 
sufficiency for a particular end : ad'equate'ness, n. 

adfected, a. dd-fbkt'-ed (L. ad; /actus, done), in 
alg., consisting of different powers of the unknown 
quantity ; also affect'ed. 

adhere, v. dd-her' (L. ad; hcereo, I stick), to stick 
to; to cleave to; to hold to an opinion: adhe'ring, 
imp.: adhered, pp. ad-herd': adherence, n. dd-he- 
rSns, steady or fixed attachment to; adhe'rency, n. 
-rtn-si, the act of sticking or adhering to : adhesion, n. 
dd-he'-zhun, applied to matter— the act of sticking to; 
a union of parts of any body by means of cement, glue, 
growth, &c. ; steady attachment : adhesive, a. ad-he- 
slv, gluey; sticky: adhe'sively, ad. -li: adhesive- 
ness, n. : adhe'rent or adherer, n. one who adheres 
to ; a follower : adherently, ad. -li. 

adhibit, v. dd-hib'-it{L. adhibitum, to add to,— from 
ad; habeo, I have or hold), to put to ; to use or apply : 
adhibiting, imp. : adhibited, pp. : adhibition, n. 
dd'-hl-bish'-un, application; use. 

adiantites, n. plu. dd'-l-dn'-tlts or -tl'-tez (Gr. adi- 
antos, unmoistened), a genus of fossil ferns found in 
the coal-measures, so called from their resemblance to 
the existing adiantum or maiden-hair. 

adieu, n., ad., interj. d-duf (F. a, to; Dieu, God), 
a farewell ; an expression of regard or kind wishes. 

adipocere.n. ad'-i-po-ser' (L. adeps, fat; cera, wax), 
a light, waxy, or fatty substance, of a whitish-grey 
colour, into which animal flesh is changed when buried 
in moist earth ; often found in burial-grounds— hence 
called "grave-wax"— in peat-bog, &c: adipocerous, 
a. dd-l-2Jos'-er-us, pert, to; adipocerite, n. dd'-i-pos- 
er-lt, the fatty or waxy matter found in certain peat- 
mosses : adipocere mineral, a fatty waxy substance 
found in certain coal-formations. 

adipose, a. dd'-i-pos; also ad'ipous, a. dd'-l-piis (L. 
adiposus, fatty— from adeps, fat), full of fat; fatty. 

adit, n. dd'-lt (L. aditus, an approach or entrance), 
an under-ground gallery or tunnel into a mine for 
carrying off water or for extracting the ore. 

adjacent, a. dd-jd'-sent (L. ad .- jaceo, I lie), lying 
near; bordering upon: adja'cently, ad. -II: adjacen- 
cy, n. dd-jd'-sen-si. 

adject, v. ad-jekt' (L. ad; jactus, cast), to add orput 
to: adject'ing, imp.: adjected, pp. dd-jekt'-Cd: adjec- 
tion, n. dd-jek'shun : adjectitious, a. dd'-jek-tish'-us, 
added to or on: adjective, n. ad'-jek-tlv, a word put 
to a noun to modify its meaning: adj. qualifying; 
depending on another: adjectival, ad'-jek-tl'-vdl, a. 
pert, to: ad'jectiyely, aA.-tiv'H. 

adjoin, v. dd-joyn' (L. ad;iungo, I join), to lie next 
to; to lie close to: adjoining, imp.: adjoined, pp. 

adjourn, v. dd-jern' (L. ad: F. jour, a day), to put 
off from one day to another; to delay: adjourning, 
imp. : adjourned, pp. dd-jArnd' -. adjournment, n. 
putting off to another day ; the time or interval during 
which the business is suspended. 

adjudge, v. dd-juf (L. ad: judico, I judge: F. ad- 
juger), to determine ; to decide ; to award sentence : 
adjudging, imp.: adjudged, pp. dd-jujd' : adjudg'- 
ment, n. 

adjudicate, v. dd-jo'-di-kdt (L. adjuclico, I give 
sentence in behalf of— from judico, I judge), to pro- 
nounce judgment upon ; to try or determine as a 
court : adjudicating, imp. : adju'dica'ted, pp. : ad- 
judication, n. ad-ji'-di-ka'-shun, the pronouncing 
judgment upon; the decision or award of a court. 

adjunct, n. M'-jtnkt (L. ad; junctus, joined) some- 
thing added to another, generally to modify or quali- 
fy: adj. assisting: adjunct'ly, ad. -U-. adjunction, 
dd-junk'-shun: adjunctive, a. -tiv, joining; tending 
to join : n. that which is joined : adjunc tively, ad. -li. 

adjure, v. ad-jor 1 (L. adjuro, I swear solemnly— from 
ad; juro, I swear), to charge solemnly; to bind on 
oath: adju'ring, imp.: adjured, pp. dd-jdrd'.- ad- 
juration, n. dd'-joo-rd'shun, the act of solemnly 
charging on oath ; a solemn charge on oath : adju'rer, 
n. one who. 

adjust, v. adjust? (L. ad; Justus, just or proper), to 
fit to ; to make to correspond ; to put in order ; to 
settle : adjusting, imp. : adjust'ed, pp.: adjustment, 
n. dd-just'- me tit, the act of settling; a settlement: ad- 
justlve, a. -iv. 

adjutant, n. dd'-jdb-tdnt (L. ad; jutum, to help), in a 
regiment, one who assists the major, and next in rank 
to him: adjutancy, n. dd'-juu-tan'-si, the office of the 
adjutant: adjutor, n. dd-jo'-tcr, any one who assists: 
adjutrix, n. ad-jO'-triks, a woman-helper: ad'juvant, 
a. helping: n. an assistant; in med., a remedy. 

admeasurement, n. dd-mezh'-oor-ment (L. ad; and 
metior, I measure), adjustment of proportions ; art or 
practice of measuring according to rule. 

administer, v. dd-mln'-ls-ter (L. ad: ministro, I serve 
or assist), to direct the application of laws, as a king or 
judge ; to manage ; to add to ; to bring aid or supplies 
to: administering, imp. dd-mln'-is-trlng : adminis- 
tered, pp. dd-min'-is-terd: administration, n. del- 
min-ls-trd'-shun, the act of carrying into effect; direc- 
tion; the government of a country: administrable, 
a. dd-min'-is-tra-bl : administerial, a. -ste'-rl-al, mini- 
sterial: ad'ministe'rial'ly, ad. -U-. administrative, a. 
dd'-min-is-strd'-tlv, able to carry into effect: ad'mini- 
stra'tor, n. the man who carries into effect; one who 
directs: administratrix, n. ad'-min-ls-stra'-trlks, the 
woman who carries into effect or directs : ad'mini- 
stra'torship, n. 

admiral, n. dd'-ml-rdl (F. amiral: Arab, emir or 
amir, a noble or chief in command), the commander 
of a fleet or navy; a flag officer: admiralty, n. ad- 
mi- ro.l'-tl, the supreme court in naval affairs; the 
building in which the court sits. 

admire, v. dd-mir' (L. ad; miror, I wonder), to look 
upon with pleasure; to regard with wonder or sur- 
prise ; to love or esteem greatly : admi'ring, imp. : 
admired, pp. dd-mlrd': admirable, a. dd'-mi-rd-bl, 
worthy of esteem or praise ; that may excite wonder 
or esteem: admirably, ad. dd'-ml-ra-bli: admiringly, 
dd-mi'-ring-ll, in a manner to excite wonder; with 
esteem; with admiration: ad'mirableness, n. : ad- 
mirability, n. dd'-mi-rd-bil'-l-tl: admiration, n. dd- 
mi-rd'-shiin, wonder mingled with pleasure or slight 
surprise: admirer, n. dd-mi'-rer, one who admires. 

admit, v. dd-mW (L. ad; mitto, I send), to permit 
to enter; to receive as true; to allow: admit'ting, 
imp.: admit'ted, pp. : admit table, a. -bl: admit'ter, 
n. one w T ho; admittance, n. dd-mlt'-tdns, permission 
to enter: admission, n. ad-mish'-un (L. missus, sent), 
entrance; power or permission to enter: admissible, 
a. ad-inis'-si-bl, that may be allowed or admitted: 
admis'slbly, ad. -bit: admissibility, n. -bil'-l-tl, the 
quality of being admissible. 

admix, v. dd-miks' (L. ad; mixtum, to mingle), to 
mingle with something else : admixing, imp. : ad- 
mixed, pp. -mlkst': admixture, n. dd-mlks'-tur, a 
substance formed by mingling one substance with 
another; also admixtion, n. dd-mikst'-shun. 

admonish, v. dd-mon'-lsh (L. ad; moneo, I warn; 
monitus, warned), to warn; to reprove gently; to ad- 
vise: admonishing, imp. : admonished, pp. dd-mon- 
Isht: admonlsher.n.; oradmonltor, one whoadmon- 
ishes: admonition, n. dd'-mO-nlsh'-un, gentle reproof; 
caution: admonitive, a. dd-mon'-ltiu ,■ admonitory, 
ad-mon'-l-tor'-l, that conveys caution or warning : ad- 
mon'itive'ly, ad. -tlv'-li. 

adnascent, a. dd-nds'-Snt (L. ad; nascens, growing), 
growing to or upon; also adnate, a. dd-ndt? (L. ad; 
natus, born), grown to. 
ado, n. a-do' (AS. a, and do), fuss ; bustle ; difficulty. 
adolescence, n. ad'-o-Us'-ins ; adolescency, dd'-o- 
ISs'-en-si (L. adolesco, I increase or ctow), in a growing 
state ; youth up to manhood : adolescent, a. dd'-o-les- 
ent, growing; pertaining to youth. 

Adonic, a. d-don'-ik (from Ado'nis— in anc. myth., a 
youth, the favourite of Venus, the goddess of love), 
pert, to a certain kind of verse : n. a poetical verse 
consisting of a dactyl and a spondee or trochee. 

cdlv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




adopt, v. Adopt' (L. ad; opto, I wish, I choose), to 
take or receive as one's own what is not naturally so— 
as a person, a thing, an opinion ; to choose : adopting, 
imp.: adopt'ed, pp.: adoption, n. d-dop'-shun, the 
taking as one's own that which is not so naturally: 
adop'tive, a. -tlv, that adopts : adopter, n. one who : 
adopt'edly, ad. -II. 

adore, v. d-ddr' (L. ad: oro, I pray to, entreat), to 
pay divine honour to; to worship solemnly; to regard 
with esteem; to love highly : ado'ring, imp. : adored, 
pp. d-dord' : ador'er, n. one who: adorable, a. d- 
do-rd-bl, worthy of worship ; that ought to be loved 
or respected: ado'rably, ad, -Ml: ado'rable'ness, n. : 
adoringly, ad. d-do'-ring-li: adoration, n. dd-6-rd- 
shun, the worship of God; the act of praying. 

adorn, v. d-dawrn' (; omo, I deck or beautify), 
to deck; to make beautiful : adornment, n. d-dawrn'- 
mint, an adorning; ornament: adorning, imp.: ad- 
orned, pp. d-dnwrnd' : adorn ingly, ad. -II. 

adosculation, n. dd-o^ku-td'-shun (h. ad: osculum, 
a kiss, or a little mouth), the impregnation of plants ; 
a propagation of plants by inserting one part of a plant 
into another. 

adown, prep, d-doion' (AS. adtlne), downward ; from 
a higher to a lower situation. 

adrift, a. or ad. d-drlf? (AS. adrifan, to drive 
away, to expel), floating about at random ; driven. 

adroit, a. d-drayf (F. a; droit, to the right), clever 
in the use of the hands ; ready- witted ; dexterous : 
adroitly, ad. -II ,- in a ready, skilful manner: adroit- 
ness, n. readiness; dexterity. 
adry,a. d-dri'(AS. a; drig, dry), thirsty: ad. athirst. 
adstriction, n. ad-strlk'-shiin[L. ad; strictus, drawn 
together), a binding fast ; constipation. 

adularia, n. dd'-u-ld'-rl-d (Gr. adularos, sweetly 
fair— from (h)adus, sweet; laros, pleasant), a trans- 
parent variety of potash felspar. 

adulation, n. dd'-u-ld'-shun (L. adulatio, fawning 
like a clog), mean flattery; praise in excess : adulator, 
n. dd'-u-ld'-tor, one who : adulatory, a. dd'-u-ld-tor'-i, 
containing excessive praise. 

adult, n. d-diUt' (L. adultus, grown), a person grown 
to maturity; from fifteen years of age upwards: adj. 
mature ; grown up : adult ness, n. 

adulterate, v. d-dul'-ter-dt (L. adultero, I corrupt), 
to corrupt ; to make impure by a base mixture : adul'- 
tera'ting, imp. : adulterated, pp. : adulteration, n. 
d-dul'-ter-d'-shun, the being corrupted or debased an 
article not pure and genuine: adul'tera'tor, n. one 
who ; also adulterant, n. : adulterate ly, ad. -II : 
adul terate'ness, n.: adulterer, n. d-dul'-ter-er, a man 
guilty of adultery; an idolater: adulteress, n. wo- 
man guilty of adultery: adulterous, a. d-dul'-ter-us, 
guilty of adultery; unclean: adulterous ly, ad. -II: 
adultery, n. d-dul'-ter-l, violation of the marriage- 
bed; idolatry: adulterine, a. a -dfd'-ter-in, resulting 
from adultery ; spurious : n. a child born from adulter- 
ous intercourse. 

adumbrate, v. ddilm'-brdt (L. ad; umbra, a sha- 
dow), to give a faint shadow or sketch; to describe: 
adumbrating, imp. : adumbrated, pp. : adumbrant, 
a. giving a faint shadow: adumbration, n. dd'-um- 
bra-shun, the act of making a shadow or faint resem- 

aduncous, a. d-diing'-kns (L. aduncm, hooked), in 
tot., crooked ; bent in the form of a hook. 

advance, v. dd-vdns' (F. avancer, to advance), to 
move or bring foiward ; to raise to a higher rank ; to 
propose ; to pay beforehand ; to be promoted : n. a 
moving or bringing forward; promotion; a rise in 
value or price ; a giving beforehand ; a proposal : 
advan'cing, imp. : advanced, pp. dd-vdns? : ad- 
van'cer, n. -sir, one who: advancement, n. the act 
of moving forward ; a step in rank or promotion : ad- 
vancive, a. dd-vdn'-siv, tending to advance: ad- 
vanced'-guard, n. the detachment of troops which 
precedes the main body of an army or division. 

advantage, n. dd-vdn'-tdj (F '. ((vantage, profit— from 
F. avant: It. avanti, before), superiority in any state, 
condition, or circumstance; gain; interest: advan- 
taged, pp. dd-vdn'tdjd.hi'.iv'.i'iicxl ; forwarded : advan- 
tageous, a. dd'-vdn-td'-jus, favourable; full of benefit: 
advantageously, ad. -II: ad'vanta'geousness, n. 

advent, n. dd'-vent (L. ad, and ventum, to come), 
acoming; thecomingof Christ to the earth: adventit- 
ious, a. dd'-vin-tlsh'- us, coining to accidentally; not 
forming an essential part : adventual, a. (id-ven'-t ri- 
al, relating to the season of advent: ad'ventiti'ously, 
ad. -II; ad ventiti'ousness, n. 

adventure, n. dd-vtn'-tur (L. ad; ventum, to come), 
a bold undertaking; a chance enterprise; a striking 
event: v. to risk on chance; to attempt or dare : ad- 
venturing, imp. : adven tured, pp. -turd -. adven- 
turer, n. dd-ven'-tu-rer, one who risks everything on 
chance: adventurous, a. dd-vtn'-ta-rvs, bold; hazard- 
ous; dangerous: adventuresome, n. dd-vin'-tur-sum, 
bold ; daring ; full of risk : adven'turous'ly, ad. -U -. 
adventurous ness, n. 

adverb, n. dd'-verb (L. ad; verbum, a word), in 
gram., a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, 
an adjective, an adverb, a clause, or a sentence: ad- 
verbial, ad. dd-vtrb'-i-dl: adverbially, ad. -li. 

adverse, a. dd'-vers (L. adversum, opposite to— from 
ad ; versus, turned), opposed to ; unfortunate ; calami- 
tous : adversely, ad. -U-. ad'verseness, n.: adversity, 
n. dd-ver'-si-tl, ill fortune; continued calamity: ad- 
versary, n. dd'-ver-sdr-l, an enemy ; one opposed to : 
adversative, a. dd-ver'-sd-tiv, that which marks a 
difference or opposition. 

advert, v. dd-vcrf (L. ad. ,- verto, I turn), to refer 
to ; to turn the attention to : adver'tent, a. attentive ; 
heedful: adverting, imp.: advert'ed, pp.: advert- 
ently, ad. -If: advertence, n. dd-veY-t&ns ; also ad- 
ver'tency, n. -t&n-sl. 

advertise, v. dd'-ver-tizf (L. ad ; verto, I turn), to give 
notice; to inform: advertising, imp. dd'-ver-ti'-z'mg : 
ad'vertised', pp. -tizd' -. advertisement, n. dd-ver'-tlz- 
mint, a public notice in a newspaper : advertiser, n. 
dd'-ver-ti'-zer, one who advertises ; a newspaper. 

advice, n. dd-vis 1 (L. ad; viso, I go to see: old F. 
advis: It. viso), a speaking to as to conduct ; counsel ; 
intelligence: advise, v. dd-viz 1 , to speak to as to 
conduct ; to give counsel to ; to inform ; to consult : 
advi'sing,imp. : advised, pp. dd-vizd': adj. cautious; 
prudent ; counselled : advi'sedly, ad. -II, thoughtfully ; 
with careful del iberat ion: advi'sedness.n.: ad vi'ser, 11. 
one who counsels : advisory, a. dd-vl'-zdr-l, containing 
advice: advisable, a. dd-vi'-zd-bl, that may properly 
be done ; prudent ; open to advice : advi'sable'ness, 
n. : advi'sably, ad. -bli. 

advocate, n. dd'-vo-kdt (L. advor.atus, one who 
pleads— from ad ; voco, I call), one who pleads the cause 
of another in a court of law ; one who defends : v. to 
plead the cause of another : ad'voca'ting, imp. : ad'- 
voca'ted, pp. : advocacy, n. dd-vo-kd'-sl, the act of 
pleading for or defending another in a court of law : 
ad'vocate'ship, n. the office of an advocate : advoca- 
tion, n. dd-vo-kd'shun, a pleading for: advowson, n. 
dd-vdiv'-siin (L. advocatio, a protector or defender), 
right of perpetual presentation to a benefice : ad- 
vower or advowee, n. dd-vow'-e, one who. 

adynamic, a. ad'-l-ndm'-ik (Gr. a, without; duna- 
mis, power), without strength. 

adytum, n. d-di'-tum (L. ; Gr. aduton), the most 
sacred place in ancient heathen temples. 

adze or adz, n. ddz (AS. adesa), an edge tool for re- 
ducing the surface of wood ; a kind of axe. 

ae, e: many words formerly beginning with ce are 
now spelt with e. When the word in az is not found, 
turn to e. 

sechmodus, n. ek-mo-diis (Gr. aichme, the point of 
a spear ; odous, a tooth), a genus of fossil ganoid fishes 
having small sharp-pointed teeth. 

»dile, n. e'-dil (L., from a:des, a house), an anc. Ro- 
man magistrate, who had the care of public buildings, 
segis, n. e'-jis (Gr. aigis, goat-skin, or a shield cover- 
ed with it ; L.), a shield ; the shield of Minerva. 

iEneid, n. e'-nS-ld, the great epic poem by the anc. 
Roman, Virgil, of which ^Eneas, i-ne'-ds, is the hero. 

^olian, a. e-o'-ll-dn (L. JEolus, the god of the winds), 
pert, to jEolus or the wind ; belonging to the wind : 
iEolic, a. e-ol'-lk, of ^Eolia. 

aeon, n. e'-on, (Gr. aion, an age), a lengthened 
period ; in the ancient Eastern philosophy aeons wero 
supposed emanations from the one self-originated 
Being, among which were zoe, life; logos, word; 
monogenes, onlv-begotten ; pleroma, fulness. 

aepiornis, n. c'-pl-or-nis (Gr. aipus, immense; onus, 
a bird), an extinct bird of Madagascar of gigantic 
dimensions, at least double the size of the ostrich. 

aerate, v. d'-er-dt (Gr. or L. aer, air— see eyrie), to 
combine with air ; to mix with carbonic acid : a'erat'- 
ing, imp. : aerated, pp. a'-er-d-ted, mixed with car- 
bonic acid: aeration, n. a'-er-d'-shun, the operation 
or process of mixing with carbonic acid : aerial, a. 
d-i'-rl-dl, belonging to the air ; high ; lofty. 
aerie, n. e'-ri (L.aer, air), the nest of an eagle or hawk, 
aerify, v. ar'-l-fi (L. aer, air; facio, I make), to 

mate, mdt, far, law; mite, met, hir; pine, phi; note, n6t, mOve; 




turn into air ; to combine with air : aer'ify'ing, imp. : 
aerified, pp. dr'i-fid .- aerification, n. dr-i-fi-kd- 
shun, the changing solid or liquid bodies into air or 
gas ; the act of combining with air : aeriform, a. 
dr'-i-fawrm (L. aer, air ; forma, a shape), having the 
nature or form of air ; not solid. 

aerolite, n. ar'O-llt (Gr. aer, air; lithos, a stone), a 
stone that falls from the atmosphere to the earth, dis- 
playing, when broken, a semi-metallic, ash-grey col- 
our: also aerolith, n. dr'6-lith. 

aerology, n. dr'ol'6-ji (Gr. aer, air ; logos, discourse), 
the science that treats of the air, its nature and uses : 
aeromancy, n. dr'6-mdn'si (Gr. aer; manteia, divi- 
nation), divination by means of the air and winds : 
aerologist, n. ar'ol'6-jlst, one who studies the nature 
and effects of the air or atmosphere : aerological, a. 
ar'6-loj'lkdl, pert. to. 

aerometer, n. dr'om'e-ter (Gr. aer, air; metron, a 
measure), an instrument for ascertaining the weight 
of the atmosphere or of gases. 

aeronaut, n. dr'-o-nawt (Gr. aer, air; nautes, a sail- 
or—from nam, a ship), one who sails or floats in the 
air in a balloon: aeronautic, a. dr'-o-naw'tlk, pert, 
to sailing in the air : aer onau tics, n. the science or 
art of sailing in the air. 

aerophytes, n. plu. dr'6-flts' (Gr. aer: phuton, a 
plant), plants which live exclusively in the air— hy- 
drophytes, those living under water. 

aerostatic, a. dr'6-stdt'lk (Gr. aer; statos, a stand- 
ing still), suspending in air: aer'ostat'ics, n. plu. -iks ; 
also aerostation, n. dr'o-std'shiin; and aeronautics, 
aerial navigation. 

seruginous, a. e-r6j'l-niis (L. aerugo, gen. ceruginis, 
rust of copper— from wis, copper), pert, to the rust of 
copper— viz., verdigris. 

aesculin, n. es'ku-iin (L. cesculus, the horse-chest- 
nut), an alkaline principle discovered in the horse- 
chestnut; also spelt eseidine. 

aesthetics, n. plu. ez-thet'-lks (Gr. aisthesis, the 
act of perceiving), the science which treats of the 
beautiful in nature, in the fine arts, and in literature ; 
the philosophy of taste: aesthetic, a. cz-thet'lk; also 
aesthetlcal, a. -l-kdl, pert, to the perception of the 

aethiops, n. e'-thl-ops (Gr. aitho, I burn ; ops, the 
eye or countenance), applied to certain chemical com- 
pounds from their black appearance. 

aestivation, n.— see estivation. 

aetites, n. plu. e-tl'tez (Gr. aetos, an eagle), a variety 
of nodular ironstone ; eagle-stone. 

afar, ad. afar' (AS.), at, to, or from a great distance. 

affable, a. df'fd-bl (L. affabilis, accessible, court- 
eous), frank in speech ; easy of access ; of easy man- 
ners in conversation: affably, ad. -bll : affability, 
n. df'fd-bil'l-ti, the being easy of access to others ; 
kind manner in conversation. 

affair, n. af-far" (F. affaire, business— from L. ad; 
facere, to make), a matter of any kind ; business ; plu. 
transactions in general. 

affect, v. dffekt' (L. affectum, to influence — from 
ad; factum, to do), to act upon or influence inany way ; 
to make a show of; to move or touch— as the passions : 
affect'ing, imp.: affected, pp. dffekt -eel: adj. as- 
sumed; not natural: affect'edly, ad. -II: affec'ter or 
affec'tor, n., one who: affectation, n. af'fek-td'shun, 
the assuming or pretending to what is not real or na- 
tural: affect edness, n., the quality of being affected: 
affect'ingly, ad. -II: affection, n. dffek'shun, love 
for; attachment to; kindly feeling towards: affec- 
tionate, a, df-fek'-shun-dt, warmly attached to; fond; 
having great love : affectionate ness, n. : affection- 
ately, ad. -II: affectively, ad. df-fek'tiv-ll. 

affettuoso, ad. dffet'tuo-o'zo (It.), in m us., tenderly. 

affiance, v. af-jl'Cins (L. ad; fido, I trust; fides, 
faith), toV>romise in marriage; to betroth or pledge 
faith: aflvancing, imp : affianced, pp. df-fl'-dnst: 
affi'ancer, n. -ser. 

affidavit, n. dffl-da'-vlt (old lawL., he made oath, 
—from ad ; fides, faith), a declaration upon oath ; gen- 
erally, a declaration as to the truth of a written state- 
ment made on oath before a justice of the peace, which 
is afterwards signed by him. 

affiliate, v. af-fil'i-dt (L. ad; filius, a son; filia, a 
daughter), to adopt ; to receive as a son or daughter ; 
to unite as one ; to receive as an associate or member ; 
to assign a child to a father : affiliating, imp. : 
affil'ia'ted, pp. : affil'ia'tion, n. -shun, the act of unit- 
ing or adopting. 

affinity, n. dffln'l-tl (L. affinis, bordering on or 

related to— from ad; fi7iis, an end), relation: agree- 
ment; relationship by marriage; in chem., the com- 
bining power of bodies. 

affirm, v. affirm' (L. ad; firmo, I make firm), to 
assert with confidence ; to maintain confidently as true; 
to declare solemnly : affirm ing, imp. : affirmed, pp. 
dffermd': affirm'able, a. -a-bl, that may be stated or 
affirmed as true: affirra'ably, ad. -bll: affirm'ant, n.; 
also affinn'er, n. one who : affirmation, n. df'fir-md'- 
shun, the act of asserting as true; a solemn declara- 
tion: affirm'ative, a. -dtlv, that declares or asserts: 
n. a word that says yes : negative, the opposite of af- 
firmative, a word that says no. 

affix, n. df'fiks (L. ad;Jixus, fastened), a syllable 
or letter put to the end of a word : affix, v. df-fiks', to 
join to; to unite; to fix or fasten at the end; to sub- 
join: affixing, imp.: affixed, pp. dffikst': affixture, 
n. dffiks'-tur, that which is affixed. 

afflatus, n. dffia'tus (L. ad; flatus, a breathing), 
a breath ; a breathing into by divine power ; inspira- 
tion : affla'tion, n. -shun, a breathing upon. 

afflict, v. affllkf (L. ad; flictus, a striking), to dis- 
tress in some way ; to give pain to, either in body or 
mind: afflicting, imp.: afflicted, pp. dfiflikt'ed: af- 
file ter, n. one who: affliction, n. dfflik'shun, dis- 
tress either of body or mind; grief; pain: afflic tedly, 
ad. -ft: afflictlngly, ad. -II: afflictive, a, dfflik'llv, 
giving pain ; painful : afflic tively, ad. -tiv-li. 

affluence, n. dffloo-ins (L. ad ,• fiuo, I flow), wealth ; 
abundance of worldly riches; also affluency.n. df'floo- 
en'-sl: affluent, a. wealthy; rich in worldly goods: n. 
applied to any stream that flows directly into another. 

afflux, n. df'fluks (L. ad; fluxum, to flow), a flowing 
to ; that which flows to ; also affluxion, n. dfifluk'shuu. 

afford, v. afford' (F. afforer, to set a price on a 
thing— from L. ad; forum, a market), to yield or 
produce ; to be able to bear expenses ; to grant : 
affording, imp.: afforded, pp. 

afforest, v. dffor'-est (L. ad: ani forest), to turn in- 
to forest: afforestation, n. -shun. 

affray, n. dfifrd' (F. effrayer, to scare, to dismay), a 
brawl or petty fight ; a disturbance ; formerly used as 
a verb. 

affright, v. (tfifrW (AS. affrightan), to terrify by 
sudden fear: n. sudden dread; great fear: affright- 
ing, imp. : affright ed, pp. 

affront, v. df-frunt' (F. affronter— from L. ad; 
froyis, gen. frontis, the front, the forehead), to give 
cause of offence to; to insult slightly: n. anything 
done to offend; an outrage; open insult: affront' 
ing, imp. : affronted, pp. : affrontlngly, ad. -li: af- 
frontive, a. d/'-frun'tiv, tending to affront ; abusive: 
affron tively, ad. -tiv-li. 

affuse, v. dffilz' (L. ad ; fusus, poured), to 
sprinkle as with a liquid ; to pour upon : affu'sing, 
imp.: affused, pp. dfifuzd': affusion, n. dfifu- 
zhun. the act of pouring upon. 

afield, ad. a-feld'(AS. a and field), to or in the field. 

afloat, ad. d-flot' (AS. a and float), on the water. 

afoot, ad. afouf (AS. a and foot), on foot. 

afore, ad. d-for' (AS. a and /ore), prior or superior 
to ; sooner : aforeliand, ad. in time gone by ; well pro- 
vided: aforementioned, mentioned before: afore- 
named, named before: aforesaid, spoken of before: 
afore'time, in time past. 

afraid, a. d-frdd' (AS. pp. of affray, which see), 
filled with fear; terrified. 

afresh, ad. d-fresh' (AS. a, fersc, pure, sweet), again ; 
anew; recently. 

African, a, af-rl-kdn; also Afric, a. df'rlk, pert, to 
Africa : n. a native of Africa. 

aft, a. or ad. dft (AS., from after, which see), a term 
used by seamen to mean the stem of a ship, or to 
point to what lies in the direction of the stern ; behind. 

after, a. df'ter (Goth, afar, behind: AS. arfl or af- 
ter, afterwards, again : Icel. aft an, behind), later in 
time— as, it is an after thought : prep, behind ; later— 
as, he went home after dinner: conj. when— as, you 
will come to me after he has seen you: after-act, an 
act following: after-ages, succeeding times; posteri- 
ty: after all, when all has been said, weighed, or 
done: after-crop, a second crop in the same year: 
after-damp, the choke damp or carbonic acid occur- 
ring in coal-mines after an explosion of fire-damp: 
after-guard, in a ship, the seamen stationed on the 
poop to attend to the after-sails : after-hours, hours 
following business : after-life, the later or future life : 
aftermath, df-ter-mdth (after; and math, a corrup- 
tion of 7iioiv), a second crop of grass in the same 

cotv, boij,fubt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shim, thing, there, zeal. 




season: aftermost, hindmost; nearest the stern of a 
ship: afternoon, df-ter-ndn', the part of the day 
after 12 o'clock: afterpains, n. plu. -pane, those fol- 
lowing child-birth: after-piece, a piece performed 
after aplay: after-sails, the sails on the mizen-mast 
and stays : after-state, tin; future life : after-thought, 
reflections after an act ; later thoughts. 

afterward or afterwards, art. tif-tir-wdrdz (AS. 
after; and weard, direction), later in time. 

Aga, n. d'-gd, in Turkey, a military commander or 
chief officer. 

again, art. d-gS>i'(AS. ongean or agen, opposite: Sw. 
gen: Bret. gin, opposite, again), once more; a second 
time : against, prep, d-gdnst", in opposition to. 

agalmatolite, n. dg'dl-mdt'odlt (Gr. agalma, an 
image; lithos, a stone), a variety of clay-slate altered 
by heat, usually brought from China carved into gro- 
tesque figures and chimney ornaments. 

agamous, a. d'-gd-iniis (Gr. a, without; gamos, mar- 
riage), in hot., applied to plants without visible organs 
of fructification. 

agape, art. d-gdp' (AS. a, and gape), gaping as with 

agaric, n. dg-dr'lk (Gr. agarikon, a certain fungus), 
a genus of fungi: adj. pert, to fungi: agaric miner- 
al, a soft variety of carbonate of lime, found in clefts 
of rocks, resembling a, fungus in texture and colour. 

agate, n. dg'dt (from the river Achates in Sicily, or 
the Phenician word nakadt, spotted), a variegated var- 
iety of chalcedony quartz, the colours being arrangert 
in clouds, spots, or bands ; a tool used by gold-wire 
drawers and gilrters : agatine, a. dg'-d-tin, of agate : 
agatised, a. dg'd-tlzd, marked like an agate; con- 
verted into agate. 

agave, n. tig'dv (Gr. agauos, admirable), the Ameri- 
can aloe, from the juice of which the alcoholic liquor 
pulque is prepared. 

age, n. dj (F. age: L. aztas, an age), a period of 
time; the whole life of man, or any particular part of 
it; a particular period of time: aged, a. d'jSd, old; 
advanced in years : n. old persons— as the aged: a'ged- 
ly, ad. -ll. 

agency, n. d'jen-sl (L. agens, acting, doing), the ex- 
erting of power; action; the business or office of an 
agent: agent, n. d'jent, the person or thing that ex- 
erts power ; one intrusted with the business of another. 

agenda, n. d-jSn'-dd (L. things to be done), transac- 
tions ; things done and recorded. 

agglomerate, v. dg-glom'cr-dt (L. ad; glomero, I 
wind round), to gather into a mass ; to grow into a 
mass: n. ingeol., a term employed to designate accum- 
ulations of angular fragments of rocks thrown up by 
volcanic eruptions: agglomerating, imp.: agglom'er- 
a'ted, pp.: agglomeration, n. ag-gldm'>'r-a'$hun, the 
state of being gathered into a mass or ball. 

agglutinate, v. dg-gl6t'ln-dt (L. ad; glutino, I 
glue), to unite or cause to adhere: agglutinating, 
imp.: agglut'ina'ted, pp.: agglut'inant, a. uniting 
parts, as with glue: n. that which causes adhesion: 
agglutination, n. dg-gldt'-l-nd'shun: agglutinative, 
a. dg-glot'l-nd'ttv, tending to or causing union. 

aggrandise, v. tig'-grdn-dlz' (L. ad; gramlis, great), 
to exalt: to raise to wealth, honour, or power: ag'- 
grandi'smg, imp.: aggrandised, pp. dg'-gran-dizd: ■. 
aggrandiser, n. tig'-grdn-di'-zir, one who exalts: ag- 
grandisement, n. rig-grdn-dlz'mSnt,th<', making great- 
er in power, wealth', or honour: aggrandisable, a. 

aggravate, v. tig'grd-vdt (L. ad; twin's, heavy), to 
make anything worse or less endurable: ag'grava'- 
ting, imp. : aggravated, pp. : aggravation, n. Off 1 - 
grd-vd'shiin, a making worse; what excites anger. 

aggregate, v. dg'gr6-gdt (L. nggrego, I gather toge- 
ther as a flock— from grex, a flock), to collect into one 
sum, mass, or body; to accumulate: adj. formed by 
a collection of many particulars : n. the sum total ; the 
result of many particulars: aggregating, imp.: ag / - 
grega'ted, pp.: aggregate ly, ad. -It: aggregation, 
n. dg'-grS-gd'shun, the act of heaping together: ag'- 
gregat'or, n. one who : ag'gregat'ive, a. -iv, collective : 
ag'gregat'ively, ad. It 

aggress, v. dg-grrs' (L. ad; gressus, walked or gone), 
to begin a quarrel or controversy; to commence an 
attack: aggres'sing, imp.: aggressed, pp. tig-grOM": 
aggression, n. <lg-grSsli'-i'in. the first act leading to a 
quarrel or dispute ■ aggressor, n. one who first attacks 
or begins a quarrel : aggressive, a. dg-gnli'lv, tending 
to or relating to the first attack: aggressiveness, n. 

aggrieve, v. dg-grcv'(; gravis, heavy: F. grever, 
to wrong), to afflict; to pain or injure any one; to in- 
jure in one's right: aggrieving, imp.: aggrieved, 
pp. dg-grecd': aggrievance, n. ug-grOv'dns, injury; 
wrong; oppression. 

aghast, a. or ad. d-gdst' ( AS. a, at, or on: It. guasto: 
F. gaster or gdter, to lay waste: Sent, gvusty, waste, 
dreary), struck with horror; stupefied with suddeu 

agile, a. tfj'll (F. from L. agilis, quick), nimble; 
not slow; active: agilely, ad. dj'll-ll: agility, n. 
d-jU'l-tl, nimbleness ; the power of moving quickly. 

agio, n. d'-ji-o (It. aggio), the difference in accepted 
value of bank-notes and that of current money or coin ; 
agiotage, n. d'ji-6-ttij', the methods employed by 
speculators in the public funds to lower or raise their 
price by spreading false rumours, &c. 

agist, v. d-jlst'{L. ad; jaceo, I lie down: oldF. giste, 
a place to lie down in), to take in the cattle of others 
to graze: agis'tor or agistator, n. dj'ls-td'ddr, one 
who : agist'ment, n. 

agitate, v. dj'i-tdt (L. agito, I shake: F. agiter; 
It. agitare), to put into motion; to stir violently; to 
disturb: aglta'ting, imp.: aglta'ted, pp.: agitable, 
a. dj'l-td-bl: agitation, n. dj'l-td'-shun, the putting 
into violent motion ; excitement of the mind : agita- 
tor, n. dj'l-td'tor, one who rouses or stirs up ; a stirrer 
or mixer: agitative, a. dj'-i-td'tlv, having power or 
tendency to agitate. 

aglet, n. tig-let; also aiglet, n. dg'ISt (F. aiguille, 
a needle), the tag of a point ; any small object hang- 
ing loosely— as a spangle, the anthers of a tulip or of 
grass, or the catkins of a hazel. 

agnail, n. dg'nul (AS. a; iwegel, a nail), a sore 
under the nail ; a whitlow. 

agnate, n. tig'ndt (L. ad; nafus, born), paternally 
related ; related in the male line : n. any descendant 
by the father's side: agnation, n. dg-nd'-shun: ag- 
natic, a. dg-ndt'lk, pert. to. 

agnition, n. tig-nlsh'-un (L. agnitio, a knowing— 
from ad; notum, to know), acknowledgment. 

agnomen, n. tig-no'-men (L. ad; nomen, a name), a 
name added in praise or dispraise. 

Agnus-Dei, tig'-n As-dc'l (L. the Lamb of God), the fig- 
ure of the Saviour under the form of a lamb, bearing 
a staff head with a Greek cross, and having the head 
surrounded by a nimbus ; certain oval medallions. 

ago, ad. ti-go' (old fi. ygo or ygon, gone away, passed 
by—;/ being the augment of the pp.), time gone by; 
past: agoing, ad. d-go'-lng, in or into action: agone, 
ad. d-gon', past and gone. 

agog, ad. ti-gog' (Icel. a; gcegium, on the watch or 
look-out), excited with expectation; ready to start 
or jog in pursuit of an object of desire. 

agonise, v. tig'6-nlz' (Gr. agonia, a contest, an- 
guish of mind), to suffer extreme pain or anguish; to 
distress exceedingly: ag'oni'sing, imp. : adj. "suffering 
extreme pain: agonised', pp.: ag'oni'singly, ad. -II: 
agony, n. dg'o-nl, extreme pain or anguish either of 
body or mind: agonist, n. dg'6-nlst; also agonistes, 
n. dg'-6-nls'4ez, one who contends for the prize in pub- 
lic games: agonistic, a. dg'6-nls'tlk ; also ag'oms'ti- 
cal, a. H-kdl, pert, to contests of strength: ag'onis'- 
tical'ly, ad. -ll. 

agrarian, a. d-grd'rl-dn (L. agrarius, pertaining 
to a field— from ager, a field), relating to land in gen- 
eral: agrarianism, n. the equal division of land or 
property: agra'rianist, n. one who. 

agree, v. ti-gre" (¥. agrder, to receive with favour: 
L. gratus, pleasing: It. grado), to be of one mind; to 
live in peace; to be like; to settle: agreeing, imp.: 
agreed', pp.: agreeable, a. d-gre'd-bl, pleasing; 
suitable to: agree'ably, ad. -bli: agree'ableness, n. 
-bl-nBs, the quality that makes a thing grateful to 
the taste, or pleasing to the mind; resemblance: 
agree'ment, n. a bargain ; a renewal of friendship. 

agriculture, n. ag'rl-kiU'tiir (L. ager, a field ; 
cultv/ra, tillage), tilling or working the ground to 
make it fruitful; husbandry: ag'ricul'tural, a. -tu- 
rn!, pertaining to the tillage of the ground: ag'ricul'- 
turist, n. one engaged in farming: ag'ricul'tural'ly, 
ad. -ll. 

agrimony, n. dg'rl-vwn'l (L. agrimonia), a medi- 
cinal plant. 

aground, ad. ti-grmvnd' (AS. a, and ground), on the 
ground: among seamen, stranded; run ashore. 

ague, v. ti'gu (L. acutus, sharp: F. aigu, sharp, 
keen), to cause to shiver : n. intermittent fever, attend- 
ed with cold fits and shivering: aguing, imp. a'gu- 

mdte, mdt,f&r, laTu; mite, mSt, lier; pine, pin; note, ndt, mdve; 




ing: agued, pp. a'gucl: aguish, a. somewhat cold 
and shivering. 

aguilla, n. d-gwll'ld (F. aiguille, a needle), an obe- 
lisk, or the spire of a church-tower. 

ah, int. a, an exclamatory word denoting surprise, 
pity, dislike, &c. : aha, int. d-hd', expressing triumph, 
surprise, or contempt : ahoy, int. d-hdy', attend ye— a 
sailor's call. 

ahead, ad. dhSd' (AS. a, and head), in advance; 
further forward than another. 

ahull, ad. d-hul' (AS. a, and hull), the condition of 
a vessel with her sails furled and helni lashed a-lee. 

aid, n. ctd (F. aider, to help— from L. adjutare, to 
assist), help ; relief; assistance : v. to help ; to support ; 
to relieve : aiding, imp. : aid'ed, pp. : aid er, n. one 
who: aidless, a. dd'-les: aidant, a. dd'-dnt, helping: 
aidance, n. dd'-dns, help; assistance. 

aid -de -camp, n. ad'dS-kung, plu. aids' -de -camp 
(F. aide, an assistant ; du camp, of the camp), in an 
army, an officer whose duty it is to receive and convey 
the orders of a general. 

aigret, n. d'gret; also egret, n. e'grSt (F. aigrette), 
the little white heron; in bot., the feathery down of 
the thistle. 

aigre, n. d'-ger— see eagre. 

aiguille, n. a'gwel (F. needle), applied to the sharp 
serrated peaks of lofty mountains ; an instr. for pierc- 
ing holes for the lodgment of powder when blasting: 
aigulet, n. d'gil-let, or aiglet, dg'Ut, a point or tag on 

ail, v. dl (AS. eglian, to pain; egle, troublesome: 
Goth, agio, affliction), to be sick ; to' trouble ; to be in 
pain : ailing, imp. : adj. unwell ; full of sickness : 
ailed, pp. did: ailment, n. sickness; trouble; slight 

aim.v. dm (oldF. esmer, to estimate— from L. (zstvmo, 
I value), to throw at an object ; to direct a weapon to ; 
to endeavour ; to purpose or design : n. the object or 
point intended to be struck; purpose; intention: 
aiming, imp.: aimed, pp. dmd: aim'er, n. one who: 
aimless, a. dm'ISs. 

air.n. dr (F.,fromGr. orL. aer, air), the atmosphere; 
a gas ; a light breeze ; a tune or melody ; look or mien ; 
affected manner: v. to dry; to expose to the air: air'- 
ing, imp.: aired, pp. ard: airy, a. dr'-i, high in air; 
light like air; trifling; vain: airily, ad. dr'l-ll: air- 
ing, n. a ride or walk in the open air: airless, a. 
wanting fresh air: airiness, n. dr'l-nes, the state of 
being opened freely to the air ; lightness of manner ; 
gaiety: air-tight, so close and compact as to prevent 
the passage of air : air-bed, a large air-tight bag filled 
with air for the repose of ailing persons: air-cells, 
cavities in vegetable and animal structures filled with 
air : air-gun, a musket or gun in which compressed air, 
instead of powder, is made the propelling agent : air- 
hole, an opening to admit air: air-pipe, a pipe for 
the escape or supply of air: air-plants, plants rooted 
on others, and suspended, as it. were, in the air : air- 
pump, a machine for exhausting or pumping out the 
air from vessels : air-shaft, a passage made into mines 
for the admission of air: air-vessels or air-sacs, spiral 
ducts in plants containing air, analogous to lungs in 

aisle, n. U (L. ala, awing; F. aisle or aile, awing), 
wing of a house ; the side passages of a church — the 
middle passage is called the nave: aisled, a. lid, hav- 
ing aisles. 

ait, at (a contr. of eyot, from eye, an island), a small 
flat island in a river. 

Aix-beds, aks, the flanks or sides of a deep valley in 
which the town of Aix, in France, is situated, com- 
posed of a thick fresh-water tertiary formation, being 
a perfect storehouse of fossil fishes, plants, and insects. 
ajar, ad. d-jdr 1 (AS. ceorran, to turn: Swiss, achar, 
ajar), a little opened. 
ake, n. dk, another spelling of ache, which see. 
akimbo, a. d-klm'bo (AS. a, at : It. sghembo, crooked, 
athwart: Gr. skambos, crooked), arched; crooked; 

akin, a. d-kin' (AS. a; and cyn, family), related to 
by blood ; having the same properties. 

al (L.), a prefix, being another form of ad, signify- 
ing to; in Ar. al signifies the. 

alabandine.n. dl'd-bdn'dln(L. alabandicus), a stone 
mentioned by Pliny, and so called from Alabanda, 
where it was cut and polished. It is a sulphuret of 
manganese, and usually occurs in massive granular 
crystals of an iron-black colour and semi-metallic lus- 
tre, found in Saxony and South America. 

alabaster, n. dl'd-bds'-ter (Gr. alabastron), a kind 
of soft semi-transparent marble: adj. pert. to. 

alack, int. d-ldk' (corrupted from alas), an exclama- 
tion expressive of sorrow: alack-a-day, an exclama- 
tion to express regret or sorrow. 

alacrity, n. d-lak'ri-tl (L. alacritas, liveliness, 
ardour: F. alacrite), cheerfulness ; gaiety; a smart 
willingness or readiness. 

a-la-mode, ad. d'ld-mod' (F. after the fashion), ac- 
cording to the fashion. 

alarm, v. d-ldrm' (F. alarmer, to frighten : It. all' 
arme, to arms— from L. ad; arma, arms), to give a 
sign to warn of approaching danger; to surprise; to 
arouse to danger: n. an outcry to announce danger; 
sudden surprise; terror: alarming, imp.: alarmed, 
pp. d-ldrmd' : alarmingly, ad. -II: alarmist, n. 
d-ldrni'ist, one prone to terrify with danger: alarum, 
n. d-ldr'iim, a piece of mechanism in a clock by which 
a loud ringing noise is produced at any fixed time for 
the purpose of rousing one out of sleep. 

alary, a. dl'dr-t (L. ala, a wing) wing-like : alate, 
a. dl'dt, winged; furnished with appendages like 

alas, int. d-lds' (L. lassus, wearied: Fr. las, weary), 
an exclamation of sorrow or pity. 

alb, n. alb (L. albus, white), a vestment of white 
linen worn by the Roman Catholic clergy. 
albatross, n. dl'bCi-tros, a large South-Sea bird, 
albeit, conj. dl'be-lt (AS. cdl, be, and it), although; 

Albert coal or albertite, al'-ber-tlt, a bituminous 
mineral found in Albert county, in the province of 
New Brunswick, North America. 

albescent, a. dl-bes'Snt (L. albesco, I grow white), 
growing white; moderately white; in bot., having a 
pale tinge or hoary appearance. 

Albigenses, n. plu. al'bljen'-sez, a sect or party 
who separated from the Church of PLOme in the twelfth called from Albigeois in Languedoc, France, 
where they first arose,— not to be confounded with the 
Waldenscs, who were a different sect, and arose at a 
different time. 

albino, n. dl-bl'no (L. albus, white), a person, or 
any animal, with white hair and red eyes: a white 
negro: albinism, n. dl'bln-lzm, state of being an 

Albion, n. dl'M-dn (L. albus, white), an anc. name 
of England, frequently used in poetry— so called from 
the appearance of the white chalk cliffs on its coast 
to persons coming from the Continent. 

albite, n ai'blt, a variety of felspar of a greyish- 
white or milky-white colour. 

album, n. dl'-bum (L. albus, white), a scrap-book; a 
memorial book: album grsecum, n. dl'-bum gn'-kum, 
the whitish hardened excrements of dogs, wolves, &c. 
albumen, n. dl-bu'min (L. from albus, white), the 
white of an egg; white matter: albuminous, a. al- 
bu'ml-nus, having the nature of albumen. 

alburnum, n. dl-bur'-num (L., from albus, white), 
the soft white part of a tree next to the bark ; the sap- 
wood: albugineous, a. dl'-bu-jln'-l-iis, like the white 
of an egg: albugo, n. dl-bu'-go (L. a white spot), the 
white of the eye. 

alcahest, n. dl'-M-hesf ; also al'kahest' (Ar.), a 
pretended universal solvent. 

Alcaic, a. dl-ka'-ik, relating to Alcreus or to the 
verse invented by him : n. a Greek metre. 

alcaid, n. dl-kdd' (Sp. alcaide), the chief magistrate 
of a town or city in Spain : sometimes spelt alcalde, 
dl-kdl'fU (Sp.) 
alcedo, n. dl-se'-do (L.), the king-fisher. 
alchemy, n. dl'-ke-ml (Ar. al kimia, the secret art; 
probably Ar. al, and Gr. chuma, a melting or fu- 
sion), the professed art of changing the other metals 
into gold; the art that professed to find a universal 
remedy and other impossible things: alchemic, a. 
dl-kcm'ik; also alchemical, a. al-kcm'l-kdl, relating 
to alchemy: alchemist, n. dl'-ke-mist' , one who prac- 
tises alchemy: al'chemis'tical, a.: al chemis tical'ly, 
ad. -II. The above are also spelt with y for e, as al- 

alcohol, n. dl'-ko-hol (Ar. al kohnl, the impalpable 
powder of antimony with which the Orientals stain 
their eyelids; a pure extract), spirits of wine; dis- 
tilled spirits highly rectified ; the intoxicating prin- 
ciple in all spirituous or fermented liquors: alco- 
holic, a, al'-ko-hol'-Xk, pert, to alcohol: alcoholate, n. 
dl'ko-hol'at, a salt containing alcohol: alcoholise, v. 
ai'-ko-ho-liz', to convert into alcohol: al'coholislng, 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




imp. : al'coholised', pp. : alcoholisation, n. -hol't-zd'- 
shun: alcoholmeter, n. dl'-ko-hol'-nte-ter (Ar. al kohol: 
Cr., a measure), an instrument lor ascertain- 
ing the strength of spirits. 

Alcoran, n. dl'ko-rdn' (Ar.), the book containing the 
Mohammedan law, precepts, and doctrines— now more 
commonly spelt koran. 

alcove, n. dl-k6v' (Sp. alcoba, a part of a room railed 
off to hold a bed of state), a recess in a room for a bed 
or sideboard ; a shady recess in a garden. 

alcyonite, n. dl-si'6-nit (L. Alcyone, a daughter of 
Mollis, who, from love to her shipwrecked husband, 
threw herself into the sea, and was changed into the 
bird king-fisher: Gr. halkuone), a general term applied 
to the spongiform fossils so common in the chalk- 

alder, n. til'der (AS. air: Ger. etter: Sw. al: L. 
abuts), a tree resembling the hazel: al'dern, a. made 
of alder. 

alderman, n. dl'-d'r-mAn, plu. al'dermen (AS. eald, 
old; ealder, an elder, a chief), a senior or superior; a 
civic dignitary next in rank to the mayor: al'der- 
man'ic, a. -ik, in the manner of an alderman : al'der- 
man'ly, a. -II. 

ale, n. al (AS. eale: Icel. 61: Lith. alus— from Gael. 
ol, to drink), beer; a drink made from malt: ale- 
berry, n. al'bSrri, a beverage made by boiling ale 
with spice, sugar, and sops of bread: ale-cost, an 
herb: ale-hoof, ground ivy: alegar, n. dl'S-gdr (ale, 
and F. aigre, sour), sour ale. 

a-lee, ad. d-le' (AS. hleo, shelter), a term used to 
denote the position of a ship's helm when put in a 
direction opposite to that from which the wind blows. 

alembic, n. d-lem'-blk (Ar. al, the; aribiq, a chemi- 
cal vessel in the shape of a gourd : Sp. alambique), a 
gourd-like vessel with a lid, for chemical purposes. 

alength, ad. d-length' (a and length), stretched to 
the full extent. 

alert, a. d-lert' (F. alerte, diligent: It. a I'erta, on 
one's guard), watchful; on one's guard ; sprightly; 
nimble: alert'ness, n. watchfulness ; nimbleness. 

alethiology, n. d-le-thl-dl'6-jl (Gr. alethes, true ; lo- 
gos, word, doctrine), doctrine or principle of truth. 

alethopteris, u. Ol'e-tMp'tSr-ls (Gr. alethos, truly; 
pteris, fern), a genus of fossil ferns abounding in the 
lower coal-formations. 

Alexandrine, a. dl'Sgz-dn'dHn (city of Alexandria, 
N. Africa), noting a verse of twelve syllables : Al'exan- 
drian, a. -drl-an, pert. to. 

alexipharmic, a. d-leks'-i-fdr'-mik (Gr. alexo, I keep 
off; pharmakon, poison), having the effect of expel- 
ling poison or infection by sweat: n. the medicine 
that expels poison: alexiteric, a. d-leks'i-ter'-ik (Gr. 
alexo ; deleterion, poison), resisting poison: n. the 
medicine which does so. 

algae, n. dl'je (L. alqa, sea-weed), sea or aquatic 
plants: algous, a. dl'gus, pert, to sea-weed: algoid, 
a. dl'goyd (L. alga: Gr. eidos, a form), like sea- weed. 

algebra, n. dl'jS-brd (Ar. al, gabr, the putting to- 
gether of broken tilings : Sp. and It. algebra), arith- 
metic by signs— commonly the letters of the alphabet 
— the first letters, a, b, c, d, &c, represent known 
quantities, and the last letters, w, x, y, z, unknown 
quantities : algebraic, a. dl'jS-brd'ik ; also al'ge- 
bra'ical, -i-kdl, pertaining to algebra: al'gebra'ical- 
ly, ad. -II: algebraist, n. one who is skilled in 

Algerine, a. dVjS-rin, of or belonging to Algiers: 
n. an inhabitant. 

algor, n. dl'gor (L. from algeo, I feel cold), the sense 
of coldness experie?iced at the onset of fever: algid, 
a. dl'-jld, chilled with cold ; become cold. 

alguazil, n. dl'gd-zel' (Sp.), an inferior officer of 
justice in Spain. 

alias, con.j. d'll-ds, (L. alius, another), otherwise: n. 
a second writ of execution when the first has failed. 

alibi, n. dl'l-bl (L.), a law term, being elsewhere; 
being with another person in another place. 

alien, n. dl'-yen (L. alienus, of another country), 
a foreigner; a stranger; one born in or belonging to 
another country: adj. foreign; strange: alienage, 
n. dl'-y&n-dj, state of being an alien: alienate, v. 
ul'ydi-dt, to transfer anything to another; to mis- 
apply; to withdraw love or affection from: al'iena'- 
ting, imp. : al'iena'ted, pp. : alienable, a. dl'-ydn- 
dbl, that mav be transferred or withdrawn: alien- 
ability, n. dl'-ydii-il-Ml'-l-tl, the. being able to be 
transferred: alienation, n. <V'i/e~n-d'sh,un, the trans- 
fer of anything to another : alienator, n. dl'-yHn-d'-tor, 

one who transfers anything: alienee, n. dl'ySn-i', 
one to whom a thing is transferred. 

aliferous, a. d-lif'-cr-us (L. ala, a wing; fero, I 
carry), having wings: aliform, al'l-fawrm (L. ala; 
forma, shape), wing-shaped. 

alight, v. dllt' (AS. alihtan, to light on anything, 
especially on the ground), to get or come down; to 
settle on, as birds : aiight'ing, imp. : alight'ed, pp. 

alignement, n. d-lDi'me'nt (F. a row, a level— from 
F. ligne, a line: L. linea, a line), in mil., the position 
of a body of men in a straight line ; a supposed line to 
preserve a fleet, or part of one, in its just direction. 

alike, a. ad. d-lik' (AS. — see like), the same in 
appearance ; not different ; in the same manner or 

aliment, v. dl'i-mint (L. alimentum, food), to 
maintain : n. food ; nourishment ; support : aliment- 
ing, imp. : al'iment'ed, pp. : alimen'tal, a. supply- 
ing food that can nourish: al'imen'tally, ad. -II: ali- 
mentary, a. dl'l-mdn'tdr-l, having the property of 
nourishing : al'imen'tariness, n. : al'imenta'tion, n. 
-td'-shun, the power of affording nourishment; the 
state of being nourished : alimony, n. dl'-l-mon-i, the 
sum allowed for the support of a wife who is separated 
from her husband: al'imen'tiveness, n. in phren., 
the organ which gives a desire for food and drink. 

aliped, n. dl'l-ped (L. ala, a wing; pes, gen. pedis, 
a foot), an animal, such as the bat, whose feet, con- 
nected by a membrane, serve as wings. 

aliquant, a. dl'l-kwdnt (L. aliquantum, a little), 
that does not divide exactly. 

aliquot, a. dl'l-kwot (L. some— from alius, another ; 
quot, how many), that measures or divides exactly; 
an aliquot part of a number is a part contained in it 
exactly— thus S is an aliquot part of 6, 9, 12. 

alive, a. d-liv' (AS. a: Goth, liban, to live), endued 
with life; not dead; sprightly; active; easily im- 

alizarine, n. d-llz'd-rin {alizari, anc. name for the 
plant madder), a colouring principle in madder. 

alkahest, n. dl'kd-Msi— see alcahest. 

alkali, n. dl'kd-li, plu. alkalies, dl'kd-llz (Ar. al- 
qali, the salt of ashes), a substance, such as soda or 
potash, which neutralises the action of an acid, and 
changes vegetable blues into green, yellows into 
brown: alkaline, a. dl'kd-lin, having the properties 
of an alkali; the alkaline earths are lime, magnesia, 
baryta, and strontia: al'kalin'ity, n. -l-ti: alkalisa- 
tion, n. dl'kdl-l-za'shil>i, the making a body to have 
the properties of an alkali : alkalisable, a. dl'kd-llz- 
d-bl: alkalescent, a. dl'-kd-les'-Snt, tending to be, 
or slightly alkaline: alkalescence, n. dl'kd-lSs'-ens ; 
also alTtales'cency, n. -si : alkalify, v. dl-kdl'ifi, to 
convert into an alkali ; to become alkaline : alkal'ify- 
ing, imp.: alkalified, pp. dl-kdl'l-fld : al'kalifl'able, 
a. -fl'-d-bl: alkaligenous, a. dl'-kalij'S-nus (alkali; 
Gr. gennao, I generate), producing alkali : alkalime- 
ter, n. dl-kdl-im'e-ter (alkali ,• Gr. metron, a measure), 
an instrument used in testing the strength of alkalies : 
al'kalim'etry, n. -tri, the art of finding the strength of 
alkalies: alkaloid, n. dl'-kd-ldyd (alkali; Gr. eidos, 
form, resemblance), a substance having alkaline pro- 
perties in a slight degree ; the alkaline principle of a 

alkanet, n. dl'-kd-nef (Ar. alkanah, a reed), a plant 
whose root yields a red dye. 

alkermes, n. dl-ker'-mez (Ar. al; kermes, reddish 
grains of certain oaks), a confection; a compound 

Alkoran, n. (see alcoran), the spelling with A- should 
be preferred : al'koran'ic, a. pert, to : al'koran'ist, n. 
one who. 

all, a. awl (AS. eall: Goth, alls: Icel. allr— from d 
or ei, aye, ever), the whole; everyone: n. the whole 
number; the entire thing: ad. wholly: when used in 
union with other words, all generally denotes wholly, 
completely, or perfectly : all along, continually,, regu- 
larly : all that, collection of similar things or occur- 
rences; et cnetera: all in all, everything: all-fools'- 
day, the first of April: all-fours, a game at cards; 
moving on the legs and arms: all-gracious, perfectly 
gracious : all-hail, a phrase of salutation expressive 
of a wish for health: all-heal, name of a plant: all- 
just, perfectly just: all-merciful, of perfect mercy; 
all -hallow, n. all -saints' -day, 1st November: all- 
hallow -tide, n. the time near to 1st November: all- 
saints' -dav, 1st day of November, also named all- 
hallow: all - souls' - day, 2d of November: all-spice, 
n. Jamaica pepper or pimento, the fruit of a tree. 

mate, mdt.fdr, IdTv; mete, mdt, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




Allah, n. dl'-ld {Ax.), the Arabic name for God. 

allantoic, a. al'dn-to'-ik (Gr. alias, a sausage; eidos, 
form), name of an acid found in the liquor of the al- 
lantois—a, membrane enveloping the fcetus. 

allay, v. dl-lof (old E. allegge; AS. alecgan, to lay 
down: old F. alleger ; It. alleggiare; L. alleviare, to 
lighten, to mitigate), to set at rest ; to make quiet ; 
to make less in pain or grief: allay'ing, imp. : allay- 
ed, pp. d-ldd': allayment, n. dl-ld'-ment, state of 
rest after disturbance : allay'er, n. one who or that 

allege, v. dl-lef (F. alleguer, to produce reasons : L. 
ad, to ; lego, I send, I intrust to), to plead as an excuse ; 
to affirm ; to declare : alleg'ing, imp. : alleged, pp. 
ul-lejd': allegeable, a. d-lej'-a-bl, capable of being 
alleged: alleg'er, n. one who: allegation, n. dl'-le- 
gd'-shun, something offered as a plea or an excuse; 
an affirmation ; an assertion. 

allegiance, n. dl-le'-jdns (L. ad, to; mid. L. litgan- 
tia, the duty of a subject to his lord— from litus, a 
man owing services to his lord— see liege), the tie or 
duty that binds any one to obedience to the govern- 
ment and laws under which he lives ; an oath, called 
the oath of allegiance. 

allegory, n. dl'-le-gor'-l (Gr. alios, another, differ- 
ent; agoreuo, I harangue), figurative speech; lan- 
guage that has another meaning than the literal one ; 
the Jews compared to a vine in the 80th Psalm is an 
allegory; allegorise, v. dl-lego-rlz', to form into an 
allegory ; to use figurative speech : al'legori'sing, 
imp. : allegorised^, -rlzd', pp. : allegoric, a, dl'le-gor- 
Ik; also allegorical, a. -i-kdl, figurative ; in the man- 
ner of an allegory : allegorlcally, ad. -II : allegor'- 
icalness, n. : al'legorist', n. one who. 

allegro, ad. al-le'gro (It. : F. leger, light, nimble), 
in music, a term denoting merrily ; cheerfully : n. a 
brisk movement: allegretto, ad. dl'-le-gret'-to, a move- 
ment not so quick as allegro. 

alleluiah, n. Ol'ie-16'yd— see halleluiah. 

alleviate, v. dl-ie'vi-dt (L. alleviare, to mitigate 
—from ad; levis, light — see allay), to make light ; to 
make easier ; to lessen, as pain, sorrow : alle'via'ting, 
imp.: alle'via'ted, pp.: alleviation, n. -shun, the 
act of lessening or making more endurable : alle'vi- 
ative, a. -d'-tlv, that lessens or palliates. 

alley, n. dl'-ll (F. alle'e, a passage— from alter, to 
go), a narrow walk or passage ; a close. 

alliaceous, a. dl'-ll- d'-shus (L. allium, garlic), pert. 
to the garlic or onion tribe, as alliaceous odour. 

alliance, n. dl-ll-dns (F. : L. ad; ligo, I bind), union 
formed by marriage; a treaty or union between 
nations ; a union for any purpose : allied, dl-lld', pp. 
of ally, which see; connected by marriage, interest, 
or friendship : allies', see ally. 

alligation, n. dl-ll-gd'shun (L. alligatio, a binding 
or tying to), a rule in arithmetic for finding the value 
or price of any mixture. 

alligator, n. dl'-ll-gd'-tor (Sp. lagarto, a lizard: L. 
lacerta: Port, allagarto), an animal of the reptile 
kind : the American crocodile. 

alliteration, n. dl-llt'-er-d'-shun (L. ad; litera, a let- 
ter), in poetry, commencing two or more words in the 
same line or verse with the same letter: alliterative, 
a. -dt'-lv, pert. to. 

allochroite, n. dl-lok'-r6-lt (Gr. alios, different; 
chroa, colour), a fine-grained, massive variety of iron- 
garnet, exhibiting a variety of colours when melted 
with phosphate of soda before the blow-pipe. 

allocate, v. dl'-lo-kdt (L. ad ; locus, a place), to give 
each one his share or part ; to set apart for any pur- 
pose; to distribute: al'loca'ting, imp.: allocated, 
pp.: allocation, n. dl'-lo-kd'shiin, the act of setting 
apart for; the assigning a place for. 

allocution, n. dl'-lo-ku'shun (L. ad; locutus, spok- 
en), a formal address, written or spoken. 

allodium, n. al-lo'-di-um (Dan. odel, a patrimonial 
estate : Icel. odal, goods abandoned), land not held 
from a superior ; unconditional free tenure : allodial, 
a. dl-16'dl-dl, free of rent ; independent. 

allopathy, n. dl-lop'-d-thl (Gr. alios, another; pa- 
thos, disease), that mode of medical practice which 
consists in the use of drugs to produce in the body a 
condition opposite to the disease to be cured. It is 
opposed to homoeopathy (hom-e-op'-d-thl), which at- 
tempts to cure disease by medicine which, in a state 
of health, would have produced a similar disease. 
allopathic, a. dl'-lo-pdth'-lk, pertaining; to allopathy: 
allopathlcally, ad. -II: allop'athist, n. one who 
practises allopathy. 

allophane.n. dl'-ld-fun (Gr. alios, different; phaino, 
I appear), a mineral, generally of a pale-blue colour- 
occurs lining small cavities, and in veins. 

allot, v. dl-lof (L. ad: Icel. hlutr, lot: F. allotir— 
see lot), to assign to; to divide and parcel out: to 
apportion: allot'ter, n. one who: allotting, imp.: 
allotted, pp.: allotment, n. that which has been 
parcelled out ; a share ; the part assigned. 

allotropy, n. dl-lot'-ro-pl (Gr. alios, another; trope, 
a conversion or change), a term employed to denote 
the fact that the same body may exist in more than 
one usual condition, and with different physical char- 
acteristics: allotropic, a. dl'-ld-trop'-ik, pert. to. 

allow, v. dl-low'(L. ad; laudare, to praise, in one 
sense; locare, to place or to let, in another: V.allouer, 
to assign), to admit ; to grant ; to permit ; to own ; to 
deduct: allowing, imp.: allowed, pp. dl-ldicd' : 
allowable, a. dl-hnv'-d-bl, that maybe permitted; not 
improper or unlawful: allowably, ad. -bll: allow- 
ableness, n. dl-lolr'a-bl-nes, lawfulness; fitness: al- 
lowance, n. dl-ldiv'-dns, the act of allowing; permis- 
sion ; a settled rate ; a salary. 

alloy, v. dl-ldx/ (F. loi or aloi; It. lega; L. ad, lex, 
the law or rule: Sp. ley, the proportion of silver 
found in ore), to mix any metal with another, gene- 
rally with one less valuable ; to reduce or lessen by 
mixture: n. a baser metal mixed with a finer; a 
mixture of two or more metals ; a mixture of a metal 
with mercury is called an amalgam; evil mixed with 
good: alloying, imp.: alloyed, pp. dhloyd' : alloy- 
age, n. dl-ldy'-dj, the act of mixing metals ; a mixture 
of different metals. 

allspice, n. aJd'-spls (all and spice), pimento, so call- 
ed from its mixed aromatic flavour. 

allude, v. dl-lod' (L. ad; ludo, I play), to refer to 
something not particularly mentioned; to hint at: 
allu'ding, imp.: allu'ded, pp.: allusion, n. dl-l6'-zhim, 
a reference to something not mentioned particu- 
larly; a hint: allusive, a. dl-16'slv, having reference 
to something but vaguely noticed before : allu'sively, 
ad. -II. 

allure, v. dl-ldr' (L. ad; F. leurre, a bait: Ger. 
ludern, to entice), to tempt by the offer of something 
good; to entice, in a good or bad sense: alluring, 
imp.: allured, pp. dl-lord: allurement, n. dl-lor'- 
merit, some real or supposed good that attracts; 
temptation; enticement to pleasure: allu'rer, n. one 
who : allu'ringly, ad. -It. 

alluvium, n. dl-lo'-vi-iim, plu. allu'via (L. ad; lavo 
or luo, I wash), earth and other matter deposited any- 
where by the ordinary operations of water; also 
aUu'vion: alluvial, a. "dl-lo'-vl-dl, deposited or laid 
down by means of water. 

ally, v. dl-ll' (F. allier, to mix: L. ad; ligo, I bind), 
to unite, as families by marriage; to bind together 
in friendship, as states with states : n. one that is al- 
lied ; a confederate ; plu. allies, dl-llzf, countries or 
persons united by treaty or agreement ; confederates : 
allying, imp. : allied, pp. dl-lld'-. alliance, n. dl-li'- 
dns, union ; confederacy ; association. 

alma -mater, dl'-ma-md'-ter (L. fostering mother), 
a name applied to any university by those who have 
studied in it. 

almanac, n. dl'-md-ndk (a supposed corrupted form 
of AS. all-moon-heed or allmonaght, a rude tracing or 
representation of the course of the moon), a small 
book containing the days of the month, with remark- 
able events, the tides, &c. ; a calendar. 

almandine, n. dl'-mdn-dln' (Allabanda, a city of 
Carta), a lapidary's term for the violet or violet-red 
varieties of spinel, ruby, &c. 

Almighty, a. awl-mit'-l {AS. : all anil mighty), pos- 
sessing all power ; omnipotent : n. the omnipotent 
God : almight'ily, ad. -U-. almightinei-s, n. 

almond, n. d'-mund (F. amande: Sp. almendra: 
Gr. amugdalon .- L. amygdala), the kernel of the nut 
of the aimond-tree : plu. two glands situated on each 
side of the mouth near the base of the tongue : al- 
mond-oil, an oil obtained from almonds. 

almoner, n. dl'-mon-er (Ger. almosen, alms: F. au- 
monier, the officer for dispensing alms: Gr. eleemos- 
une, pity, alms), a person appointed by a king or 
queen, or a monastery, to dispense their alms or 
charity to the poor: almonry, n. dl'-mon-rl, the 
residence of the almoner ; the house where alms are 

almost, ad. aYcl'-most (AS. -.all and most), nearly; for 
the greatest part. 

alms, n. amz (AS. ozlmesse, alms), anything given 

cdv>, boy, fool; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shim, thing, there, zeal. 




to the poor in charity to relieve their wants : alms- 
houses, houses lor the reception and relief of the 
poor: alms'-deed, an act of charity. 

almug, a.iU'mug (Heb. almug), a tree mentioned in 
Scripture, probuhiy sandal-wood. 

aloe, n. dl'-O (Gr. and L. aloe, a bitter herb), name of 
a bitter plant used in medicine: aloes, dl'-Oz, the juice 
of the aloe: aloetic, a. dl'-O-et'-ik; also al'oet'ical, a. 
-l-kdl, of or containing aloes. 

aloft, ad. d-loff (Icel. d lopt, on high: Ger. tuft, 
the air), inthe'air; among seamen, up among the 
rigging: alow, ad. d-lo , in a low place; not aloft. 

alone, ad. d-lon' (all and one), by itself; singly: 
adj. single ; without company. 

along, prep, d-long' ; also alongst, prep, d-lom/st' 
(AS. andlang: Ger. enticing.- It. lungo), by the length; 
lengthwise; forward: ad. in company with: along- 
side, by the side of, as a ship. 

aloof, ad. d-lof (loof, the windward side of a 
ship ; aloof, on loof— viz., out of danger: Dut. loef, an 
oar-pin), keeping away from ; at a distance from. 

alopecy, n. dl-6-pe-sl; also, alopecia, -sJil-d (Gr. 
o.loj)ex, a fox), the fox-evil or scurf; any kind of bald- 

aloud, ad. d-lolvd' (AS. a, on : Ger. laut, sound), 
with a high tone of voice ; with much noise. 

alpaca, n. dl-pdk'-d, or paco, pdk'-O, a ruminating 
animal of the mountainous districts of S. Amer., al- 
lied to the camel, but of smaller size, and having long 
woolly hair ; a fabric or cloth made from its hair. 

Alpha, n. dl'-fd (Gr.), the first letter of the Greek 
alphabet ; the first or beginning: alphabet, n. dl'-fd- 
bet (Gr. alpha, a; beta, b), the letters of any language 
arranged in a fixed order: alphabetic, a. dl'-fd-bet'-lk ; 
also alphabetical, a. -I kdl, arranged in the order of 
the alphabet : alphabetically, ad. -Vt. 

Alpine, a. dl'-pln (L. alpes, the Alps: Gael, alp, a 
height, a mountain), from or like the Alps ; very ele- 
vated; belonging to elevated regions, as alpine flora: 
al'penstock (Ger.), staff used for ascending the Alps. 

alquifou, n. cil'-kl-fd, an ore of lead called potter's- 

already, ad. awl-rftd-i {all and ready), now; at this 
time ; at some time past. 

also, ad. awl'-so (AS. ealles siva, all so) likewise ; in 
like manner. 

Alstonite, n. dl'-ston-it, a mineral of a snow-white 
or greyish-yellow colour, so called from occurring in 
the lead-mines of Alstone Moor, Cumberland. 

alt or alto, n. alt, dl'-to (It.— from L. altus, high), 
the highest note that can be sung with the natural 
voice hymen: alto-rilievo, n. dl'-to-rl-le'-vO (L. altus; 
and It.), raised figures on a flat surface, so as to show 
one side of them : bas'so-rilie vo is where the figures 
are not so much raised from the flat (It. basso, low) ; 
also called bass-relief. 

altar, n. awl'-tdr (L. altare, an altar for sacrifice— 
from Icel. eldr, fire, and am, a hearth ; or AS. em, a 
place), a small square or round building of turf, wood, 
or stone, varying in height, on which animals were 
burnt— these were called sacrifices ; the communion- 
table : altarage, n. dwl'-tdr-aj, profits arising to 
priests from oblations: altar-piece, a painting or 
decoration placed over an altar: altar-cloth, in a 
church, the cloth laid over an altar. 

alter, v. awl'-ter (L. alter, another: F. alterer, to 
alter), to change ; to vary ; to make different in some 
way: altering, imp. : altered, pp. awl'-terd .- alter- 
able, a. cuvl'-tcr-d-hl, capable of being changed ; that 
may be varied : alterably, ad. -bli .- alterableness, 
n. cvtvl'-ter-d-bl-nis ; also alterability, n. awl'-ter- 
u-bll'-l-H, the being able to be changed: alteration, 
n.awl'-tcr-d'-shun, a varying in someway; a change: 
alterative, a. awl'ter-d'-tlv, having the power to 
change or alter : n. a medicine that gradually changes 
the constitution or habit of body. 

altercate, v. dl'-ter-kdf (L. alterco, I contend), to 
contend in words ; to wrangle : al'terca'ting, imp. : 
al'terca'ted, pp. : altercation, n. dl'-ter-kd-shun, a 
contention in words ; a wrangling. 

alternate, v. dl-ter'-ndt, (L. altemn, I do anything by 
turns), to do by turns ; to happen by turns ; to change 
in succession : adj. that succeeds or follows by turns : 
alternating, imp. : alternated, pp. : alternately, 
ad. -li: alter'nant, a. in cieol., in alternating layers: 
alternation, n. dl'-ti'rnd-shun, the act of doing by 
turns ; the act of taking one and leaving one in suc- 
cession : alternative, a, dl-t/r'-nd-tlv, offering a choice 
of two things : n. of two things, an offer to take the 

one and leave the other ; often used, of more than 
two: alternatively, ad. -lit alter'native ness, n. : 
alternate generation, a mode of reproduction among 
the lowest animal types, in which the young do not 
resemble the parent, but the grand-parent. 

althaea or althea, n. dl-the'-d (Gr. ulthaia: L. althcea, 
the marsh-mallow— from Gr. altheo, I cure), a genus of 
plants, some of which possess medicinal qualities. 

although, conj. awl- the' (all and though), notwith- 

altimeter, n. dl-tlm'-S-ter (L. altus, high : Gr. metron, 
a measure), an instrument for taking heights: altim- 
etry, n. -Q-tri, art of measuring heights. 

altitude, n. dl'-tltud (L. altus, high : It. alto), 
height, as of a mountain; extension upwards ; highest 
point : altitude of a celestial body, the angular dis- 
tance of the body from the horizon. 

alto, a. dl'-to (It. — from L. altus, high), in music, 
high; also in sculp.— basso, low, its opposite: al'to- 
rilie'vo, n. (It.), see under alt. 

altogether, ad. awl'-tob-geth'-er (all and together), 
wholly ; entirely. 

alum, n. dl'-um (L. alumen : Gr. (h)als, salt), a white 
saline substance used in medicine and dyeing: al- 
umed, a. dl'-ilmd, imbued or mixed with alum: alu- 
mina, n. d-16-ml-nd; also alumine, n. -mln, the clay, 
loam, or other substance from which alum is obtained ; 
pure alumina consists of oxygen and the new metal 
now called aluminum: aluminiform, a. d-16-min'l- 
faZvrm (L. alumen; forma, shape), formed like alumi- 
na: aluminiferous, a. d-lO'-min-lf-er-us (L. alumen; 
fero, I produce), containing alum : alu'minous, a. of 
or relating to alum : aluminite, n. d-lo'-mi-nit, a 
mineral of a silver or yellowish white colour: alumi- 
num, n. d-lO'-iiu-uuin ; also aluminium, n. d-16-min- 
l-iim, the metallic base of alumina— as a metal, now 
prepared to a considerable extent: alum-stone, a 
mineral of a white, greyish, or reddish colour, from 
which much of the best alum is procured. 

alumnus, n. d-hlm-nus (L. alumnus, a pupil— from 
alere, to nourish), a pupil or scholar of a school or 

alunite, n. dl'-obn-lt (F. alun, alum), alumstone; a 
mineral containing alum, found in minute shining 
crystals of a white, greyish, or reddish colour : alun- 
ogene, n. d-ldbn'-o-jen (F.alun; Gr.gennao, I produce), 
an ore of alumina, known as hair-salt or feather-alum 
—is a frequent efflorescence on the walls of quarries 
or mines. 

alveary, n. dl'-ve-clr'-l (L. alvearium, a beehive— from 
alvus, the belly), in anat., the hollow of the external 
ear: alveolar, a. dl-ve'-o-ldr; also alveolar y, a. -Idr'-l, 
containing sockets: alve'olate, a. -Idt, divided into 
cells or pits: alveole, n. dl'-ve-ol, the socket of a tooth : 
alveolus, n. dl-ve'-o-lus (L. a small hollow or cavity), in 
nat. hist., a little trough or hollow channel : alveo- 
lites, n. plu. dl-ve'6-lUs, a genus of corals composed 
of concentrically-arranged tables of short tubes, angu- 
lar without, and rounded within : alvine, a. dl'-vln, of 
or from the bowels. 

always, ad. awl'-wdz; also, alway ad. awl'-wd (AS. 
(•(<//( irnijn, the whole way), continually; for ever. 

A.M. , initial letters of ante meridiem (L. before mid- 
day)— opposed to P.M., for post meridiem (L. after 
mid-day) ; initial letters of Magister Artium (L. Mas- 
ter of Arts), an academic degree higher than B. A. 

am, v. dm (Moeso-Gothic im-. Icel. em-. AS. eom: Gr. 
eim i), 1st sing. pres. tense of the verb be; I AM; one of 
God's titles. 

amadou, n. dm'-d-clo (¥.), Ger. tinder; a substance 
resembling doeskin leather, prepared from a dry lea- 
thery fungus found on old ash and other trees. 

amain, ad. d-mdn' (AS. a; and Goth, magan, to be 
able), with energy or force. 

amalgam, n. d-mdl'-gdm (Gr. ama, together; gameo, 
I marry: or ama; malagma, that which softens— from 
malasso, I soften), a mixture of mercury with another 
metal ; an alloy of which mercury forms a constituent 
part: amalgamate, v. d-mdl'-ga-mdt, to compound or 
mix mercury with another metal; to blend; to incor- 
porate: amalgamating, imp.: amalgamated, pp.: 
amalgamation, n. d-mdl'-gd-md'shiin, a mixing to- 
gether different bodies ; a union of two or more bodies 
into one, as of railway companies. 

amanuensis, n. d-mdn'-u-6n'-sls (L.— from ab, and 
manus, the hand), one who writes down the words of 
another ; a writer to dictation. 

amaranth, n. dm'-d-rdnth; also am'aran'thus (L. 
amarantus: Gr. amarantos, unfading), a flower in- 

mdte, mdt, far, laTv; mite, mSt, Mr; pine, pin; note, ndt, mOve; 




clined to a purple colour; in poetry, a flower which 
never fades: amaranthine, a. -thin, pert. to. 

amaryllis, n. dm'd-rll'lis (name of a country girl 
in Virgil), a family of plants esteemed for their beauty; 
the lily-asphodel. 

amass, v. d-mds' (F. amasser, to heap up : L. inassa, 
a mass), to gather into a heap ; to collect many things 
together: amas'sing, imp.: amassed, pp. a-mdst': 
amassment, n. 

amasthenic, a. dm'ds-thcn'-ik (Gr. ama, together; 
sthenos, force), uniting the chemical rays of light into 
one focus, as a certain kind of lens. 

amateur, n. dm'd-ter' (F. ; L. amator, a lover), one 
who loves and cultivates any art or science, but does 
not follow the one preferred as a profession. 

amativeness, n. dm'-d-tiv'nes (L. amo, I love ; ama- 
tus, loved), a propensity to love; in phren., the name 
of an organ of the brain, the supposed seat of the 
sexual passion: amatory, a. dm'-d-tor'-l, relating to 
love; causing love : amatorial, a. dm'-d-to'-ridl : am'- 
ato'rially, ad. -dl-ll. 

amaurosis, n. dm'aw-ro'sls (Gr. from amauros, 
obscure), decay or loss of sight without visible defect 
in the eye. 

amaze, v. d-mdzf (It. smagare : Sp. cUsmayer, to 
discourage : Norm. F. s'esmaier, to be sad), to strike 
with astonishment or fear: amazing, imp.: adj. 
very wonderful ; exciting fear, surprise, or wonder : 
amazed, pp. d-mdzd' : amazement, n. astonishment; 
sudden fear : ama'zingly, ad. -U : amazedness, n. 

Amazon, .n. dm'd-zon (Gr. a, without ; mazos, a 
breast), a race of female warriors; a river in S. 
America: amazonian, a. dm'd-zo'-ni-dn, pert, to; of 
bold, masculine manners: am'azon-stone, a bluish- 
green ornamental variety of felspar from the river 

amb or ambi, dmb or dm'bl (L. or Gr.), a prefix 
signifying both, about. 

ambages, n. dm-ba'jez (L.— from ambi, around; ago, 
I go), a circuit of words ; a circumlocution. 

ambassador, n. dm-bds'sd-dor (F. ambassadeur .- 
mid. L.ambascia: It. ambasciata: oldH.Ger.ambaht, 
a minister : Goth, andbahts, a servant), a person sent 
by a sovereign to represent him in a foreign country : 
ambassadress, n. -drSs, a woman who: ambassa- 
dorial, a. -d-do'rl-dl, pert. to. 

amber, n. dm'ber (F. ambre: It. ambra: Sp. ambar: 
Arab, anbar or anbarum), a fossil gum or gum-resin, 
with a tinge of yellow, and semi-transparent, found 
chiefly on the shores of the Baltic Sea : adj. made of 
amber: amber-seed, musk-seed: amber-pine, the 
tree producing amber. 

ambergris, n. dm'ber-gres' (F. ambre ; and gris, 
grey— grey amber), an ash-coloured waxy substance 
found floating on the seas frequented by sperm whales, 
supposed to be an internal secretion from these ani- 
mals— used as a fragrant drug. 

ambidexter, n. dm'bl- d&c&ter (L. ambo, both; dex- 
ter, the right hand), one who uses both hands alike ; 
a double dealer : amtidex'trous, a. -trus, able to use 
either hand; double dealing; deceitful: am'bidex- 
trous'ly, ad. -trus'-ll. 

ambient, a. dm'bi-ent (L. ambiens, going about), 
surrounding on all sides. 

ambiguity, n. dm-bl-gu'-l-tl (L. ambiguus, doubt- 
ful—from ambi, around, and ago, I go : F. ambigu : It. 
ambiguo), uncertainty as to meaning ; doubtfulness ; 
state of doubt: ambiguous, a. dm-blg'-ii-us, doubtful; 
having more meanings than one : ambig'uous'ly, ad. 
-ll: ambig'uous'ness, n. -us'-nSs. 

ambilogy, n. dm-bll'6-jl (L. ambo, both: Gr. logos, 
discourse), ambiguous discourse: ambil'oquy, n. -6-kwl 
(L. ambo; loqui, to speak), ambiguity of expression. 

ambition, n. dm-blsh'iin (L. ambitio, seeking eagerly 
for a favour— from ambi, around, and ire, to go; F.), 
the desire of power, fame, excellence, or superiority : 
ambit'ionless, a. : ambitious, a. dm-blsh'us, aspiring; 
desirous of fame or superiority ; eager to attain some- 
thing : ambitiously, ad. -ll. 

amble, v. dm'bl (F. ambler: L. ambulo, I walk), to 
move at an easy pace, as a horse: n. the pace of a 
horse between a walk and a trot ; a canter : am Tiling, 
imp. : adj. going at an easy pace, faster than walking : 
ambled, pp. dm'-bld: am bier, n. he or that which. 

amblygonite, n. dm-bllg'6-nit (Gr. amblugonios, 
having an obtuse angle — from amblus, blunt; gonia, 
an angle), a mineral of a greenish-white or sea-green 

amblypterus, n. dm-blip'-tir-iis (Gr. amblus, blunt; 
pteron, a fin), a genus of fossil fishes, distinguished 
by their very large and wide fins, composed of numer- 
ous rays. 

ambreine, n. dm'bre-ln (see amber), the active prin- 
ciple of ambergris: ambreic, a. -Ik, pert. to. 

ambrosia, n. dm-bro'zhl-d (Gr.— from a, not; brotos, 
mortal), said by the ancients to have been the food of 
the gods ; whatever is pleasant to the taste or smell : 
ambrosial, a. -zhi-dl, pert, to the food of the gods ; 
pleasing to the taste or smell: ambro'sial'ly, ad. -li: 
Ambro sian, a. -zhi-dn, of St Ambrose; ambrosial. 

ambry, n. dm'brl; also aumry, n. awm'rl (F. ar- 
moire: Sp. armario: Ger. aimer, a chest or cupboard), 
a place where alms are deposited for distribution to 
the poor, a cupboard or pantry. 

ambs-ace or ames-ace, n. dmz'as (F. ambezatz: 
L. ambo, both, and ace), a double ace ; two aces turned 
up at the same time. 

ambulacra, n. dm'bil-ld'krd (L. ambidacram, a 
walking-place), the perforated series of plates in the 
crusts of the sea-urchins through which the walking 
feet are protruded : am'bula'cral, a. -krdl, pert. to. 

ambulant, a. dm'bu-lant (L. ambulans, walking), 
walking; moving from place to place: ambulance, 
n. dm'bu-ldns, the movable hospital of an army: 
ambulation, n. a walking about ; the act of moving 
about: ambulatory, a. dm'bu-ld'-tcr-l, that has the 
power of walking: n. a place for walking. 

ambuscade, n. dm'bus-kdd' (F. embuscade : It. im- 
boscare, to hide in a wood), a lying in concealment to 
attack an enemy by surprise ; the place where troops 
lie in wait: v. to lie in wait: am busca'ding, imp.: 
ambush, n. dm'bdosh (F. embuche, a snare: It. im, in, 
and bosco, a wood or thicket), a lying in wait ; soldiers 
concealed in order to attack an enemy by surprise : 
v. to lie in wait for ; to surprise : amTrushing, imp. : 
amTrashed, pp. -boosht. 

ameliorate, v. d-mel'-yd-rat (L. ad; melior, better: 
F. ameliorer, to improve), to make better; to im- 
prove : ameliorating, imp. : ameliorated, pp. : 
amel'iorat or, n. one who : amelioration, n. d-mel- 
yo-rd'-shiia, a making better; improvement. 

amen, v. a'-men' or a' men' (Heb., Gr.), so let it be: 
n. stability ; firmness ; truth. 

amenable, a. d-me'-nd-bl (F. amener, to bring or 
lead into), liable to answer , liable to be called to ac- 
count: ame'nably, ad. -bit: ame'nabil'ity, n. -i-tl, 
li;iMlity to answer. 

amend, v. d-mend' (F. amender: L. a, from, and 
menda, an error), to correct ; to make or grow better ; 
to improve : amending, imp. : amend ed, pp. : amend- 
able, a, d-mend'd-bl : amend'ator'y, a. -I, corrective: 
amendment, n. a change for the better; improve- 
ment : amends, n. d-mendz', satisfaction ; a recom- 

amende, n. d-mongd' (F. a fine or penalty), repara- 
tion : amende-honorable, d-mongd'-on'-o-rd'-bl, a full 
apology for insult or injury. 

amenity, n. d-men'i-ti (L. amo:nitas, delightful- 
ness: F. amenite), pleasantness; that which delights 
the eye. 

amentia, n. d-men'-shl-d (L.— from Gr. a, without; 
and L. mens, gen. mentis, the mind), imbecility of 
mind; idiotism. 

amentum, n. d-mSn'-tum; also ament, n. dm'Snt 
(L. a leathern thong), a catkin or imperfect flower 
hanging somewhat like a rope or cat's tail: amenta- 
ceous, dm'en-td'shus, producing catkins. 

amerce, v. A-mcrs' (F. a, at; merci, mercy — contr. 
from L. misericordia, mercy), to cause to pay a sum 
of money by way of punishment : amer'cing, imp. : 
amerced, pp. d-merst' : amercement, n. d-mers'ment, 
money paid by way of punishment or fine at the mercy 
of the court : amer'cer, n. -ser, one who : amerceable, 
a. d-mers'-d-bl. 

American, a. d-mer'l-kdn, of or from America: 
Americanism, -izm, an American peculiarity of 

amethyst, n. dm'S-thlst (Gr. amethustos, without 
intoxication), a precious stone of various colours— 
generally of a purple or violet-blue colour, like wine 
mixed with water: amethystine, a. dm'-e-thls'-tin, 
having the violet-blue tinge peculiar to the amethyst ; 
pert, to: amethystoline, am'e-thte'-td-lln, a name 
applied to the volatile fluid found in the minute 
cavities of the amethyst. 

amiable, a. d'ml-d-bl, (L. amabilis, lovely: F. 
aimable), worthy or deserving of love or affection; 

cdiv, bo~j,fobt; pare, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




pleasing: amiability, n. a'ml-d-bll'-l-tl, sweetness of 
disposition i a miable'ness, n. loveliness; agreeable- 
ness : amiably, ad. -bit. 

amianth, n. dm'-l-dnth; also amianthus, n. dm' 
i-an'-thus (Gr. a, without; miaino, I soil or pollute), 
that variety of asbestos which is found in delicate and 
regular silky fibres : am'ian'thiform, (Gr. a, miaino ; 
L. forma, a shape): amian'thoid, -thdyd (Gr. a, 
miaino; eidos, form), having the form or likeness of 

amicable, a. dm'l-kd-bl (L. amicus, a friend), 
friendly; peaceable; disposed 
amicably, ad. -bit: amicableness, n. dm'i-kd-hl-nrs. 

amice, n. dm'ls (L. amiclus, an outer garment), 
an oblong piece of linen, resembling an embroidered 
collar, tied about the neck of a Rom. Oath, priest. 

amid or amidst, prep, d-mld' or d-mldsf (AS. a, 
on: Icel, midr, the middle), among; in the middle. 

amide, n. dm'ld; or am'mide, n. -mid (Gr. ammi, 
a plant; amidon, starch), a peculiar chemical sub- 
stance entering into a large number of compounds : 
amidine, n. dm'ldln, a substance resulting from the 
action of hot water on starch: amidogen, ii. a-mld'-o- 
jen, a peculiar chemical substance: ammonide, n. 
dm'on-ld, an amide. 

amiss, a. d-mls' (AS. on; misse, in error: Dut. 
mixien, to fail), wrong ; faulty ; out of order : ad. in a 
faulty manner. 

amity, n. dm'l-tl (L. amo, I love: F. amitie), friend- 
ship ; harmony. 

ammonia, n. dm-mo'nl-d (Amnion, Egyptian god 
Jupiter ; also, place where first found), a transparent 
pungent gas ; a substance used in medicine and the 
arts, from which hartshorn is made ; the volatile al- 
kali: ammoniac, a. dm-mO'nl-dk, pert, to: n. a gum 
brought from Persia, and used in medicine as an ex- 
pectorant: ammoniacal, a. dm'mo-ni'-d-kdl, pert, to 
ammonia; pungent: ammonium, a. -7ii-um, the sup- 
posed metallic base of ammonia: sal ammoniac, in 
chem., the salt usually called muriate of ammonia. 

ammonite, n. dm'mon-lt, a varied family of fossil 
chambered shells, coiled in a plane spiral, so called 
from a resemblance to the horns of the statue of the 
ancient Egyptian god Jupiter- Ammon : ammonitidse, 
n. plu. dm-mon-U'-i-de, the family of fossil shells of 
which the ammonite is the type. 

ammunition, n. dm'mu-nish'fui (L. ad; munio, I 
fortify) military stores— as powder, ball, shells, &c. 

amnesty, n. dm'-nis-tl (Gr. and L. amnestia, forget- 
fulness of the past), a general pardon of past offences 
by a government ; an act of oblivion. 

amnion, n. dm'nl-on; also am'nios (Gr., from amnos, 
a lamb — so called from its softness to the touch), 
in anat., the inner membrane covering the foetus ; in 
bot., the covering of the embryo of the seed: am- 
niotic, a. dm'-nl-ot'lk, pert. to. 

among, d-miing'; also amongst, d-mungsf, prep. 
(AS. amang or onmang), mingled or conjoined with. 

amorous, a. dm'O-riis (L. amor, love: F. amoureux), 
fond; loving; inclined to love: am'orous'ly, ad. -II: 
am'orous'ness, n. fondness; beau; inclined to love. 

amorphous, a. d-mdr'fus (Gr. a, without; morphe, 
form), having no regular structure or definite form: 
amorphozoa, d-mdr'/O-zo'-d (Gr. a, without ; mor- 
phe, form ; zoon, an animal), the lowest class of 
the animal kingdom, such as sponges, that have no 
regular symmetrical structure. 

amortise, v. d-mor'-tlz (Norm. F. amortizer: Sp. 
amortizar, to render inalienable— from L. ad, at ; mors, 
gen. mortis, death), to transfer lands to mortmain: 
amor'tised, pp. -tlzd: amor'tisa'tion, n. -tlz-a'shun. 

amount, v. d-moTvn? (L. ad: F. monter, to ascend— 
from L. morns, a mountain), to rise up to in the whole ; 
to reach or extend to • n. sum total ; the whole ; the 
result: amount'ing, imp.: amounted, pp. 

amour, n. dm6r' (F., from L. amor, love), a love 
affair or intrigue. 

ampelite, n. dm'plil-lt (Gr. ampelos, a vine), a name 
applied to alum-slate; an earth used by the ancients 
to kill insects on vines. 

amphi, dm'ft (Gr.), a prefix, signifying on both 
sides, about, two; used to imply doubt; sometimes 
changed into ambi. 

amphibia, n. dm-fW-l-d: also, amphibians, -l-dnz 
(Gr. amphi; bios, life), nnimals that can live either in 
water or on land— as the seal, walrus, frog, &c. : am- 
phibian or amphib'ial, a. pert, to: amphibious, a. 
dm-flb'-l-iis, able to live on land or in water: amphib- 
iously, ad. -U: amphibiousness, n. dm-fib'l-iis'-nes. 

tndte, mdt,fdr, laiv; mete, mSt 

amphibichnites, n. plu. dm'/lbik'nlts (Gt. amphi- 
bia, animals that can live on land or under water; 
ichnon, a footstep), in geol., a generic term applied 
to those footprints of extinct reptiles that seem to 
have been impressed by their feet as they passed over 
the soft yielding beach to and from the water. 

amphibole, n. dm-flb'-04e; also amphibolite, dm- 
fib'6-lit (Gr. amphibolos, ambiguous or equivocal), a 
name applied by F. gr.ol., to hornblende and horn- 
blende rock, from the difficulty of distinguishing them 
from augite. 

amphibrach, n. dm'/l-brdk' (Gr. amjmi, on both 
sides ; brachus, short), in poetry, a foot of three syl- 
lables—a short, a long, and a short, w - « ; in Eng. 
2Joet., used as the last foot of a line. 

amphid, a. am' fid (Gr. amphi, both ; eidos, a form), 
consisting of acid and a base. 

amphicyon, n. dm-flk'l-on (Gr. amphi, implying 
doubt; kuon, a dog), a fossil carnivorous quadruped. 

amphigens, i\.um '-fl-jenz (Gr. amphi; genos, birth), 
plants that increase in size by their growth on alL 
sides, like the lichens. 

amphisarca, n. am'fl-sdr'kd (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides; sarx, gen. sarkos, flesh), in bot., a particular 
kind of fruit with a hard exterior, and pulp round the 
seeds, as in the Baobab. 

amphisbaena, n. dm'fls-be'nd (Gr. amphisbaina — 
from amphi; baino, I go), a kind of serpent, supposed, 
from the thickness of the tail, to have two heads, and 
to be able in consequence to move f < irwards with either. 

amphiscii, n. plu. dm-fish'l-l, (Gr. amphi, on both 
sides; skia, a shadow); also amphiscians, dm-flsh- 
i-dnz, persons living between the tropics, whose sha- 
dows fall both ways— that is, northward one half of 
the year, and southward during the other. 

amphitheatre, n. dm'flthe-d-ter (Gr. amphi, on 
both sides ; theatron, a place for seeing, a theatre), a 
large circular building, where plays and games were 
publicly exhibited, with seats gradually rising one 
behind the other; ground rising on more than one 
side from a level : am'phitheat'rical, a. -the-dt'-rl-kdl, 
pertaining to an amphitheatre. 

amphitfopal, a. dm-fit'ro-pdl (Gr. amphi, around ; 
tropeo, I turn), in bot., applied to an embryo so much 
curved that both ends are brought close together and 
turned towards the hilum. 

amphora, n. dm'ford (L.— from Gr. amphi, on both 
sides ; phorein, to bear), an anc. two-handed earthen 
vessel for holding wine, oil, &c. 

ample, a. dm'pl (L. ampins, large), large; wide; 
extended; spacious: amply, ad. -pll: ampleness, n. 
dm'-pl-nes, largeness ; sufficiency in space : ampliat- 
ive, a. dm'-pllat'lv, adding to that which is already 
known or received; synthetic: amplify, v. dm'-plhj'i 
(L. amplus; facio, I make), to increase; to enlarge; 
to describe in many words : am'plify'ing, imp. ; am'- 
plified, pp. -fid: amplification, n. ain'-pill-fi-kd'shun, 
the act of enlarging ; enlargement ; a description in 
many words : amplifier, n. one who : amplitude, n. 
dm'-pll-tud, largeness or extent of anything; abun- 

amplexicaul, a. dm-plcks'i-kdXvl (L. amplector, I 
embrace ; caulis, the stem), in bot., embracing the 
stem over a large part of its circumference, as the base 
of a leaf. 

ampulla, n. dm-pul'ld (L.), among the ancients a 
flask or bottle swelling out in the middle; in bot., a. 
hollow leaf: ampullaceous, a. dm'pdb-la'shits,, 
swollen out in the middle like a bottle. 

amputate, v. dm'pu-tdt (L. amputatus, cut off, 
—from am, round about; puto, I prune), to cut off an 
arm or a leg; to prune: am'puta'ting, imp.: am'pu- 
ta'ted, pp. : am'puta'tion, n. -shun, the act of cutting 
off a leg, or a part of a body ; the act of pruning. 

amuck, ad. d-miikf (Malay, amok), wildly; madly; 
without discrimination, after the manner of a Malay. 

amulet, n. dm'u-l6t (L. amuletum, a charm: Ar. 
hamalat, anything worn, as a sword-belt— from 
hamala, to carry), something worn, generally around 
the neck, in the belief that it will ward off disease or 
evil : am'ulet'ic, a. -ilk, pert. to. 

amurcous, a. d-mur'kfis (L. amurca — from Gr. 
amorge, the refuse of expressed olives), full of lees or 
scum : am'urcos'ity, n. -kos'l-tl. 

amuse, v. d-muz' (F. amuscr, to detain, to divert, 
—from Gr. a, without; muzo, I murmur or mutter 
to express displeasure), to till the mind with thoughts 
which engage without distracting it; to entertain 
agreeably : amu'sing, imp. : adj. pleasing : also 

Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; 




amu'sive, a. entertaining: amused, pp. d-muzd' : 
axnu'ser, n. one who : amuse ment, n. that which 
diverts ; that which entertains pleasantly : amu'sing- 
ly, ad. -li : amu sively, ad. -iv-ll. 

amygdaloid, n. d-mlg'dd-ldyd (Gr. amugdalon, an 
almond; eidos, appearance), applied to certain igneous 
rocks containing small almond-shaped cavities tilled 
with agate, jasper, and other minerals, having the 
appearance of almonds in a cake : amyg'daloid'al, a. 
pert, to: amygdalate, a. a-mlg'dal-at, made of al- 
monds: n. milk of almonds: amygdalic, a. dm'-lg- 
ddl'-lk, pert, to: amyg'daline, n.-dd-lin, a crystalline 
substance obtained from almonds: adj. pert, to; also 
amyg'dalin'ic, a. -lin'-ik. 

amyline, n. dm'i-lln (L. amylum: Gr. amulon, 
starch), the insoluble part of starch: amylic, a. d-mll' 
ik, of or from starch: amylaceous, a. dm-i-ld'shus, of 
starch; starchy. 

an, an (AS. an: Dut. en), noting a single individ- 
ital, but less emphatic than one; the indefinite article, 
put before nouns or adjs. in the sing, beginning with 
a vowel or the sound of a vowel— as, an egg, an hon- 
ourable man. 

ana, an'-d; also sometimes contr. an (Gr. ana), a 
prefix, signifying up, through, among, back, again; 
in composition, similar to; according to: as a postfix, 
signifying a collection of memorable sayings or loose 
thoughts— as Johnsoniema: in med., prescriptions de- 
noting a repetition, or, of each. 

anabaptist, n. dn'd-bdp'tist (Gr. ana; baptizo.I dip 
under water), one who rejects infant baptism: an'- 
abap'tists, a religious sect : an'abaptis'tic, a. -We: an'- 
abap'tism, n. -tizm, the doctrine of the anabaptists. 

anacamptics, n. plu. dn'akdmfWes (Gr. ana, back; 
kampto, I bend), the doctrine of reflected light or 
sound : an'acamp'tic, a. pert. to. 

anacardium, n. dn'd-kar'dl-iim, (Gr. ana, similar to ; 
kardia, the heart), the name of a genus of ornamental 
trees, one of which yields the cashew or marking nut. 

anacathartic, a. dn'd-kd-thdr'tik (Gr. ana, upward; 
katharsis, purging), exciting discharges front the 
mouth and nose : n. a medicine which does so ; oppo- 
site of cathartic. 

anacharis, n. dn-dk'drls, a troublesome plant, re- 
markable for the rapidity with which it has recently 
naturalised itself in the canals and rivers of England. 

anachronism, n. dn-dk'rO-nizm' (Gr. ana, back; 
chronos, time), an error in point of time; a mistake 
in telling when an event happened : anachronistic, 
a. -tlk, erroneous in date. 

anaclastic3, n. plu. dn'd-klds'tlks (Gr. ana, back; 
klasis, a breaking), that part of optics which treats of 
the refraction of light— now called dioptrics: an'aclas'- 
tic, a. -tlk, pert. to. 

anaconda, n. cln'd-kdn'dd, the largest of serpents; 
a species of boa belonging exclusively to the Amer. 

anacreontic, a. dn-dk'-re-on'tlk, after the manner of 
the Greek poet Anacreon ; joyous. 

anadem, n. dn'-d-dSm (L. anadema— from Gr. ana, 
up ; dein, to bind), a garland or fillet. 

anadiplosis, n. dn'd-di-plo'sls (Gr. ana, again ; di- 
plous, double), in poet, and rhet., a repetition of the 
last word or words in a line or clause in the beginning 
of the next. 

anadromous, a. un-dd'-ro-mus (Gr. ana, up ; dromos, 
a running, a race), in zoo!., applied to those fish, as the 
salmon and sturgeon, which periodically visit fresh- 
water lakes and rivers. 

anaglyph, n. an'd-gllf (Gr. ana, up ; glupho, I en- 
grave), an engraved or sculptured ornament in relief: 
an'agliph'ic, a. -ik, pert, to: an'aglyp'tic, a. -tik, pert, 
to the arts of chasing, engraving, sculpture, &c. 

anagogical, a. dn'-d-gOj'i-kdl (Gr. ana, up; agoge, 
a leading), religiously exalting ; spiritual : an'agog'i- 
cal'ly, ad. -li. 

anagram, n. dn'd-grdm (Gr. ana, back ; gramma, a 
letter), a new word formed from the letters of another 
word ; a transposition of letters : an'agrammat'ic, -tk; 
also -ical, a. -l-kdl, pert, to: -ically, ad. -ll: an'a- 
gram'matise, v. -tlz, to make anagrams : -tis'ing, 
imp. : -tised', pp. -tlzd' : -tist, n. one who. 

anagraph, n. dn'a-grdf (Gr. ana, up; grapho, I 
write), a commentary. 

anal, a. a'-nal (L. anus, the excretory orifice), pert, 
to, or situated near, the anus. 

analcime, n. an'dl-sim (Gr. a, without; alkimos, 
strong), a zeolitic mineral found abundantly in trap- 
peau rocks, so called from its feebly electric properties. 

analects, n. plu. dn'd-lekts (L. analecta, a slave who 
gathered up the crumbs left at meal-time: Gr. ana, 
up ; legein, to gather), collected fragments of authors ; 
analectic, a. dn'-d-lek'-tlk, selecting; collected. 

analemma, n. dn'd-lem'md (L.— from Gr. ana, up ; 
lambano, I take), in geom., a projection of a sphere on 
the plane of the meridian. 

analepsis, n. dn'd-lep'sis (Gr. a recovery), in med., 
recovery; convalescence: analeptic, a. tik, restora- 
tive : n. a medicine which gives strength. 

analogy, n. d-ndl'o-jl (Gr. ana, similar to; logos, 
ratio, proportion), resemblance between one thing and 
another in some points ; similarity or likeness between 
things in their properties or qualities : analogous, a. 
d-ndl'6-gus, bearing some resemblance or proportion 
to: analogical, a. an'-d-loj'-l-kal, used by way of ana- 
logy: analogically, ad. -li: an'alog'icalness.n.: anal- 
ogise, v. d-ndl'-o-jiz, to explain by analogy: anal o- 
gising, imp.: analogised, pp.: anal ogist, one who: 
anal'ogism, n. -jlzm, investigation by analogy: ana- 
logue, n. dn'-d-log, an object that has a resemblance 
to, or correspondence with, another object — analogue 
regards similarity of function, homologue, identity of 
parts: analogously, ad. -li. 

analysis, n. d-nal'l-sis (Gr. ana, again; lusis, a 
loosing), the separation of a compound into its ele- 
ments; the tracing of things to their source; the 
opposite of synthesis: anal'yses, plu. -i-sez: analyse, 
v. dn'd-liz, to separate a compound into its elements ; 
to trace a thing to its first principles or motives: 
analysing, imp.: analysed, pp. -lizd: analyst, n. 
(in'd-Ust, one who analyses: an'alys er, n. one who: 
analys'able, a. -bl : analytic, a. dn'-d-llt-ik; also 
analytical, a. -l-kdl, pert, to analysis; that separates 
a compound into its elements: analytically, ad. 
-i-kdl-l: analytics, n. plu. dn'-d-llt-lks, the science of 

anamnestic, a. dn-dm-nSs'-tlk (Gr. ana, again ; 
mnesis, remembrance), that aids the memory. 

anamorphosis, n. an'-d-mor'-fo-sls (Gr. ana, again; 
morphe, a form or shape), in per spec, an image or pic- 
ture on a plane or curved surface, which appears dis- 
torted or deformed from one point of view, and in just 
proportion from another. 

ananchytes, n. an'an-ki-tez, (Gr. ana; chute, a 
mound), a subdivision of fossil sea-urchins, distin- 
guished by their elevated helmet-like or mound-like 
form— known as ".shepherds' crowns" or "fairy 

anapest, n. dn'-a-pest (Gr. ana; paio, I beat), a foot 
in poetry, consisting of three syllables— the first two 
short, the third long or accented— thus, u o - : an a- 
pes tic, a. -tik, pertaining to an anapest ; also ce for e. 

anarchy, n. dn-dr-kl (Gr. a, without; arehe, gov- 
ernment), want of government; a state of lawless 
confusion in a country: anarchist, n. dn'dr-klst, one 
who attempts to introduce disorder or confusion into 
a country: anarchic, a. dn-dr'-klk; also anarchical, 
a. -ki-kdl, lawless ; confused. 

anasarka, n. dn'-d-sdr'-kd, (Gr. ana, throughout; 
sarks, flesh), general dropsy throughout the surface of 
the body: anasarcous, a. an'-a-sdr'-kus, dropsical. 

anastatic, a. dn'-d-stat'-lk (Gr. ana, up; statos, that 
stands), a term applied to a method of printing from 
zinc plates. 

anastomose, v. dn-ds'to-moz' (Gr. ana, through; 
stoma, a mouth), to unite the mouth of one vessel to 
another, as one vein to another: to inosculate: anas- 
tomosing, imp.: anas'tomosed, pp. -mozd: anas- 
tomosis, n. -sis, in bot., union of vessels ; union of the 
final ramifications of the veins of a leaf ; anas'tomot'- 
ic, a. pert, to : n. a medicine having the power to open 
the mouths of vessels. 

anatase, n. dn'-d-tdz (Gr. anatasis, a stretching 
forth), a name for pyramidal titanium ore, of a dark 
indigo blue, hyacinth-red, or yellowish-brown colour. 

anathema, n. d-ndth'e-md (Gr. and L. anything de- 
voted, especially to evil— from ana, up ; tithemi, I put 
or place), a curse ; a separation for destruction : an- 
athematise, v. d-ndih'-e-md-tiz', to pronounce a curse 
against ; to excommunicate : anath'emati'sing, imp. : 
anathematised', pp. -tizd' : anath ematiser, n. one 
who: anath ematisa tion, n. -ti-zd'-shun. 

anatomy, n. a-nat'-o-mi (Gr. ana, up ; tome, a cut- 
ting), the art of separating the different parts of a plant 
or of an animal ; the art of dissection : in dramatic lan- 
guage, a thin, meagre person ; a skeleton : anatomise, 
v. a-ndt'-o-miz' , to separate the parts of an animal 
body : anat omi'sing, imp. : anat omised', pp. -mlzd: 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




anat'omist, n. one who is skilled in dissecting bodies: 
anatomical, a. dn'-d-tom'-lkal, pert. toanat.: an atom' - 
ically, ad. -II: anatomisation, n. a-nat'-d-ml-zd'-shun. 

anatropal, a. d-ndt'-ropdl ; also anatropous, a. (in- 
dt'-rd-piis (Gr. ana, up or over; trepo, I turn), in hot., 
an inverted ovule, the hihnn and micropyle being near 
each other, and the chalaza at the opposite end. 

ancestor, n. dn'ses-tt'r (L. antecessor, he that goes 
before— from ante, before ; cessum, to go: F. uncestn), 
a forefather; a progenitor; a woman is called an an- 
cestress: ancestral, a. dn-sis'-trdl, relating to or de- 
scending from ancestors : ancestry, n. dn'-ses-trl, 
birth; descent; a series of ancestors. 

anchor, n. dng'-kor (L. anchora: Gr. angkura), an 
iron grappling instrument which, when dropped on the 
sea-bottom by means of a cable or chain, keeps a ship 
from drifting; any firm support: v. to stop at; to 
fix or rest on: anchoring, imp.: anchored, pp. anf- 
kord: an'chorage, n. awi'-kOr-oj, a place where a ship 
can anchor: anchorable, a. -abl, fit for anchorage: to 
drop or cast anchor, to sink an anchor into the sea to 
keep the ship from drifting : to weigh anchor, to raise 
the anchor from the sea-bottom : anchor comes home, 
when it drags by the violence of the wind, by a heavy 
sea, or by the force of a current : at anchor, or to ride 
at anchor, when the ship is kept from drifting by the 
anchor having a proper hold on the sea-bottom. 

anchoret, n. dng'-ko-ret ; also an'chorite, n. -rlt (Gr. 
anachoretes, one who retires— from ana, up, back; 
ehoreo, I retire), a hermit; a religious recluse: an- 
choretic, a. dng'-ko-ret'-lk ; also an'choret'ical, a. 
■l-kdl, pert, to a hermit or his mode of life. 

anchovy, n. dncho'-vl (Sp. and Port, anchova: 
Sicil. and Geno. anciova), a small fish caught in vast 
numbers in the Mediterranean, used as a sauce. 

anchylosis, n. dng'-kl-lo'sls (Gr., from angkuloun, 
to crook or stiffen), the immovable state of a joint : 
anchylosed, a. dng'-kl-lozd' , fixed: anchylotic, a. 
ang'kl-lot'lk, pert. to. 

ancient, a. dn'shent (F. ancien, old: L. antiqmis, 
old: It. anziano), old; what is long past; belonging 
to former times : n. (corruption of ensign), the flag or 
streamer of a ship : ancients, n. plu. those who lived 
in old times : an'ciently, ad. -II : an'cientness, n. : 
ancientry, n. tin'-shent-rl, ancient lineage. 

ancile, n. dn-sl'-le (L.), in anc. Rome, the sacred 
shield of Mars, said to have fallen from heaven. 

ancillary, a. dn'-sll-ldr'-l(L. ancilla.a maid-servant), 
subservient; subordinate; as a handmaid. 

ancipital, a. dn-slp'-l-tdl (L. anceps, gen. ancipitis, 
doubtful— from am, on both sides; caput, the head), 
doubtful; double-formed; double-faced; in hot., two- 

ancyloceras, n. tin'-sl-los'-er-ds (Gr. ankulos, crooked 
or curved; keras, a horn), a genus of fossil chambered 
shells curved like a horn. 

and, conj. dnd (Icel. enn: old Sw. ccn: Dan. end), a 
joining word. 

andailusite, n. dn'- eld -16 'sit {Andalusia, in Sp., where 
first found), one of the garnet family, of varied colours 
—grey to green, violet, blue, &c— found in crystals in 

andante, a. dn-ddn'-td (It.), in music, moderately 
slow; expressive. 

Andean, a. dn-de'-dn, of or pert, to the Andes, tin'- 
dSz, a great chain of mountains running through S. 
America: andesite, n. dn'dd-slt, a mineral found in 
the Andes containing the felspar called andesine, dn'- 
di-sln, of a white, grey, greenish, or yellowish colour. 

andiron, n. dnd'irn (mid. L. andena: Flem. wen- 
dijser— from wenden, to turn), in ancient kitchens, the 
iron bar which supported the logs used as fuel, or the 
spit— now applied to movable fire-irons. 

androcoeum, n. dn'-dro-sc'-um (Gr. aner, gen. andros, 
a man), in bot., the male organs of the flowers. 

androgynus, n. dn-droj'l-nus (Gr. aner, a man; 
gune, a woman), an hermaphrodite: androg'ynal, also 
androg'ynous, a. -nils, of both sexes ; having male and 
female florets on the same footstalk : androg'ynal'ly, 
ad. -II. 

android, n. dn'elrm/d (Gr. aner, a man; eidos, form), 
an automaton in human form : androides, plu. tin-drdy- 

anecdote, n. tin'Sk-rlot (Gr. anekdoton, not giving 
out— from a, without; e.k, out; doton, given), origin- 
ally, secret history— wow, a short story ; a matter in- 
teresting in a man's life or conduct: anecdotal, a. dn- 
ik-do'-ttil; also an'ecdot'ical, a. -l-kdl, pert to. 

anemone, n. d-nem'-o-nc, also spelt anem'ony (Gr., 

from anemos wind), the wind-flower: anem'onine, a. 
-um, a substance obtained from the anemone: anem- 
oscope, n. (Gr. anemos, wind; skojjeo, I view), an in- 
strument to show the course of the wind: anemom- 
eter, n. dn'-e-mom'e-ttr (Or. anemos; metron, a mea- 
sure), an instrument for determining the course, the 
force, and velocity of winds: anemom'etry, n. -trl: 
sea-anem'one, see actinia. 

anent, prep, d-ninf (AS. ongean, opposite: Sw. on 
gent, on opposite), regarding; concerning; respecting. 

aneroid, n. dn'-er-oyd (Gr. a, without ; neros, wet, 
moist; eidos, form), the air barometer, consisting of a 
small metallic box nearly exhausted of air, and easily 
acted upon by the external pressure of the atmosphere. 

aneurism, n. dn'-u-rlzm (Gr. ana, throughout ; 
eurus, broad), the disease of an artery when it ex- 
pands and sometimes bursts, permitting the blood 
to spread about in the surrounding tissues : an'euris- 
mal, a. pert. to. 

anew, ad. ti-nu' (on new), again ; newly. 

anfractuose, a. dn-frdk'-tu-oz (L. anfractus, a 
turning or bending round), wavy or sinuous, as the 
anthers of gourds and cucumbers ; full of turnings or 

angel, n. dn'-jel (Gr. anggelos, a messenger: L. 
atiqclus), a heavenly being: angelic, a. dn-jel'-lk; also 
angelical, a. -l-kdl, partaking of the nature of angels : 
angelically, ad. -II: angelicity, n. dn'-jel-is'-l-tl: an- 
gelica, n. dn-jel'-l-kd, the name of a plant: an'ge- 
lol'ogy, n. -lol'6-jl (Gr. anggelos, a messenger; logos, 
discourse), the doctrine of angelic beings. 

anger, n. dng'-ger (L. angor, sorrow: Icel. angr, 
pain), rage; displeasure: v. to provoke; to enrage: 
angering, imp.: angered, pp. dng'-gerd: angry, a. 
dng'grl, displeased; provoked; raging: angerly, ad. 
unii'qcr-ll; also angrily, ang'-grl-tt. 

angina, n. dn-jl'-nd (L. ango, I choke or strangle), 
an inflammation or tumour in the throat, impeding 
respiration: angina- pectoris, -p&k'-to-rls (L. ango; 
pectoris, of the breast), a dreadful disease, in which a 
most excruciating pain in the breast is felt, with a 
sense of strangulation. 

angiography, n. dn'jl-og'rd-fl (Gr. angeion, a ves- 
sel; graphi , a description), a description of the vessels 
in the human body. 

angiosperms, n. plu. tiri-jl-o-spcrmz J (Gr. angeion, a 
vessel ; sperma, seed), plants which have their seeds 
encased or enclosed in a seed-vessel : an'giosper'mous, 
a. -sper'-mus, having seeds contained in a seed-vessel. 

angle, n. dnej'-gl (L. angulus, a corner: Gr. angku- 
los, bent : AS. angel, a fish-hook), any corner, small or 
large ; the point or corner where two lines meet ; a 
hook to fish with : v. to fish for anything : angling, 
imp. : angled, pp. dng'-gld: angler, n. one who fishes: 
angular, a. dng'-gil-ldr, sharp; pointed; having an- 
gles or corners: angularly, ad. -II: angularity, n. 
dng'-gu-ldr'-i-ti, the quality of having corners or an- 
gles : angle-iron, n. a rolled bar of iron of an angular 
shape for forming the edges of bridges, safes, &c, or 
the corners of boilers, &c. 

Angles, 11. plu. dng'-glz (L. cmgli), a German tribe 
on the Elbe, of the race of the Suevi, who afterwards 
passed over with the Saxons into Britain and gave 
their name to that country: Angle-land, ting'-gl-ttind, 
England : Anglo, dng'-glO, prefixed to a proper name- 
as Saxon, Norman, &c, denotes partly English : Anglo- 
Saxon, -sdks'on, partly English and partly Saxon, or 
derived through both. 

Anglican, a. dng'-gll-kdn (AS. Angles, the English? 
L. angli), English; pertaining to England : n. a mem- 
ber of the Church of England: anglice, n. ad. dng'-gll- 
se~, in the English language or manner : anglicism'n. 
dnq'-gll-slzm, a way of speaking or writing peculiar to 
the English language ; an English idiom : anglicise, v. 
ting'-gll-slz, to render any form of expression in an- 
other language into the English idiom : an glici'sing, 
imp. : anglicised, pp. dng'-gll- slzd'. 

a.nguilkform, n. dn-gwll'-hfaterm (L. anguilla, an 
eel; forma, shape), formed like an eel or serpent: 
anguineal, a. dn-gwln'-l-dl, of or like a snake. 

anguish, n. dng'-gwlsh (L. unguis, a snake, referring 
to the writhing or twisting of the animal body when 
in pain: F. angoisse: Gr. angos, a funeral urn), intense 
pain of body or mind; excessive grief: v. to inflict 
anguish : anguishing, imp. : anguished, pp. -gulsht. 

angular— see under angle. 

anhelation, n. dn'-he-ld'-shun (L. anhelo, I breathe 
with difficulty— from Gr. ana, up : L. halo, I breathe), 
state of being out of breath ; a panting. 

mate, milt, far, laTv; mete, met, Ju'r; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; 




anhydrous, a. dn-hl'-drus (Gr. an, -without; hudor, 
water), not having any water; dry; applied to miner- 
als and gases not having water as an ingredient : 
anhydrite, n. dn-hl'dnt, a transparent sulphate of 
lime found in a crystalline form without the usual 
in,T'-dieiit of water. 

anil, n. drill (F. ; Arab, annil), the indigo plant. 

anile, n. drill (L. oralis— from anus, an old wo- 
man), pert, to an old woman ; aged ; imbecile : anil- 
ity, n. dn-U'l-tl, dotage. 

animadvert, v. dn'-l-mdd-vrrf (L. animus, the mind, 
or anima, the soul or principle of life ; ad, to ; verto, I 
turn), to turn the mind to ; to consider ; to remark 
upon : an imadvert ing, imp. : animadverted, pp. ; 
an imadvert'er, n. one who: animadversion, n. 
-lir'-shun, severe reproof; censure. 

animal, n. dril-mdl (L. animal, a living creature), 
a body possessed of life, sensation, and power of motion; 
adj. pertaining to a living creature; gross; opposite 
of spiritual: animalise, v. dril-mal-lz' , to give aui- 
mal life to : an'imali sing, imp. : an imalised', pp. 
-Ited': animalisation, n. dn'i-mdl'l-zd'shlin, the act 
of endowing with life : animalism', n. -Izm', sensual 
indulgence; mere life without intellectual activity: 
an imal ity, n. -i-tt, state of animal existence. 

animalcule, n. dril-mdl'kul (L. animalculum), a 
creature very small or very minute, generally invis- 
ible to the naked eye: plu. an'imal'cula, also an'i- 
mal'cules, -kt'dz: an imal'cular, a.; also an'imal'cu- 
line, a. -lin, pert. to. 

animate, v. aril-mat (L. anima, the animal life), to 
give life to ; to enliven ; to invigorate ; to inspirit : 
adj. alive : animating, imp. : an ima'ted, pp. : adj. 
lively; vigorous: an'ima'tor, n. one who: animation, 
11. dril-md'shun, the state of being animated ; pos- 
sessing life or spirit : an'imatingly, ad. -II ; anima- 
tive, a. aril-md'tlv, capable of giving life. 

anime, n. dn'im-6 (Sp.), a white resinous drug 
brought from America. 

animosity, n. dn'l-mos'l-tl (F.: L. animus, mind; 
osits, hating— from odi, I hate), violent hatred ; a high 
degree of enmity: animus, n. aril-mus, the feeling 
that prompts ; purpose ; temper. 

anion, n. an'-i-un {Gr. ana, up; ienai, to go), an elec- 
tro-negative body. 

anise, n. arils (L. anisum: Gr. anizon), an annual 
plant whose seeds have an aromatic smell, and pleas- 
ant warm taste: anise-seed or aniseed, dril-sed, 
the seed of the plant : anisette, dril-zet', aniseed cor- 

anisostemonous, a. drii-sos-tem'o-nus (Gr. anisos, 
unequal ; stemon, L. stamen, a thread, a fibre), in hot., 
stamens not equal in number to the floral envelopes, 
nor a multiple of them. 

anker, n. dng'ker, a Dutch liquid measure. 

ankle, n. dng'kl (AS. ancleow: Ger. tnkel, an ankle: 
Gr. angkule, a loop, the "bending of the leg), the joint 
that connects the foot with the leg : anklet, n. ang- 
klct, an ornament for the ankle: ankled, a. dng'-kld, 
having or pert, to ankles. 

anna, n. drind, in the East Indies, a coin, value 

annals, n. drindlz (L. annus, a year), a brief narra- 
tive of events divided into periods, each period con- 
sisting of one year: annalist, n. a writer of annals: 
annats, n. plu. drindts, a year's income of a spiritual 
living; in Eng., applied to the augmentation of poor 
livings ; in Scot., a half-year's stipend paid to the 
heirs of a deceased clergyman. 

anneal, v. an-nel' (AS. an, on: It. niello, a kind of 
hlack enamel on gold or silver: F. neller, to enamel), 
to temper ; to heat glass or metal, and then to cool 
slowly, in order to render less brittle: anneal'ing, 
imp. : annealed, pp. dn-neld'.- anneal'ing furnace, a 
furnace for annealing. 

annelida, n. dn-ncl'ldd; also an'nelids (L. annel- 
lus, a little ring : Gr. eidon, form), those creatures that 
have their bodies formed of a great number of small 
rings, as the earth-worm. 

annex, v. dn-neks" (L. ad, to; nexus, tied), to unite; to 
join to the end ; to affix : annexing, imp. : annexed, 
pp. an-nekst' : annexible, a. dn-neks" ibl, that may 
he annexed: annexation, n. ariniks-a'shun, the act 
of uniting or joining to ; addition of something : an- 
nexe, n. dn-neks', a wing to a building, or an out- 
building communicating with the main one. 

annihilate, v. dn-nl'-hl-lat (L. ad: nihil, nothing), 
to reduce to nothing ; to destroy a body utterly, or the 
peculiar properties of a body: annihilating, imp.: 

anniTiila'ted, pp. : annihila'tor, n. that which : an- 
nihilation, n. -hl-la'shun, the act of reducing to no- 
thing ; a total destruction. 

anniversary, n. arini-ver'sdr-l (L. annus, a year ; 
versus, turned), the day on which an event is annually 
celebrated ; the yearly return of any event: adj. at a 
stated time ; returning with the year. 

annotate, v. drino-tat (L. annoto, I set down in 
writing — from ad, to or at; nota, a mark), to make 
written remarks on a book : an'nota'ting, imp. : an- 
notated, pp.: annotation, n. -td'shun, a written 
remark on some passage of a book ; a note ; generally 
used in the plu. an 'notations : annotatory, a. dn- 
no'-td-tor'-l, containing annotations: annotator, n. 
arinO-td'tdr, one who writes notes on a book. 

annotto, n. an-ndt'-o; also arnot to, which see. 

announce, v. dn-nmvns' (F. annoncer: It. annun- 
zlare, to declare— from L. ad, to ; nuncio, I tell), to tell 
to; to declare; to publish: announ'cing, imp : an- 
nounced, pp. -ndivnst' -. announcement, n. dn- 
ndivns'ment, a declaration ; the act of giving notice ; 
publication: announcer, n. dn-noicn'-ser, one who. 

annoy, v. an-ndy' (It. annoiare, F. ennuyer, to an- 
noy or vex— from L. ad; noceo, I hurt or injure: Sp. 
enoyo, anger, offence), to vex ; to tease or molest ; to 
harass: annoyance, n. dn-ndy'-dns; something that 
teases ; a matter that harasses or molests : annoy'er, 
n. one who : annoying, imp. : annoyed', pp. -no'yd'. 

annual, a. drinii-dl (L. annus, a year: F. annuel: 
It. annuale), yearly; that returns every year: n. a 
flower or plant that grows and dies within a year ; a 
book published every year: annually, ad. -II: an- 
nuity, n. dn-nu'-i-tl, a fixed sum of money paid every 
year: annuitant, n. d7i-nil'ltdnt, one who receives 
a sum of money every year for maintenance. 

annul, v. annul' (L. ad, to; nullus, none, no: F. 
annuler), to make of no effect ; to make void ; to abo- 
lish: annulling, imp.: annulled', pp. dn-nvid" : an- 
nulment, n. the act of making void. 

annular, a. drinii-ldr ; also annulary, a. drinu- 
ldr'-l (L. annulus, a ring), having the form of a ring: 
an'nularly, ad. -II: annulated, a. furnished with 
rings : an nulose', a. -loz", composed of many rings : 
an'nulet, n. a little ring: annularia, n. drinu-la'-rl-d, 
a genus of fossil herbaceous plants, having whorls on 
the same plane with their stems, supposed to have 
been aquatic: annulosa, n. dn'n u-lo'sd, a term applied 
to the articidata, in allusion to their ringed bodies. 

annunciate, v. an-niirishidt (L. ad, to; nuncio, I 
tell), to declare; to bring tidings: annun'cia ting, 
imp.: annun'cia'ted, pp.: annunciator, n. one who: 
annunciation, n. -shl-d'shiln, the act of announcing. 

anode, n. driod (Gr. ana, up; (h)odos, a way), the 
positive pole; the way by which electricity enters 
substances through which it can pass. 

anodon, n. driodon; also an'odon'ta (Gr. an, with- 
out ; odous, gen. odontos, a tooth), the river-mussel. 

anodyne, n. dn'o-din (Gr. an, without; odune, 
pain), any medicine that relieves pain: adj. soothing. 

anoint, v. d-wnjnf (Norm. F. enoindre, to anoint — 
from L. in, in, and ungo, I anoint), to rub or smear 
with oil; to consecrate : anoint'er, n. one who : anoint- 
ed, pp.: n. the Messiah: adj. consecrated: anointing, 
imp.: n. the act of smearing with oil: adj. rubbing 
with oil: anointment, n. the act of anointing. 

anomaly, n. d-nom'-d-ll (Gr. anomalos, rough, un- 
even — from an, not ; (h)omalos, like to, or similar), 
irregularity; a departure from the common ride: 
anomalous, a. -liis, irregular; anomalous ly, ad. -II: 
anomalistic, a. d-nom'd-lls'tik, irregular; departing 
from common or established rules: also, anom alis - 
tical, a. -tl-kal. 

anomopteris, n. drio-mop'tir-ls (Gr. anomos, with- 
out rule ; pteris, fern), fossil ferns, differing from all 
recent ones, having the leaves very large and deeply 

anomoura or anomura, n. drid-m6'rd (Gr. ano- 
mos, irregular, without rule ; oura, a tail), a family of 
crustaceans characterised by their irregular tails, as 
the hermit-crab ; an'omou'ral, a. pert. to. 

anon, ad. d-nori(A&. on an; in one), soon; quickly. 

anonymous, a. d-noril-mus (L. anonymus, without 
a name— from Gr. a, without; onoma, a name: F. 
anonyme), having ho name; without the name of the 
author or writer: anonymously, ad. -II. 

anoplotherium, n. dn'oplo-the'rl-ilm (Gr. a, with- 
out; (h)oplon, a weapon; therion, a wild beast), a 
genus of fossil quadrupeds destitute of any organs of 
defence, as tusks, claws, or horns. 

ediu, toy, Joot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




anorthite, n. d-nor'thlt (Gr. a, without; orthos, 
upright), one of the felspar family whose cleavages 
are without right angles. 

another, a. d-nutk'-cr (one and other), not the same ; 
one more. 

anoura, n. d-n6'rd (Gr. a, without; oura, a tail), a 
class of reptiles without tails, as the frog, toad, &c. : 
anourous, a. -n'ts, destitute of a tail. 

anserine, a. dn'ser-ln (L. anser, a goose), of the 
goose tribe; uneven. 

answer, v. dn'ser (AS. a?ids>carian— from and, 
against, and sweriun : Goth, svaran, to swear Icel. 
svara, to answer), to reply; to be accountable for; 
to suit: n. something said in reply to a question: 
answering, imp.: answered, pp. dn'serd: answerer, 
n. one who: answerable, a. dn'-S'lr-a-bl, what may be 
replied to; accountable; suitable: an'swerably, ad. 
-Hi: an'swerableness, n.: answerless, a. that cannot 
be answered. 

ant, dnt ; or anti, dn'tl (Gr.), a prefix meaning 
against, opposite. 

ant, n. dnt (AS. ccmet), a small insect; an emmet— 
of which it is a contracted form: ant'-hill, a nest of 
ants : ant-eater, a quadruped, having a long snout or 
muzzle and long tongue, which feeds upon ants. 

antacid, n. dnt-ds-id (Gr. qnti, against: L. acidus, 
acid), any substance, as potash, soda, magnesia, lime, 
&c, which counteracts acidity or neutralises it. 

antagonist, n. dn-tdg'6-nlst (Gr. anti, against ; agon- 
istes, a combatant), one who contends with another; 
an opponent ; an enemy: antag onism.n. -nlzm, active 
opposition: antagonise, v. dn-tdg'-o-nlz? , to act in 
opposition; to strive against: antag'onis'ing, imp.: 
antagonised, pp. -nlzd: antagonistic, a. dn-tag'O- 
nis'tlk, striving against: antagbnis'tical'ly, ad. -nls- 
ti-kdl'-t: antag'onis'tic forces, two powers in nature, 
the one counteracting the other, as fire and water. 

antalgic, a. ant-dl'-jik (Gr. anti, against; algos, 
pain), applied to that which can assuage pain. 

antarctic, a. dnt-drk'tlk (Gr. anti, opposite; arktos, 
the constellation of the Bear), opposite to the northern 
or arctic pole ; a circle about 23} deg. from the S. pole. 

ante, dn'te (L.), a prefix meaning be/ore, either in 
time or place. 

antecede, v. dri-lS-sid' (L. ante, before ; cedo, I go), 
to go before in time: an'tece'ding, imp.: an'tece'ded, 
pp. : an'tece'dent, n. -se'-dent, that which goes before 
in time or place: adj. going before in time or place : 
antecedently, ad. -li. antecedence, n. -dens; or 
antecedency, n. -si: antecessor, n. (L. ante; cessus, 
gone), one who lived or possessed before another. 

ante-chamber, n. dn'te-chdm'ber ; also an'te-room, 
n. (L. ante, before, and chamber), a room to be passed 
through to a principal room. 

antecians, n. phi. dn-te'-shl-dnz; also antceci, n. 
plu. dn-te'sl (Gr. anti, against; oikeo, I dwell), those 
who live in the same latitude and longitude, but on 
different sides of the equator. 

antedate, v. dn'te-ddt (L. ante ; datum, to give), to 
date before the true time : antedating, imp. : an- 
teda'ted, pp. 

antediluvian, a. dn'-t&dWS'vl-dn; also antedilu- 
vial, a. -vi-al (L. ante; diluvium, a deluge), existing 
or happening before the flood of Noah: n. one who 
lived before the flood. 

antelope, n. dn'te-lop (Gr. antholops— from anthos, 
beauty ; ops, the eye), a beautiful creature, partly like 
a deer and partly like a goat. 

antelucan, a. dn't6-lo'-kdn(L. ante ; lux, gen. lucis, 
light), before daylight. 

antemeridian, a. dn'td-mS-rld'l-dn, (L. ante; meri- 
dies, mid-day), before noon or twelve o'clock: post- 
merid'ian, after twelve o'clock. 

antemundane, a. dn'te-mun'ddn (L. ante; mundus, 
the world), before the creation of the world. 

antennae, n. plu. dn-Un'-ne (L. antenna, a sail-yard), 
the feelers or horns of insects, Crustacea, &c: anten- 
nal, a. pert. to. 

antenuptial, a. dn'tSnup'shdl (L. ante; nupticc, 
marriage), being before nuptials or marriage. 

antepaschal.a. dn'tS-j>ds'kdl (L. ante and paschal), 
pert, to the time before Easter. 

antepast n. dn'te-pdst (L. ante ; pastus, fed), a fore- 

antepenult, n. dn'-ti-phnult' (L. ante, before ; pene, 

almost; ultimus, last), in a word, the last syllable 

but two: antepenultimate, a. -xjen-ul'tl-mdt, pert. 

to the last syllable but two. 

anterior, a. dn-W-rler (L.), before in time or place; 

I previous; in front: anteriorly, ad. -II: anteriority, 
n. -<■/', priority. 

anthelion, n. dnt-he'-ll-on (Gr. anti, over against; 
(h)elios, the sun), a bright spot opposite to the sun: 
anthe'lia, plu. 

anthelmintic, a. dn'thelmln'tlk (Gr. a?iti, against; 
elmins, a tape-worm), destructive to intestinal worms : 
n. the medicine. 

anthem, n. dn'them (Gr. anti, opposite ; (h)umnos, a 
hymn: AS. ante/en: F. antienne), a sacred song, or 
a portion of Scripture set to music. 

anther, n. dn-ther (Gr. antheros, flowery, blooming), 
in bot., the head part of the stamen of a flower, con- 
taining the pollen or fertilising dust: antheral, a. 
pert, to: antheriferous, a. an-th'-r-if-er-us (Gr. an- 
theros : L. fero, I bear), bearing anthers or flowers. 

anthesis, n. dn-the'-sls (Gr. anthesis, bloom — from 
anthos, a flower), in bot., the opening or bursting of 
the Bower. 

anthocarpous, a. dn'-tho-kdr'-pus (Gr. anthos, a 
flower ; karpos, fruit), formed, as a certain class of 
fruits, from a number of blossoms united into one body. 

anthodium, n. dn-tlio'di-um (Gr. anthos, a flower; 
duo, I put on), the capitulum or head of flowers of 
composite plants. 

antholites, n. plu. dn'tlw-lits; or antholithes, n. 
plu. dn'-tho-li'thez (Gr. anthos, a flower; lithos, a 
stone), a general term for the fossil impressions of 
flowers, such as occur in the shales of the coal-measures. 

anthology, n. dn-thol'6-ji (Gr. anthos; logos, dis- 
course), a discourse on flowers ; a collection or selec- 
tion of flowers of literature : an'tholog'ical, a. pert. to. 

anthophore, n. dn'tho-for (Gr. anthos, a flower; 
phero, I carry), in bot., a stalk supporting the inner 
floral envelopes and separating them from the calyx. 

anthophylite, n. dn'-tho-fll'-llt (Gr. anthos; phul- 
lon, a leaf), a variety of hornblende of a grey or clove- 
brown colour, so named from the resemblance of its 
colour to that of the anthophyllum or clove. 

anthracite, n. dn'thrd-slt' (Gr. anthrakis, a burn- 
ing coal), a hard shining coal that burns without 
smoke or flame: anthraconite, n. dnthrdk'-6-nit, a 
term applied to those varieties of marble which have 
a coal-black lustre when polished: an'thracit'ic, a. 
-sXt'-lk, pert. to. 

anthracosaurus, n. dn'thrd-ko-saTv'rus (Gr. anthrax, 
coal ; sauros, a lizard), a large fossil saurian occurring 
in the coal-measures of Britain. 

anthracotherium, n. -ko-the'rl-um (Gr. anthrax; 
therion, a wild beast), a fossil thick-skinned animal of 
the hippopotamus kind, found among the lignites or 
wood-coals of Liguria. 

anthrakerpeton, n. -ker'pS-ton (Gr. anthrax; erpe- 
ton, a reptile), a genus of fossil reptiles of a primi- 
tive air-breathing type. 

anthropography, n. dn'-thro-pog'-ra-fl (Gr. anthro- 
pos, a man ; graphe, a writing), that branch of physi- 
cal geography which treats of the distribution of the 
human species: anthropoid, a. dn'tJiro-pdyd' (Gr. 
— ; eidos, a form), applied to those species of the mon- 
key which most nearly approach the human form: 
anthropolite, n. dnthrop'-ollt (Gr. — ; lithos, a 
stone), a petrifaction of the human body: anthro- 
pology, n. &ri-thro-x>dl'-6-ji (Gr. — ; logos, discourse), 
Thimatural history of the human species : an'thropo- 
log'ical, a. -Idj'l-kdl, pert, to: anthropopathy, n. 
dn'-thro-pop'-d-thi (Gr. — ; paf/ios, affection or feeling), 
human affections or passions as pert, to the Supreme 
Being : an'thropopath'ical, a. 

anthropomorphite, n. dn'thrO-pd-mor'/lt (Gr. rt?;- 
thropos, man ; morphe, form, shape), one who attri- 
butes a human form to the Deity: -mor'phisni, n. 
the doctrine : -mor'phous, a. pert, to that which re- 
sembles a human form. 

anthropophagi, n. plu. dn'thr6-pdf'd-jl (Gr. anthro- 
pos, a man ; phngcin, to eat), cannibals ; men that eat 
human flesh : an'thropoph'agous, a. -pdf'-a-gus. feed- 
ing on human flesh: anthropophagy, n. -pof'-d-ji, 
Wie practice of eating human flesh. 

anti, dn'tl (Gr.), a prefix, with its form ant, signifies 
against or opposite; in place of. 

antibilious, a. dn'-tl-bll'l-us, (Gr. anti, against, and 
bilious), good for the cure of bilious complaints. 

antic, a. dn'tlk (L. antiquus, old), odd; fanciful: 
n. odd appearance; a buffoon: an'ticly, ad. -U. 

antichrist, n. dn'tl-krlst (Gr. anti, against, and 
Christ), a false Christ ; an antagonist of Christ : an'ti- 
Christ'ian, a. -krlst'l-dn, opposing the Christian reli- 
gion, or opposite to it. 

mate, mdt./dr, law; mete, mit, her; pine, pin; note, not, move: 




anticipate, v. dn-tis'-l-pdt (L. ante, before; capio, 
I take), to be beforehand ; to take first possession ; 
to take before the proper time; to foretaste: an- 
ticipating, imp.: anticipated, pp.: anticipation, 
11. -pa' shun, the act of anticipating; prevention: an- 
tic rpa'tor, n. one who: anticlpa'tive.a. -pti'-tiv; also 
anticipatory, a. -pd'-tor-i, taking beforehand. 

anticlinal, a. dn'-ti-kli'-ndl (Gr. anti, against; klino, 
I bend), in geol., applied to strata which dip in opposite 
directions in a roof -like form ; opposite of synclinal. 

anticous, a. dn'ti-kiis (L. anticus, in front), in bot., 
placed in front of a flower, as the lip of orchids. 

antidote, n. dn'-ti-dot (Gr. antidotes, a remedy— 
from anti, against; didonai to give), a medicine to 
counteract the bad effects of poison ; a remedy for 
any evil: antidotal, a. dn'-tl-do'-tal: also an'tidot'ical, 
a -l-kdl, expelling the effects of poison: an'tido tally, 
ad. -tall: an tidot'ical'ly, ad. -ll. 

antimony, n. dn'-tl-mon-l (L. antimonium: F. an- 
timoine), a metallic substance, much used as an al- 
loy: antimonial, a. an'-tl-mO'nl-al, pert, to antimony, 
or containing it: n. the medicine: an'timoniate, 
n. -nl-at, a salt of antimonic acid: an timo niat ed, 
a. at'ed, made of antimony or mixed with it : an'ti- 
mon'ic, a. -ik; also an timo'nious, a. -nl-iis, of anti- 
mony ; applied to the acids of antimony : antimonite, 
n. dn'-tl-monit' , a salt of antimonious acid. 

antinomian, n. dn'-tl-no'-mi-dn (Gr. anti, against ; 
nomos, law), one who denies that the moral law is 
binding on Christians, and affirms that faith alone is 
necessary to salvation: adj. relating to: antinomian- 
ism', n. -izm', the tenets of: antinomy, n. dn-tln'-om-l, 
the opposition of one law or rule to another law or 

antipathy, n. tin-tip'- d-thl(GT. anti, against ; pathos, 
feeling), a feeling of hatred ; natural aversion. 

antiphlogistic, a. dn'-tl-flo-jis'-tik (Gr. anti; phlogizo, 
I consume or burn up), applied to medical treatment 
intended to subdue inflammation : n. a medicine that 
checks inflammation. 

antiphony, also antiphone, n. an-tJ/'-o-nl (Gr. 
anti, opposite ; phone, sound), the alternate singing 
of two choirs : antiphonal, a. dn-tlf-o-ndl, pert, to : 
n. a book of antiphons or anthems: antiphon, n. 
un'-tl-fon, the chant of alternate singing in choirs. 

antiphrasis, n. dn-tlf-rd-sls (Gr. anti, opposite ; 
phrasis, a form of speech), the use of words in a sense 
opposite to their proper meaning; irony: an'tiphras'- 
tical, a. -ti-kdl : an tiphras'tical'ly, ad. -kdl'-l. 

antipodes, n. plu. dn-tlp'-o-dez (Gr. anti, opposite ; 
podes, feet), those who live on the opposite side of the 
globe, and whose feet are directly opposite to those 
of the speaker : antipode, n. dn'-ti-pod, one who 
lives on the opposite side of the globe : antipodal, a. 
having the feet directly opposite. 

antiquarian, n. an'-tl-kiva'-ri-tin, or antiquary, n. 
Cin'-ti-kivd-rl (L. antiquarius, studious of antiquity — 
from antiquus, old), a person who studies the history 
of ancient things: adj. pert, to antiquity: an'ti- 
qua'rianism, n. : antiquate, v. dn'-tl-kicdt, to put out 
of use; to make old: antiqua'ting.imp.: antiquated, 
pp.: adj. grown old; old-fashioned: an tiqua'tedly, 
ad. -II: an'tiqua'tedness, n. : antique, a. an-tekf (F. 
antique), old; ancient: n. a remnant of antiquity; a 
relic: antiquely, ad. -II: antiqueness, n. dn-tek'-nes, 
ancientness ; the appearance of being old : antiquity, 
n. an-tlk'-ivl-tl, former ages; times long since past; 
antiquities, plu. dn-tlk'wi-tlz, relics of olden times. 

anti - Sabbatarian, n. dn-ti-sccb-bd-td-rl-dn (Gr. 
anti, and Sabbath), one opposed to the observance 
of the Sabbath: adj. pert. to. 

antiscians, n. plu. an-tlsh'4-anz ; also antis'cii, 
an-tish'-l-l (L. antiscii— from Gr. dnti; skid, a shadow), 
the inhabitants of the earth living on opposite sides 
of the equator, whose shadows at noon fall in contrary 

antiscorbutic, a, tin'-ti skor-bu'-tlk (Gr. dnti, against, 
and scorbutic), good against the scurvy. 

antiscriptural, a. an'-ti-skrlp'-tu-rdl (Gr. anti and 
scriptural), not in accordance with the Scriptures, or 
in opposition to them. 

antiseptic, n. dn'-ti-sep'-tlk, (Gr. anti, against ; sep- 
tos, putrid), a substance that prevents putrefaction: 
adj. opposing putrefaction. 

anti-slavery, n. dn'-tl-slu'-ver-l (Gr. anti, against, 
and slavery), hostility to slavery. 

antispasmodic, a. dn'-ti-spds-mod'-lk (Gr. anti, 
against ; sjiasmos, a convulsion or spasm), applied to 
' — i that have power to allay spasmodic pains. 

antistrophe, n. dn-tls'-tro-fl (Gr. anti; strophe, a 
turning), the stanza of a chorus or ode succeeding the 

antithesis, n. tin-tlth'-e-sls, (Gr. dnti, against; thesis, 
a placing), opposition or contrast in words or senti- 
ments: antithetic, a. dn'-tl-thet'-ik ; or antithetical, 
a. -l-kdl, being in contrast; containing opposition of 
words or sentiments : antithetically, ad. -It. 

antitropal, a. an-tU'-rd-pdl ; also antit'ropous, 
a. -pus (Gr. anti, against ; trepo, I turn), in bot., at 
the extremity most remote from the hilum, as the 
embryo — or inverted with respect to the seed, as the 

antitype, n. dn'-tl-tlp (Gr. anti, against; tupos, a 
pattern), the reality, of which the resemblance or 
pattern is called the type— thus, the paschal lamb is 
called the type, and Christ the antitype: antitypical, 
a. dn'-tl-tlp- l-kdl, that which explains the type: an'ti- 
typ ically, ad. -ll. 

antler, n. tint'ltr(F. andouiller), a branch of a stag's 
horn : antlered, a. dnt'-lird, furnished with antlers. 

antre, n. dn'-ter (L. antrum, a cave), in poetry, a 
cavern; a den. 

antoeci, dn-te'-si— see antecians. 

antrorse, a. dn-trors' (L. ante, before; versum, to 
turn), in bot., having an upward direction towards the 
summit of some part. 

anus, n. d'-nus (L.), the lower orifice of the bowels. 

anvil, n. an- ill (AS. anfilt -. low Ger. ambolt -. 
Dut. aenbeld, a block to hammer on), an iron block 
with a smooth face and a hom, on which smiths shape 
their work. 

anxiety, n. dng-zl'-dtl (L. anxius— from anxi, I have 
vexed), distress of mind about something future ; great 
uneasiness : anxious, a. a ngk'-sh us, distressed in mind ; 
perplexed : anxiously, ad. -ll : anxlousness, n. 

any, a. en'-nl (AS. aenig: Ger. einig : Dut. eenig), 
every; whoever; one or some: anywise, ad. en'-nl-wiz, 
in any degree: an'ywhere, ad. -ttirdr, in any place: 
anyhow, ad. cn'-nl-hdic, at any rate; in any event: 
anybody, n. en'-nl-bOd'-l, one out of many selected 

Aonian, a. d-o'-nl-dn (from Aonia, in Greece), 
pert, to the Muses or to Aonia. 

aorist, n. d'-o-rlst (Gr. aoristos, unlimited), name of 
an indefinite past tense in the grammar of the Greek 
language: aoristic, a. d'-o-rls'-tlk, pert. to. 

aorta, n. a-or'-td (Gr. aorie, the great artery), in the 
human body, the great or trunk artery: aortal, a. 
d-or'-tdl; also aortic, a, d-or'-tik, pert. to. 

apace, ad. d-pds' (AS. a, on: F. pas: L. passus, a 
step), with some degree of speed ; in haste ; quickly ; 

apagoge, n. dp'-d-go'-je (Gr. apo, from; ago, I lead), 
in logic, a kind of argument or proposition 'not very 
evident; in math., the step leading from one proposi- 
tion to another, when the first, after demonstration, is 
employed in proving the second or others : apagogi- 
cal, a. dp'-a-goj'-i-kdl, proving indirectly. 

apart, ad. d-pcirf (F. a part, aside, separate: L. 
jxirs, gen. partis, a part), separately; at a distance: 
apart'ment, n. a room in a house : plu. apart'ments, 
a set of rooms. 

apathy, n. dpj'-d-thl (Gr. a, without; pathos, any 
emotion of the mind), want of feeling; freedom from 
passion: ap'athist, n. one who: apathetic, a. tip'-d- 
thet'lk; also ap'athetlcal, a. -l-kdl, wanting in feel- 
ing ; insensible : ap'athetlcal ly, ad. -ll. 

apatite, n. dp'd-tlt (Gr. apate, deception), phos- 
phate of lime of every variety of colour, occurring 
both massive and crystallised, and very apt to be mis- 
taken for another mineral. 

ape, n. dp (AS. apa: Icel. api: Dan. abe), a kind 
of monkey ; a vain imitator ; a mimic : v. foolishly to 
try to imitate: a'ping, imp. : aped, pp. apt: a'per, 
n. one who: apish, a. a'-plsh, like an ape; foolish; 
imitating the manners of superiors: a'pishly, ad. -ll: 
a'pishness, n. foppery. 

apeak, ad. ti-pek', {a and peak), on the peak or 
point ; in a posture to pierce. 

Apennine, n. dp'-e-nin, a range of mountains run- 
ning through Italy: adj. pert, to the Apennines. 

aperient, n. ti-per'-l-ent (L. aperiens, opening), a 
medicine that opens the bowels; a laxative: adj. 
opening; gently purgative: aperitive, a. d-per'-l-tiv, 

aperture, n. tip'-ir-tur (L. apertum, to open), an 
opening ; a cleft or gap. 

apetalous, a. a-pet'-d-lus (Gr. a, without; petalon, 

coiv, boy.fuvt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 



a flower-leal), having no petals or flower • leaves : 
apet'alous'ness, n. 

apex, n. a'-pdks (L.)— plu. apexes, d'pdks-ds, or api- 
ces, dp'-l-sez— the top point or summit of anything: 
apical, a. dp'-i-kdl, relating to the top ; apiculus, n. 
d-pik'-u-lus, inbot., a short but sharp point In which 

a leaf or other organ terminates, but not very stiff: 
apiculate, a. d-pik'-a-h" 
distinct point. 

apiculate, a. dpik'-a-ldt, suddenly terminated by a 

aphaeresis or apheresis, n. d-fd'-rd-sls (Gr. apo, from; 
(h)nireo, I take or seize), the taking away a letter or 
syllable from the beginning of a word. 

aphanite, n. df-dn-W (Gr. aphunes, obscure, not 
apparent— from a, not; phaino, I bring to light), a 
compact sort of trap-rock, consisting of hornblende, 
quartz, and felspar so intimately combined that they 
cannot be individually distinguished : aphanistic, a. 
df-dn-is'-tik, pert, to ; indistinct. 

aphelion, n. d-je'-ll-dn, plu. aphelia, d-fe'-ll-d, (Gr. 
apo, from; (h)elios, the sun), the position of a planet 
in the heavens when farthest from the sun — when 
nearest to the sun, the position is called its peri- 

aphis, n. a'-fis, plu. aphides, df-l-dez (L.), the 
vine-fretter or plant-louse. 

aphlogistic, a. df-lo-jls'-tlk (Gr. a, without ; phlo- 
gizo, I burn up), nameless. 

aphony, n. df'6-nl; also aphonia, d-fo'-ntd (Gr. 
a, without; phone, voice), a loss of voice; dumbness. 

aphorism, n. af-6-rizm (Gr. ajmorismos, a defini- 
tion; a%>o, from; orizo, I mark bounds or limits), a 
short sentence expressing some important truth; 
a maxim: aphoristic, a. df-6-rls'tik ; also aph- 
oris'tical, a. -ti-kdl, expressing some truth in a 
short sentence: aph'oris'tical'ly, ad. -II: aph'orist, 
n. one who. 

aphrite, n. df-rlt (Gr. aphros, froth or foam), a 
scaly variety of calcareous spar, having a shining 
pearly lustre and a greasy feel. 

aphrodisiac, a. df-rd-diz'-l-dk (Gr. ci2)hrodisios, pert. 
to Venus), that which excites to sexual intercourse. 

aphthae, n. df'-the (Gr. aphthai, ulcers in the mouth), 
small white ideers on the tongue, gums, palate, &c. : 
aphthous, a. df-thus, pertaining to thrush or ulcer- 
ous affections of the mouth. 

aphthong, n. af 'thong (Gr. a, without ; phthong- 
gos, a sound), a silent letter or letters. 

aphyllous, a. df-fU'-lus or df, (Gr. a, without ; phul- 
lon, a leaf), in hot., destitute of leaves. 

apiary, n. d'-pi-dr'-l (L. apis, a bee), a stand or shed 
for bees ; place where bees are kept : a'piar'ist, n. one 
who rears bees. 

ap'ical, ap'ices, apic'ulate, &c— see apex. 

apiece, ad. d-pes' (AS. a and piece), to each, as a sep- 
arate share. 

apiocrinite, n. dp'i-dk'-rin-it (Gr. apion, a pear; 
krinon, a lily), a sub-genus of fossil radiata, like the 
star-fish or sea-urchin, distinguished by their pear- 
shaped receptacle. 

a'pish, &c— see ape. 

aplanatic, a. dp'-pldn-dt'-ik (Gr. a, without ; planao, 
I wander), applied to a telescope which entirely cor- 
rects the aberration of the rays of light. 

aplomb, n. dp'-plom (F. aplomb, perpendicular line), 
settling down into its fit place as naturally as if by 
simple gravitation. 

apncea, n. dp-nd'-d (Gr. a, without; pneo, I breathe), 
loss of breath ; suffocation. 

apo, dp'-O, a Greek prefix signifying away, from. 

apocalypse, n. d-pok'-d-lips (F. : L. apocalypsis: Gr. 
apokalupsis, an uncovering; ap>o, from; kalupto, I 
cover or conceal), a revelation; a vision; the last 
book of the New Testament : apocalyptic, a. d-pok'- 
d-llp'-tik; also apocalyptical, a. -ti-kdl, pertaining 
to revelation: apoc'alyp'tical'ly, ad. -kdl'-lt. 

apocarpous, a. dji'-o-kar'-jnis [Gr. apo; karpos, fruit), 
applied to fruits when their carpels are either quite 
separate or only partially united. 

apocope, n. d-pok'-O-pd (Gr. apo, from; kopto, I cut), 
omission of the last letter or syllable ot a word : 
apoc'opat'ed, a. shortened by cutting off the last 
letter or syllable. 

Apocrypha, n. d-pdk'-rl-fd (Gr. apo, from ; krupto, I 
hide), some disputed books, received as parts of 
inspired Scripture by Catholics and others, but 
generally rejected by Protestants : apocryphal, a. 
d-pok'-ri-fdl, doubtful; uncertain: apoc ryphal'ly, ad. 
-II: apoc'ryphal'ness, n. 

apodal, a. dp'-O-ddl (Gr. a, without ; pous, gen. podos, 

vidte, mdt, far, law; mete, mSt, 

a foot), destitute of feet or ventral fins— applied to 
such fishes as the eel, sword-fish, wolf-fish, &c 

apodixis, n. uji'o-dlks'-is [L. : Gr. ajmdeixis, a set- 
ting forth— from apo; deiknumi, I show), full demon- 
stration: apodictic, a. ap'O-dlk'tlk ; also, ap'odic'- 
tical, a. -tl-kal, evident beyond contradiction ; clearly 
proving: ap'odic'tical'ly, ad. -II. 

apodosis, n. d-p6d'6-sls (L.: Gr. apo, from; didomi, 
I give), in gram., the consequent clause in a condi- 
tional sentence, expressing the result— the clause 
expressing the condition being called the protasis. 

apogee, n. dp'-o-je (Gr. apo, from; ge, the earth), 
the point in the moon's orbit, or that of a planet, most 
remote from the earth: apogean, a. dp'O-je'-dn, pert. 

Apollyon, n. d-piol'-l-on (Gr. apolluo, I destroy), a 
name used in the. Revelation of St John to designate 
the destroying angel of the bottomless pit. 

apology, 11. d-pdl'o-jl (L. and Gr. apologia; ajio, 
from; logos, speech), an excuse; a defence : apol- 
ogetic, a. d-pol'o-jet'ik ; also apol'oget'ical, a. -jet-i- 
kdl, excusing; defending by words : apologetically, 
ad. -II : apologetics, n. plu. d'pdl'6-jdt-iks, that 
branch of theology which defends the Scriptures, and 
sets forth the evidence of their Divine authority: 
apologist, n. d-pol'-o-jist ; also apol'ogi'ser, n. 
-ji'-zer, one who makes an apology, or writes in 
defence of another : apologise, v. dpol'-o-jiz', to 
make an excuse for; to speak in defence of: apol'- 
ogi'sing, imp.: apologised', pp. -jizd' : apologue, n. 
dp'-o-log, a story; a moral fable. 

apophysis, n. d-pof-l-sls (Gr. ajio, from; phuo, I 
grow), in anat., a process or protuberance on the 
surface of a bone, generally at the ends : in bot., any 
irregular swelling on the surface ; a tubercle at the 
base of the seed-vessel of certain mosses. 

apophthegm or apothegm, n. dp'O-th&m—aee ap- 

apoplexy, n. dp'-o-plck-sl (Gr. apoplexia, stupor; 
apo, from; plesso, I strike), a disease or an affection 
of the brain that causes stupor; a fit in which all 
sensation and power of movement are suspended: 
apoplectic, a, dp'-o-pldk'-tik, or ap'oplec tical, -ti-kdl, 
pert, to the disease of apoplexy. 

apostasy, n. ; also apostacy, n. d-pos'-td-sl (L. and 
Gr. apostasia, a standing oft from ; ajio, from ; stasis, 
a placing, a standing), a departure from a former 
profession or belief: apostate, n. d-pos'-tat, one who 
forsakes his former principles or party: adj. false; 
traitorous : ap'ostat'ical, a. -tdt'-i-kdl : apostatise, v. 
d-pos'-td-tiz' , to forsake a former profession or belief: 
apos'tati'sing, imp. : apostatised', pp. -t izd'. 

a posteriori, a. a' '-pos-te- rl-or'-l (L. posterior, after), 
arguments drawn from consequences or facts — see 
a priori. 

apostle, n. d-pos'-sl (Gr. apo, away ; stello, I send), 
a person sent to perform important business; one of 
the immediate followers of Christ: apos'tleship, n. 
the office or dignity of an apostle : apostolic, a. dp'-os- 
tdl'-lk; also ap'ostol'ical, a. -i-kdl, relating to the 
apostles or to the office of an apostle : ap'ostol'ical'ly, 
ad. -It: ap'ostol'ical'ness, n. : apostolate, n. d-pos'to- 
hit, a mission; the dignity or office of an apostle: 
apostolic fathers, the early Christian writers, gene- 
rally of the first century : apostolic see, a title applied 
to the government of the pope of Rome in reference 
to his claim of being the successor of St Peter. 

apostrophe, n. d-pos'-tro-fd (Gr. apo, away ; strepho, 
I turn), a figure of speech ; a digressive address ; a 
mark ( ' ) put in a word to show the omission of a 
letter or letters, or merely as the sign of the posses- 
sive case in nouns: apostroph'ic, a. dp'6-strdf-ik, 
pert, to an apostrophe : ap'ostroph'ical'ly, ad. -It : 
apostrophise, v. d-pos'trd-fiz', to make a short de- 
tached address to, in speaking; to omit a letter or 
letters in a word : apos'trophl'sing, imp. : apos'tro- 
phised', pp. -fizd'. 

apothecary, n. d-poth'-d-kdrl (L. apotheca, a store- 
house: Gr. apiotheke; apo, from: theke, a box or 
chest), one who prepares and sells drugs as medi- 
cines : apothecium, n. dp'-o-the'shliun, in bot., a clus- 
ter or case of spore-cells in lichens, frequently cup- 

apothegm, n. dp-6-thSm (Gr. apo, from; phthegma, 
a word), a sententious saying; a pithy instructive 
remark : apothegmatic, a. dp'-o-thUg-indt'-lk ; also 
ap'othegmat'ical, a. -i-kdl, after the manner of an 
apothegm : ap'othegmatist, n. one who utters short 
maxims, or a maker of them. 

her; pine, pin; note, not, move; 



apotheosis, n. dp'o-tke'6-sis (L. and Gr. ; apo, from; 
theos, Gud), iu ancient times, the ceremony of placing 
some illustrious man among their gods. 

apotome, n. d-pot'6-me tUr. apo, from; temno, I cut 
or lop), in math., the difference between two incom- 
mensurable quantities. 

appal or appall, v. dp-pdtcl' (F. palir, to grow 
pale : L. ad, at ; palleo, I become pale), to lose the vital 
powers through sudden terror; to rill with dismay: 
appal ling, imp. : appalled, pp. -pawld' .- appal- 
ment, n. : appallingly, ad. -It. 

appanage, n. dp'-pdn-tij (L. ad, to; panis, food: F. 
apanage), lands set aside for the maintenance of 
younger sons of a prince. 

apparatus, n. dp-pd-ra't&s (L. ad, to or for; para- 
tum, to prepare), a set of instruments or tools to be 
used for a particular purpose. 

apparel, n. dp-pdr'-el (F. appareil, outfit : Sp. 
aparejar, to fit, to suit: L. ad, for; paro, I prepare), 
clothing ; dress : v. to dress ; to clothe ; to adorn : 
apparelling, imp. dp-pdr'-el-lng : apparelled, pp. 

appeal, v. tip-pel' (L. appello, I accuse : F. appeler, 
to call), to apply for justice; to refer a disputed 
matter to another, as to a higher judge or court, or 
to a superior: n. the removing of a cause from a 
lower to a higher court ; a reference to another ; an 
address to the judgment or feelings of an audience ; 
an application for justice : appealing, imp. : appeal- 
ed, pp. dp-peld' : appealable, a. dp-pel'-d-bl, that 
may or can be appealed: appellant, n. dp-pel'-ldnt, 
the person who appeals : appealer, n. one who : ap- 
pellate, a. tip-pel'-ldt ; also appellator^, a. -tor-t, 
relating to appeals: appellation, n. dp'-pel-ld'-shun, a 
name ; the word by which a tiling is known : appel'- 
lative, a. -tlv, pert, to a common name: n. a common 
name as distinguished from a proper name: appel'- 
lative'ly, ad. -iiv'-li: appellee, n. dp'-pel-W, the de- 
fendant in an appeal ; one tried for a crime at the 
instance of another: appellor, n. tip-pti'-lor, one who 

appear, v. tip-per 1 (L. ad, to ; pareo, I am seen, I 
appear: F. apparoir), to be visible; to come insight: 
appealing, imp.: appeared, pp. dp-percl .- appear- 
ance, n. ap-jier'-dns, a coming in sight; the thing 
seen ; the look of a person or thing ; pretence ; show : 
appealer, n. the person that appeal's : apparent, a. 
ap-pd'-rent, that may be easily seen ; obvious ; plain ; 
in science, not real— as apparent taut ion-, apparent- 
ly, ad. -II: apparition, n. tip'-pti-rlsh'-un, a ghost; 
a spectre; a visible spirit: apparitor, n. dp-pdr-i- 
tor, the attending officer of an ecclesiastical court; 
a summoner. 

appease, v. tip-ptt (L. ad; pax, gen. pacts, peace : F. 
apai,<er, to appease), to quiet; to pacify: appeasing, 
imp. : appeased, pp. dp-pezd' .- appea'ser, n. one 
who: appeasement, n. : appeasable, a. dp-pe'-zti-bl, 
that may be appeased: appea'sablehess, n. : ap- 
pea'sive, a. -lv, quieting : appea'sively, ad. -II. 

append, v. tip-pend' (L. ad, to ; pendeo, I hang), to 
attach or hang to ; to add to : appending, imp. : 
append'ed, pp.: appendage, n. dp-pen'-ddj ; also ap- 
t'dant, a. be- 
small appendage : appendix, n. tip-pen'-diks (L.)— plu. 
appendixes, -dlks-ez, or appendices, -di-sez— some- 
thing appended or added, as at the end of a book ; a 

appertain, v. ap'-per-tdn' (L. ad, to; per, through; 
teneo, I hold: F. appartenir), to belong to; to relate 
to : appertaining, imp. : ap pertained', pp. -tdnd' : 
ap'pertain'ment, n. : appertenance, n. dp-pir'-te- 
ntins, that which relates to another thing: apper- 
tinent, a. belonging : n. that which belongs. 

appetent, a, dp'- pi-tent (L. ad, to ; peto, I seek, I de- 
sire), desiring; very desirous: ap'petence, n. -tens, 
or appetency, n. -ten-si, desire; appetite; the pro- 
pensity in living creatures to select and feed upon 
such substances as are suited for their nourishment : 
appetible, a. dp'-p6-H-bl, pleasing; engaging; desir- 
able: appetibility, n. dp'pe-tl-Ml'-l-tl .- appetite, n. 
dp'-pe-tlt, the natural desire or craving for food or 
drink ; a strong desire for anything that affords plea- 
sure: appetitive, a. dp'-pe-ti'-tiv, desiring gratification. 

applaud, v. dp-plawd' (L. ad, for ; plaudo, I make a 
noise by clapping the hands : F. applaudir), to praise 
by clapping the hands or by some loud noise; to 
express approbation of; to commend: applauding, 
imp. : applauded, pp. : applaud'er, n. one who : ap- 

pendant, n. something added to: appen' 

longing to; attached: appendicle, n. dp-pen'-di-kl, a 

plause, n. dp-plaTcz' (L. ad; plauswm, to clap the 
hands), the act of praising ; approbation by shouts 
or clapping of hands, or in some other noisy way: 
applausive, a. dp-phuv'-zlv, that contains applause. 

apple, n. tip'-pl (AS. aepl: W. aped: Icel. epli: Dan. 
able), a well-known fruit : apple of the eye, the pupil : 
apple of discord, a subject of contention and envy : 
apples of Sodom, fruit fair to the eye, but dissolv- 
ing into dust and ashes when plucked. 

applicate, n. tip'-pll-kdt (L. ad, to; plico, I fold), in 
geum., a straight line drawn across a curve so as to 
be bisected by the diameter ; the ordinate. 

apply, v. dp-pit (L. ad, to ; plico, I fold), to lay on ; to 
put one thing to another ; to use or employ for a par- 
ticular purpose ; to fix the mind with attention ; to 
make application ; to suit : applying, imp. : applied, 
pp. dp-plul : applier, n. one who: appliable, a. tip- 
pli'-a-bl, that may be applied: appli'ably, ad. -bit: ap- 
pliance, n. tip-pli'-dns, the act of applying; the thing 
applied: applicable, a. dp'-pli-kd-bl, fit to be applied; 
suitable: applicability, n. -kd-bU'-l-tl: ap'plicable- 
ness, n. : ap plicably, ad. -Ml: applicant, n. tip'-pll- 
ktint, one who applies; a petitioner: applicancy, n. 
dp'-ptll-kdn-sl, the state of being applicable: applica- 
tion, n. -ka'-shun, the act of applying; clo 

great attention to, as to 1 

applying; close study; 
entreaty; employ- 
ment of means: applicative, a. -kd-tlv: applicatory, 
a. -ka'-tor-i: n. that which applies. 

appoggiatura, n. dppoj'-ti-td-rd (It.), in music, a 

appoint, v. dp-pdjjnt' (F. appointer, to give wages: 
L. ad, to; punctum, a point), to fix upon; to settle; to 
ordain ; to furnish : appoint ing, imp. : appointed, pp. : 
appointer, n. one who : appoin table, a. -tti-bl, that 
may be appointed : appointment, n. state of being ap- 
pointed ; being named for an office ; a situation or of- 
fice ; established order : plu. the accoutrements of an 
officer: appointee, n. dp-poyn'-te, one appointed. 

apportion, v. tip-por-shun (L. ad, to ; portio, a part), 
to give a share to ; to divide ; to assign : apportioning, 
imp.: apportioned, pp. -shund: apportionment, n. 
a dividing into shares or portions: appor'tioner, n. 
one who. 

apposite, a. dp'-po-zlt (L. ad; positus, placed or put), 
fit; suitable; well adapted to; in bot., when similar 
parts are similarly placed: ap'positely, ad. -zlt'-ll: 
apposite ness, n. fitness; suitableness: apposition, 
n. tip'-po-zlsh'-un, the act of adding to; in gram., two 
nouns following each other in the same case, the latter 
explanatory of the former, or modifying it in some way. 

appraise, v. dp-prdzf (F. apprecier, to value— from 
L. ad, to ; pretium , a price), to fix the value of an article 
for the purpose of sale : appraising, imp. : appraised, 
gp. -prtizd' : apprais'er, n. one who: appraisement, 
n. dp-prdz'-ment, a valuation put on an article. 

appreciate, v. tip-pre'-sh I -tit (L. ad ; pretium, a price : 
F. apprecier), to set a proper value on ; to esteem right- 
ly: appreciating, imp. : appre'eia'ted, pp.: appreci- 
able, a, ap-pre-shi-ti-bl, that may be properly valued ; 
capable of being estimated: appreciably, ad. -bit: ap- 
preciation, n. dp-pre'-shl-d'-shun, the setting a value 
on ; a just estimate of. 

apprehend, v. dp'-prS-Mnd' (L. ad, to ; prehendo, I 
take or seize), to take hold of ; to seize ; to understand ; 
to think on with fear: ap'prehen'ding, imp.: ap'pre- 
hen'ded, pp. : ap'prehen'der, n. one who : ap'prehen- 
sible, a. -sl-bl, that may be apprehended: ap'prehen'- 
sion, n. -hen-shun, the act of taking or seizing; the 
being able to understand ; suspicion ; fear : ap'pre- 
hen'sive, a. -slv, fearful; in expectation of evil: ap'- 
prehen'sively, ad. -slv-l : ap'prehen'siveness, n. 

apprentice, n. tip-pren'-tis (F. apprentis, abeginner— 
from apprendre, to learn: L. ad, to; prehendo, I take), 
a young person learning a trade or profession : v. to 
put under a master to learn a trade or profession : ap- 
prenticing, imp.: appren'ticed, pp. -tlst: appren- 
ticeship, n. the service or condition of an apprentice. 

apprise, v. tip-prlzf (F. appris, learned, instructed), 
to inform; to give notice of: apprising, imp.: ap- 
prised, pp. -prizd'. 

approach, v. Ctp-prOch' (F. approcher, to draw near 
—from L. ad, to; prope, near), to draw near; to come 
up to : n. a coming or drawing near ; a path or avenue ; 
plu. approaches, -&, siege-works ; means of access : 
approaching, imp. : approached, pp. tip-prochV: ap- 
proach'er, one who : approach 'able, a. -ti-bl, that may 
be reached ; accessible: approach'ment, n. : approach- 
less, a. that cannot be come near to or approached. 

approbation, n. &c— see approve. 

cow, bo~y,/dbt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




appropriate, v. dp-prO'-pri-dt (L. ad, to ; proprius, 
private, one's own), to set apart for a particular use ; 
to claim or use as by right ; to apply to one's own use : 
adj. limited or set apart to a particular person or use ; 
lit ; suitable : appropriating, imp. : appropriated, 
pp.: appro'priate'ness, n. peculiar fitness; suitable- 
ness ; appro priate'ly, ad. -II : appro pria'tion, n. 
■shan, the act of setting apart for a particular use or 
purpose : appro'pria'tor, n. one who : appropriable, a. 
■Lt-bl: appro pria'tive, a. -prl-d'-tic, that appropriates. 

approve, v. dp-prov' (L. ad, to; probo, I prove or 
test ; probus, good : F. appi-uuver), to be pleased with ; 
to like; to commend: appro'ving, imp.: approved', 
pp.: appro'vingly, ad. -ll: appro'ver, n. an accuser: 
approvement, n. : approbation, n. dp-]>rO-bd'-shiln. 
the act of approving; commendation; expression of 
approval or satisfaction with: approbative, a. dp'- 
pro-ba'-tiv ; also approbatory, a. ap'-jiro-ba'-tor-i, 
containing or implying approbation : ap'proba'tively, 
ad. -II: ap'proba tiveness, n. in phren., the love of 
approbation : approvable, a. dp-pro'- vd-bl, that merits 
approval : appro'vableness, n. : approval, n. dp- 
pro'vdl, approbation. 

approximate, v. dp-proks'-i-mdt (L. ad, to; proxi- 
mus, next), to come near; to approach; to cause to 
approach: adj. nearest to or next: approximating, 
imp.: approximated, pp.: approximation, n. -shun, 
a near approach ; an advancing near: approx'imate- 
ly, ad. -II: approx'ima'tive, a. -tiv, that approaches 

appulse, n. dp-pills' (L. ad, at; pulsum, to push, to 
strike), the act of striking against; in astron., near 
approach of two heavenly bodies to one another: also 
arraul'sion, n. -shun: ap'pul'sive, a. striking against: 
appul'sively, ad. -slv-ll. 

appurtenance, n. dp-piir'-te-ndns (L. ad, to; per- 
tineo, I pertain or belong: F. appartenance), that 
which belongs to something else ; an adjunct ; an ap- 
pendage : appur'tenant, a. joined to, or belonging to. 

apricot, n. d'-prl-kot (F. abricot: L. prcecocia— from 
prcc, before ; coquo, I ripen), a fruit of the plum kind. 

April, n. d'-prll (L. aprilis— from aperio, I open: 
F. avril: Sp. abril: It. aprile), the fourth month of 
the year. 

a priori, a. d'-prl-or'l (L. a, from; prior, former), 
the correlative of a posteriori, the one implying the 
cause, the other the effect. The argument a priori is 
a mode of reasoning by which we proceed from the 
antecedent cause to the consequent effect, or from an- 
ticipation rather than from experience: mathemati- 
cal proofs are examples of a priori reasoning. The 
argument a. posteriori is the opposite, and reasons 
from the effect to the cause, from the individual case 
to the law, or generally from experience, and not from 

apron, n. d'-pron (old F. naperon, a large cloth— 
from nappe, table-cloth), a made-up piece of cloth or 
leather worn in front; a covering, as of lead or zinc: 
aproned, a. d'-prond, wearing an apron. 

apropos, ad. dp'-ro-po' (F.), to the purpose; season- 

apsis, n. dp'-sls, or apse, dj>s, plu. apsides, dp'-sl- 
dez (Ur. (h)apsis, a junction, an arch), the two points 
in the orbits of planets in which they are at the great- 
est and at the least distance from the sun or the earth : 
apse, in a church, the rounded end of a basilica at the 
back of the altar ; the arched roof of a room. 

apt, a. dpt(L. aptus: F. apte, fit), ready; quick; fit; 
suitable: apt'ly, ad. -It: apt'ness, n. readiness or 
quickness in learning; fitness : aptitude, n. dp'-ti-tud, 
a disposition for; readiness; docility. 

apteral, a. dp'-Wr-al (Gr. a, without ; pteron, a wing), 
without wings: apteryx, n. dji'-ti'r-iks, a, rare bird, 
peculiar to New Zealand, having only short rudiments 
Of wings, and without a tail, a little larger than a 
guinea-fowl: apterous, a. dp'-ter-iis, wingless; belong- 
ing to the class of insects called the aptera, dp'-ter-d, 
or wingless insects. 

aptote, n. dp'tot (Gr. a, without; ptotos, that can, 
or is wont to fall), an indeclinable noun. 

apus, n. d'pus (Gr. a, without; pous, a foot), a bird 
BO called because it did not use its feet; a martinet; 
in astron., a constellation near the S. pole. 

apyrexy, n. d'-plr-ik'-sl (Gr. a; puresso, I have a 
fever— from pur, fire), the intermission of a fever: 
apyrous, a. a'-pl-rus, fire-proof; incombustible; that 
sustains a strong heat without alteration: apyretic, 
a. d'plr-et'-ik, without fever. 

apyrenus, n. a'pi-re'nils (Gr. a, without; puren, 

a seed), in hot., fruit which produces no seeds, as cul- 
tivated varieties of the orange, pine-apple, &c. 

aqua, n. d'-kwd (L. aqua, water), a word now much 
used as part of a compound: a'qua vitae, -vl'-te (L. 
vita, life), water of life; brandy or other spirit: 
aquafortis, -for'tls (L. fortis, strong), strong water; 
a powerful acid, now named nitric acid : a'qua marina, 
-md-re'-nd (L. mare, the sea), sea-water ; applied to the 
beryl from its colour : a'qua regia, re'-jl-d (L. rex, gen. 
regis, a king), royal water; a mixture of nitric and 
muriatic acids; a dissolvent of gold, the king of the 
metals; now called nitro-muriatic acid: aquatic, a, 
d-kwdt'-lk, living in the water, or much on it, as some 
fowls: aquarium, n. d-kivd'-rl-um, a glass case con- 
taining water, &c, for plants and creatures that live in 
water: aquarius, n. d-kiva'-rl-us (L. a water-carrier), a 
sign of the zodiac: aqua tinta, d'-kwd tln'-td (L. aqua: 
It. tinta, a tint or dye— from L. tingo, I stain), a variety 
of engraving,imitating drawings made with Indian ink. 

aqueduct, n. dk'-we-dilkt (L. aqua, water; ductus, 
led), a course or channel made for conveying water 
either under or above ground : aqueous, a. d'-kwe-us, 
watery; pert, to or arising from water: a'queous- 
ness, n. 

aquiline, a. dk'-wl-lln or -lln (L. aquila, an eagle), 
hooked or curved like the beak of an eagle. 

Arab, n. dr'-db, also Arabian, n. d-rd'-bl-dn, a na- 
tive of Arabia: Arabic, a. dr'-d-blk, also Arabian, a. 
d-rd'-bl-dn, pertaining to Arabia or to the language of 
its people: Ar'abic, n. the language: Arabist, n. dr' 
d-blst, one versed in Arabic: Arabesque, a. dr'-d-besk 
(F.), in the manner of the Arabian architecture: n. 
an ornament in arch., consisting of imaginary foliage, 
stalks, plants, &c. ; the Arabic language: Ar'abism, 
n. -blzm, an Arabic idiom: Araby, n. dr'd-bl, poetic 
for Arabia: Ar'abs, n. plu., the wandering tribes of 
Arabia and Northern Africa ; now applied to the des- 
titute children wandering in the streets of towns. 

arable, a. dr'd-bl (L. arabilis— from aro, I plough: 
Gr. aroo: F.), land that can be ploughed or-cultivated. 

arachnoid, a. d-rdk'ndyd (Gr. arachne, a spider; 
eidos, form), in anat., a semi-transparent fine mem- 
brane spread over the brain and pia-mater, like a 
spider's web; in bot., composed of soft downy fibres. 

Aralo- Caspian, a. d-rd-lo-kds'pl-dn or a'ral-6-, a 
term applied to the extensive basin or depressed area 
occupied by the Aral and Caspian seas and surround- 
ing districts of country; in geol., applied to the lime- 
stone and associated sandy beds of brackish -water 
origin which have been traced over much more than 
the area indicated. 

Aramaic, a. dr'd-md'lk (from Aram, a son of Shem), 
a name applied to the Syro-Chaldean language : Ar 7 - 
ame'an or Aramaean, dr'-d-me'-dn, pert, to the Syri- 
ans and Chaldeans or their language. 

araneous, a. d-rd'ni-us (L. aranea, a spider or cob- 
web), resembling a cobweb. 

araucarites.n. plu. d-raw'kdr-Us' , a term employed 
to designate the fossil wood whose structure is iden- 
tical with that of the living a'rauca'riae, -kd'-rl-e— 
trees, natives of the southern hemisphere. 

arbalist, n. dr'-bd-list (L. arcus, a bow; balista, an 
engine for throwing stones or darts), a cross-bow: ar- 
balister, n. dr'-bd-lis'-Ur, a cross-bow-man. 

arbiter, n. dr'bl-ter (L. an umpire or judge: Fin. 
arim, a lot or symbol), one appointed to settle a mat- 
ter in dispute between two or more persons: arbit- 
rament, n. dr-blt'rd-me'nt, decision; determination: 
arbitrable, a. dr'bl-trd-bl, determinable: arbitral, 
a. dr'bl-trdl, of arbitration : arbitrary, a. dr'bl-trdr'-i, 
despotic ; tyrannical ; gviided by will only : ar'bitrar'- 
ily, ad. -ill: arbitrariness, n. : arbitrate, v. dr'-bl- 
trat, to hear and decide in a disputed matter ; to deter- 
mine : ar'bitra'ting, imp. : ai^bitra'ted, pp. : arbitra- 
tion, n. ar'-bi-trd'shun, the hearing and deciding of a 
disputed matter by one or more persons: arbitrator, 
n. ar'bl-trd'tor, a person chosen to decide a dispute : 
arbitress, n. dr'bl-tres, or arbitratrix, n. dr'bl-trd'- 
trlks, a woman who decides. 

arbour or arbor, n. dr'ber (L. arbor, a tree: old 
E. herbere (her'beer), a garden), a seat shaded with 
trees ; a bower ; an axis or spindle (spelt arbor) : arbo- 
rator, a. dr'bo-ra'tor, one who grows trees: arbored, 
a. dr'berd, furnished with an arbour: arborous, a. 
dr'bu-rus, or arboreous, a. dr-bo'-re-ns, resembling or 
belonging to a tree: arborescent, a. dr'bo-res'-ent (L. 
arboresco, I grow to a tree), resembling a tree; be- 
coming woody: arTiores'cence, n. -6ns, also arbori- 
sation, n. -l-za'shun, the resemblance of a tree in 

mate, mdt, far, law; mete, mit, her; pine, pin; note, nut, mOve; 




minerals ; groups of crystals in the form of a tree : 
ar bores, n. a small tree; a shubbery: arboretum, n. 
dr'bo-re'tum (L.), a place for cultivating rare trees and 
shrubs: arboriculture, n. dr'-bor-i-kul'-tur (L. arbor, 
a tree; cultus, cultivated), the art of planting and 
managing trees and shrubs; ar boricul'tural, a. pert, 
to: ar'boricul'turist, n. -kul'tu-rlst, one who: ar'- 
borvine, -vln (L. vinea, a vine), a sort of bind-weed: 
ar'borist, n. one who studies trees. 

arbuscle, n. dr'biis-sl (L. arbuscula, a small tree), a 
dwarf tree ; a small shrub with the appearance of a 
tree, as many heaths: arbuscular, a. dr-bus'-ku-ldr, 

arbute, n. dr'-but (L. arbutus), the strawberry tree : 
arbutean, a. dr-bu'-U-an, pert. to. 

arc, n. drk (L. arcus, a bow), a part of a circle or 
curved line: arcade, n. dr-kdd' (F., from L. arcus), 
a series of arches ; a roadway under a continued series 
of arches ; a covered street : arcad'ed, a. furnished 
with an arcade. 

area, n. dr'kd (L. a chest or box), the ark shell; 
a genus of equivalve shells found in almost every part 
of the world, thick and strongly-ribbed. 

Arcadian, a. dr-ka'didn, pert, to Arcadia, in the 
Peloponnesus ; much used in poetry, rural or pastoral. 

arcanum, n. dr-ka'-num, plu. arca'na (L. arcanus, 
secret, concealed), things secret, as if locked up ; ar- 
canite, n. dr-kd-nlt, a mineral, a colourless or white 
sulphate of potash, occurring mostly in crusts in lavas. 

arch, n. torch (L. arcus, a bow), the circular part of 
any building ; the hollow or concave part of a bridge 
or gateway: v. to cover witli an arch; to form an 
arch: arching, imp.: arched, pp. archt: court of 
arches, n. drch'ez, a very anc. court belonging to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury for deciding ecclesias- 
tical matters, so called from the Church of St Mary 
le Bow, or " de arcubus:" archway, a way or passage 
under an arch. 

arch, a. arch, (Ger. arg, crafty: Dut. erg, wicked: 
Dan. arrig, ill-natured: Icel. argr, lazy, cowardly: 
AS. earg, bad), waggish; mirthful: arch'ly, ad. -II, 
shrewdly; roguishly: archness, n. sly humour; wag- 

arch, a. drch or drk (Gr. archos, chief: Ger. erz, 
eminence, good or bad), chief of the first class : arch- 
angel, n. drk-dn'jel, an angel of the highest order: 
archbishop, n. drch'-blsh'-op, a metropolitan having 
jurisdiction over the bishops of his province : archi- 
episcopal, a. dr'-kl-e-pis-ko-pdl, pert, to: archi-epis- 
copacy, n. dr'ki-d-jns-ko-pd-sl : archbishopric, a. -rik, 
pert, to: archdeacon, n. drch-de'kvn, one who assists 
the bishop in the government of his diocese : archdea- 
conship, n., or archdeaconry, n. drch-de'-kdn-rl: archi- 
diaconal, a. dr'-ki-dl-ak'-o-ndl, pert, to an archdeacon: 
arch-en'emy, n. the evil one; the devil: archduke, n. 
drch-duk', a title of some foreign princes: arch- 
duchess, n. ditches, his wife, sister, or daughter. 

archaeocidaris, n. dr'-ke-o-sld'-dr-ls (Gr. archaios, 
ancient: L. cidaris, a turban), the sea-egg; a genus of 
fossil sea-urchins characterised by their small hexag- 
onal plates and long spines. 

archaeology, n. dr'-ke-ol'-o-jl, also archaiology, n. 
dr'-ka-ol'o-ji (Gr. archaios, ancient; logos, discourse), 
the science that treats of ancient things or antiqui- 
ties ; knowledge about ancient art, particularly of the 
middle ages : ar'chseol'ogist, n. one skilled in ancient 
things and learning: archaeological, dr'ke-o-loj'-i- 
Ml, a. pert, to: ar'chseolog'ically, ad. -II: archaism, 
n. dr'-kd-izm, an ancient expression, or one not now 
used: archaic, a. dr-kd'-lk, also archa'ical, a. -t-kdl, 
ancient ; peculiar to remote antiquity ; obsolete. 

archaeoniscus, n. dr'-ke-o-nis'kus (Gr. archaios; on- 
iscus, a wood-louse), a genus of fossil isopods or equal- 
foot crustaceans. 

archaeopteryx, n. dr'-ke-op'tir-iks (Gr. archaios; 
pterux, a wing), a unique specimen of fossil bird re- 
mains—now in the British Museum. 

archangel, n. drk-dn'jel (Gr. archos, chief: L. 
angelus, a messenger), an angel of the highest order: 
archangelic, a. -jel'-lk, pert. to. Note. — Most of the 
other words beginning with arch are to be looked for 
under the simple words; arch always meaning chief, 
of the first class— as archbishop, the chief bishop. 

archegosaurus, n. dr'-ke-go-tuTc'rus (Gr. archegos, 
founder, or arche, beginning ; saurus, a lizard), a fos- 
sil reptile of the carboniferous era. 

archer, n. drch'-er (L. arcus, a bow), one who uses 
or is skilled in the use of the bow : archery, n. drch- 
er-l, the art of using the bow. 

archetype, n. dr'-ki-tlp (Gr. arche, beginning; tupos, 
form), the original or model from which copies are 
made ; a pattern : archetypal, a. dr'ki-tl'p&l, original. 

archil, n. drch'-ll (F. orcheil: Sp. orchiUa— from 
Sp. roca, a rock), a rich purple colour obtained from 
a lichen found growing on the rocks of the Canary 
and other islands. 

Archimedean, a. dr'-kl-me-de'-dn, pert, to Archi- 
medes, a great mathematician of ancient times: Ar- 
chimedean screw, a machine for raising water ; now 
applied to propel vessels through water— see screw. 

Archipelago, n. dr'-ki-pel'-a-gd (Gr. archos, chief; 
pelagos, sea: It. arcipelago), the iEgean Sea; any sea 
closely interspersed with islands— now frequently ap- 
plied simply to a cluster of islands : archipelagic, a. 
dr-kipel-dj'-ik, pert, to an archipelago. 

architect, n. dr'-ki-tekt' (Gr. archos, chief; tekton, a 
workman), one who designs and plans buildings; a 
former or maker: architective, a. dr'-ki-tek'-tlv, used 
in, or proper for, building: architectonic, a. -tek-ton'- 
ik, that has the power or skill to build : ar'chitecton - 
ics, n. -Iks, the science of architecture : architectural, 
a. dr'-ki-tek'-tu-rdl, pert, to the art of designing 
buddings : architecture, n. dr'-kl-tek'-tur, the art 
of planning and constructing houses or ships; the 
appearance of them when built or framed. 

architrave, n. dr'-kl-trdv (Gr. archos, chief: It. 
trave, a beam of timber— from L. trabs), in arch., that 
part of the entablature which rests immediately upon 
the capital. 

archives, n. plu. dr'-klvz (F., from Gr. archeion, 
the public hall, or archaios, ancient), a collection of 
records or documents ; the place where such are kept : 
archival, a. dr-kl'val, of or containing archives: ar- 
chivist, n. dr-kl'-vlst, a keeper of records. 

archon, n. dr'-kon (Gr. a prince), a chief magistrate 
among the ancient Athenians. 

arctic, a. drk'-Hk (Gr. arktos, a bear, a cluster of 
stars in the north heavens called the Bear), per- 
taining to the north ; northern : arctic regions, the 
lands surrounding the north pole: arctic circle, an 
imaginary line passing round the north pole at a 
distance of 23^° from it : arctic current, an ocean- 
current which originates in the N. polar regions, and 
flows southwards to the equator : arctic sea, the sea 
lying around the N. pole. 

Arcturus, n. drk-tu'-rus (Gr. arktos, a bear; oura, 
a tail), a fixed star of the first magnitude, near the 
tail of the Great Bear. 

arcuation, n. dr'-ku-d'-shun (L. arcus, a bow), the 
act of bending ; crookedness : arcuate, a. dr'-ku-dt, 
bent in the form of a bow. 

ardency, n. dr'-den-sl (L. ardens, burning), warmth 
of passion; zeal; eagerness: ar'dent, a. eager; zeal- 
ous: ar'dently, ad. -li: ardour, n. dr'-der, warmth; 
fervency ; affection : ardent spirits, distilled spirits. 

arduous, a. dr'du-us (L. arduus, steep, inacces- 
sible), of difficult attainment ; attended with great 
labour: arduously, ad. -ils'-li: arduousness, n. fir' 
dti- us'-nes. 

are, v. dr (Sw. vara: Dan. xaere, to be, to exist), 
part of the verb be. 

are, n. dr, a French measure of 119-00 sq. yards. 

area, n. d'-rl-d (L.), any enclosed or open space; 
an open space in front of or around a sunk flat of a 

areca, n. d-re'-kd, the betel-nut, from the areca palm. 

arefaction, n. dr'-e-fak'-shun (L. areo, I am dry; 
facio, I make), the state of growing dry ; the act of 
drying: arify, v. dr'i-fl, to dry. 

arena, n. d-re'-nd (L. arena, sand), an open space 
for a public exhibition: arenaceous, a. dr'-e-nd'->:hus, 
composed of grains or particles of sand ; having the 
properties of sand. 

arenicolites, n. plu. dr'-e-nlk'-o-lits (L. arena, sand; 
colo, I inhabit : Gr. lithos, a stone), a term used to de- 
signate those circular holes or markings which appear 
on the upper surface of many sandstones, having ap- 
parently been worm-burrows. 

arenilitic, a. d-ren'-l-llt'-lk (L. arena: Gr. lithos, a 
stone), of or like sandstone : arenose, a. dr'enOz, or 
arenous, a. dr'-e-nus, sandy. 

areola, n. d-re'-O-ld (L. : F. areole), the coloured 
circle round the nipple or a pustule: areolar, a. 
d-re'-O-ldr, of or like an areola: areolate, a. d-re'-o-lat, 
marked by 'areolations : are'ola'tion, n. -shun, any 
small space distinctly bounded by something different 
in colour, texture, &c. 

areometer, n. dr'e-dm'e-ter (Gr. araios, rare, thin; 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




wall on, a measure), an instrument for measuring the 
specific gravity of HquMb: ar'eometry, n. -tn: ar- 
eometrical, a. -ri-kal. pert. to. 

Areopagus, n. dr'-c-<ij>-d<jus (I..: Or. Arcs, Mars; 
i hill), in ancient times a famous court of jus- 
tice at Athens, so called from its being held on Mars' 
hill: areopagite, n. ar'-{-»p : a-jtt, a member of the 

Argand, a, dr'gdnd, applied to a lamp-wick or form 
Of burner invented by M. Argand. 

argean, a. ar-iff-dn (from Argo, the ship which 
carried Jason and his companions to Colchis in quest 
of the golden tierce), pert, to the Argo or the ark. 

argent, n. drtjint (L. argentum, silver; org 
of the lustre of silver), the white colour in coats of 
arms: adj. silvery; bright: argentine, a. dr'-jin-tui', 
like silver: n. a mineral: argental, a. dr-jcn'-tal, 
also argentic, a. dr-jen'tlk, of or like silver: ar- 
gentan, n. dr'-icn-tdn', German silver: argentation, 
n. dr'-jen-td'-sJitin, an overlaying with silver: argen- 
tiferous, a. ur'-jcn-tif-u--as (L. argentum; fero, I 
produce), containing silver: argentite, n. dr'jcn-tir 
sulphuret of silver, the most important and richest 
ore of silver, of a blackish lead-grey colour. 

argil, n. dr'-jil (L. argilla, white clay: F. argile), 
pure clay; potter's clay: argillaceous, a. dr'-jil-la- 
shils, consisting of clay or argil; clayey: argillifer- 
ous, a. -li ;"■■■'>•■ us (L. argilla, clay; fero, I produce), 
producing clay, or abounding in clay: argiilite, n. 
dr'Jillit', a term applied to clay-slate. 

Argive, n. ar'giv (Argos, in Greece), a Greek. 

argonaut, n. &r'-gonawf [Argo, and Gr. 
ship — see argean). one who sailed in the ship Argo : 
argosy, n. dr'-go-sl, a merchant ship richly laden; a 
large "merchant ship. 

argue, v. dr'-gii (L. arguo, I show, I declare: F. ar- 
guer: It. arguire), to debate or discuss; to reason; to 
dispute: ar'guing, imp. : argued, pp. iir'gud: arguer, 
n. one who argues: argument, n. dr-gu-ment, a rea- 
son alleged or offered; a discussion: argumentable, 
a. dr'-gii- men'td-bl, that may be argued: ar'gumen- 
ta'tion, n. -fa-shun, reasoning; the act of reasoning : 
argumentative, a. -td-tiv. consisting of argument: 
ar gumen'tatively, ad. -tiv-li: argumentativeness, 
n.: argumentum ad hominem, n. dr-gu-men-tum dd 
hom'-i-nem (L. arguo, I show; ad, to; hominem, the 
man), unexpectedxonsequenees pressed against a man 
with arguments drawn from his own principles or 

Argus, n. dr'-gus. a fabled being with one hundred 
eyes ; a very watchful person. 

argute, a. dr-gut' (L. argutus. sharp, piercing), 
acute; shrewd; subtile: argute'ness, n. 

aria, n. ar'-i-d (It.: F. air, breath: L. aer, air), an 
air or time : arietta, u. dr'-i-et'-td, a little air or tune. 

Arian, n. a'-ri-dn, one adhering to the doctrines of 
Alius, who taught that Jesus was inferior to God, and 
that the Holy Spirit is not God: adj. pert, to Alius: 
Arianism, n. d'-ri-dii-lzm', the doctrines of the 

aricena, n. dr-l-se'-nd, (Arica, in Peru), an alkaloid 
found in Arica bark. 

arid, a. dr- id (L. aridus, dry: F. aride), dry; devoid 
of moisture: aridity, n. d-rhl'-i-ti, also arldness, n. 
dryness ; want of moisture. 

Aries, n. dr-i-ez (L. a ram), a constellation of fixed 
stars, and one of the signs of the zodiac; an anc. bat- 

aright, ad. drlf (AS. ariht), in a proper form; 

aril, n. dr'-ll, also arillus, d-ril'-lus (F. arille: Sp. 
arillo— from L. aridus. dry), the exterior coat or cover- 
ing of a seed fixed to it at the base only, and envelop- 
ing the seed partially, as in the hazel-nut — the mace 
of commerce is the arillus of the nutmeg: arilled, a. 
ar'-lld, also arilated, a. dr'-l-ldt'-Cd. having an aril. 

arise, v. driz' (AS. orison: Goth, reisan: IceL 
risa, to arise: Ger. reisen, to start), to get up; to 
ascend: ari'sing, imp. : arose, pt. d-rOz': arisen, pp. 

Aristarch, n. ar'ls-tdrk (from Aristarchus of Alex- 
andria), a severe critic. 

aristate, a. d-rls'-tdt (L. arista, a beard of corn), 
furnished with beards, like barley and many grasses ; 

aristocracy, n. dr'-ls-tok'-rd-sl (Gr. aristos, best; 
kratos, rule, strength), government by nobles; the no- 
bility or chief persons of a country: aristocrat, n. 
dr'-ls-to-krat' , one who favours an aristocracy ; one of 

the nobles; familiarly, a haughty person: aristo- 
cratic, a. dr-i<-to-krat-ik, also aristocrat leal, a. 
-i-bit. belonging to the aristocracy; familiarly, 
haughty: aristocratically, ad. -If: aristocrat ical- 
ness, n.: aristocratism, n. dr-is-to-krdt-lzm, the 
principles or habits of aristocrats. 

Aristophanic, a. dr-ls'-to-fdn'-ik (from Aristophanes, 
a celebrated comic poet of ancient Greece), shrewd ; 

Aristotelian, a. dr-'is'-totel-l-dn, also Aris'totelic, 
a. d-ris'-to-iellk (from Aristotle, a celebrated philo- 
sopher of ancient Greece, instructor of Alexander the 
Great), pert, to Aristotle or his philosophy. 

arithmetic, n. d-ritli-me-tik (Gr. arithmeo, I com- 
pute, I number), the science of numbers; the art of 
counting or computing: arithmetical, a. dr'-Uh- 
met'-i-kul. pertaining to arithmetic: arithmetically, 
ad. -kdl'-i: arithmetician, n. d-rlth'-metish'-dn, one 
Skilled in arithmetic: arithmancy, n. dr'-dh-mdn'-sl 
(Gr. arithmeo; manteia, divination), divination by 
numbers: arithmometer, n. (Gr. arithmeo; metron, 
a measure), an abacus. 

ark, n. drk (AS. eark: L. Sp. and It. area, a chest), 
among the anc. Jews, an oblong chest or case in which 
were deposited the two tables of the law, and over 
which was the mercy -seat; a chest; a vessel; the 
huge ship that was a place of safety to Xoah and his 
family at the Flood; a shelter: arkite, n. dr'-kit, one 
of the persons saved in the ark : adj. pert, to the ark 
of Noah. 

arkose, a. dr'-koz, a mineral compound formed of 
the same materials as granite, from the disintegration 
of which it has evidently been derived. 

arm, v. drm (F. armer: Sp. armor— from L. arma, 
weapons of war), to furnish with arms; to take up 
arms: arming, imp. : armed, pp. drmd: adj. morally 
fortified; in her., coloured: arms, n. plu. drmz, wea- 
pons of war; signs armorial: army, n. dr'-mi, a body 
of men armed for war; a host : pass of arms, a kind 
of combat with swords : stand of arms, a complete 
set of arms for one soldier: coats of arms, in her., any 
signs of arms or devices, painted or engraved, used 
as symbols of quality or distinction : arma, n. plu. 
i\r'-ind. in hot., such appendages of plants as prickles 
and thorns: armistice, n. dr'-mis-tls (L. arma; sisto, 
I stand still), a stopping from war for a short time; 
a truce: armour, n. dr-mer, dress for war; weapons 
of war: armourer, or armorer, n. dr'-mor-er, one 
who makes weapons of war: armorial, a. dr-mO'-ri-dl, 
belonging to arms; pertaining to coats of arms; her- 
aldic: ar'morist, n. one skilled in heraldry : armory, 
n. dr'-mo-rl, a place where weapons of war are kept, 
or where they are made : ar'mour-bear'er, one who 
carries the arms of another: armour-plated, a. 
■plat-id, covered with defensive plates of metal, as 
ships of war: army-list, n. list of officers of the 

arm, n. drm (AS. earm: L. annus, the shoulder- 
joint, the arm: Icel. armr), a- limb of a body; a 
branch of a tree ; inlet of the sea : armful, n. Arm fool, 
as much as the arms can embrace : armhole, drm'-hol, 
the cavity under the shoulder; the hole in a garment 
for the arm: arm'-like, a, -lik, of the form or appear- 
ance of an arm : armless, a. without arms : armlet, 
a little arm ; a bracelet : arm-chair, a chair with arms 
to support the elbows : arm'-pit, n. the cavity under 
the shoulder : fore-arm, the part of the arm lying be- 
tween the elbow and the wrist : arm of the sea, a part 
which rims far into the land: arm's-length, n. the 
length of the arm : adj. at a distance. 

Armada, n. dr-md'-dd (Sp. the navy), a fleet of war- 
ships: the hostile Spanish fleet of war-ships which 
attempted the invasion of England in the reign of 
Elizabeth, A.D. 1588. 

armadillo, n. dr'-md-dU'lo (Sp., from L. arma, 
arms, from its scaly covering), a small S. Amer. quad- 
ruped, covered on the back with hard bony plates, and 
aide to roll itself up within them like a hedgehog. 

armament, n. dr'md-ment (L. arma, weapons of 
war), a land or naval force fitted out for war: arma- 
ture, n. drhnd-tur, armour which defends; a piece of 
iron used to connect the poles of magnets ; in hot., the 
hairs, prickles, &c, covering an organ. 

Armenian, a. tir-me'nhan, pert, to the country of 
Armenia; an inhabitant : armenium, n. dr-mehihiim, 
a pigment of the ancients, produced by grinding the 
Armenian stone, a supposed blue carbonate of copper 
combined with lime. 

armiger, n. dr'ml-jer (L. arma, arms ; gero, I carry). 

mdte, mdt.fdr, latv; mete, met, her; pine,pXn; note, not, move: 




In her., esquire; one with a right to armorial hear- 
ings: armigerous, a. ar-mij'-er-us, "rearing aims. 

annilla, n. ar-mU'ld (L. armilla, an ornament forthe 
arm, a hoop), in mech., an iron ring, hoop, i i 
in aiud., the circular ligament of the hand: armil- 
lary, a. dr'rn'd-ldr-l, consisting of rings or 
applied to an artificial sphere composed of a number of 
. 3 : ax mil, n. a kind of sun-diaL 

Arminian, n. ar-mtn'i-an from Armimus), one who 
holds the doctrines of Armioius : adj 

r! nes of Arminius : Armin danism, n. - ■: 
the peculiar doctrines of Arminius. 

armipotence, n. drmip'otens (L. arma, weapons 
of war; patens, powerful), power in arms: armip o- 
tent, a. powerful in arms. 

Armoric, a. dr-mor'-ik, also Armor'ican, a. d-kdn, 
relating to Armorica or Brittany, in F: 

arnatto or arnotto, n. dr-ndt'-to or dr-not'to, a 
le substance of an orange-red colour, used in 

arnica, n. ar'nXkd (Gr. arnion, a little lamb— from 
ars, a lamb,— from the resemblance of the leaf to the 
soft coat of a lamb), leopard's bane— the ex] 
juice of the root is used in medicine. 

arnott or arnut, n. ar'nut (AS. eorthnot), contr. for 
earth-nut — commonly found in hilly grass-pastures, its 
- in the earth being indicated by a tuft of white 
flowers on a slender stem. 

aroma, n. d-ro'ma (Gr. : F. arome\ the fragrant 
principle in plants; an agreeable odour or smell: 
aromatic, a. dr'o-mdt'ik, also ar'omat ical. 
spicy; fragrant: ar'omat ically, ad. -If: aromatics, 
n. plu. dr'omat'Ucs, spices or perfumes : aromatise, v. 
a-ro'-mddiz ', to render fragrant ; to perfume : aroma- 
tising, imp.: aro'matised , pp. -tlza : axomatisation, 
n. d-rO'-md-il-zd'-shun, the act of rendering aromatic: 
aromatiser. n. d-rO-r\d-tl'zer, one who. 

arose, v. 4-roz— see arise. 

around, prep. drmcnd' (a and round), about; on 
all sides : ad. in a circle ; on every side. 

arouse, v. a-rovnl (a and route, a secondary form 
of redae), to stir up; - 
activity: arousing, imp. : aroused, | ; . . ~zd'. 

arpeggio, n. ar-pil-jo (It), in music, notes ( 
chord struck in quick succession, so as to imitate the 
sound of a harp ; a harp accompaniment. 

arquebuse, n. ar'-ke-booz' (F. : It. archibuso: Dut. 
■•e, a gun fired from a rest), an old-fashioned 
hand-gun: arquebusier, n. 
armed" with an arquebuse: arquebusade, a 
oSb-zdd', originally a shot-wound from an arquebuse, 
now applied to a distilled water used for the cure of 
wounds or bruises. 

arquerite, n. 6r-ki-rlf, a native silver amalgam, 
occurring in crystals and ar\ -in the 

mines of Arqueros, near Coquimbo, in Chili. 

arrack, n. dr'-rdk, (Ar. araq, sweat : juice), spiritu- 
ous liquor distilled in the East Indies, from rice, 
cocoa-nut. &c. 

Arragonite, n. dr-rdg'o-nlf, one of the calc-spar 
family— from Arragon, in Spain. 

arraign, v. ar-rdn' (old F. arraigner— from L. ad 
ration-:* stare, to plead), to set as a prisoner at the 
bar of a court of justice; to charge with faults; to 
accuse publicly : arraign ing, imp. : arraigned, pp. 
arr'nd : arraign 'er, n. one who: arraignment, n. 
arrdn'-ment, the act of setting a prisoner before a 

arrange, v. drrdnf (F. arranger, to set in order), 
to put into proper order: to adjust; to dispose: ar- 
ranging, imp.: arranged, pp. drrdnjd': arranger, 
n. one who: arrangement, n. dr-rdnj : ment, putting 
into proper order ; settlement ; a classification. 

arrant, a. dr'-rdnt \L. errans, wandering: Ger. arg, 
bad: AS. earg, evil: see arch, slyi, notorious; habit 
and repute ; impudent ; infamous : ar'rantly, ad. -If. 

arras, n. dr'-rds (name of a town in France where 
first made), tapestry ; hangings for rooms woven with 

array, v. drrd' (old F. arroyer, to set in order: It. 
■■:. to get ready: IceL reida, to lay out), to pre- 
pare or dispose ; to put in order ; to dress : to envelop : 
n. men drawn up for battle ; dress : arraying, imp.: 
arrayed, pp. dr-rdd'.- array er, n. one who. 

arrears, n. dr-rerz' (F. away, behind: L. 
ad, to: retro, backward), a sum of money past due; 
what remains unpaid. 

arrest, v. dr-resf (L. ad; resto, I stop: F. ams-'cr: 
It. arrestare), to stop; to hinder; to restrain; to seize 

bv authority: n. hindrance; restraint; 
authority: arresting, imp.: arrested, pp. ar-rest- 
arrester, n., also arrest'or, n. one who: arrestment, 
n. an order by a judge to hinder or detain : ar resta - 
tion, n. 

arris, n. dr'ds (old F. anste), in joinery and mason- 
ry, the line or edge of meeting of two boj 

arrive, v. dr-r\-:' iF. ar r icer, to reach: It i 
L. ad; ripam, to come on shor 

. to gain by effort : arri'ving, imp. : arrived, 
pp. dr-rv:d' : arrival, n. reaching a place fr .. 
tance ; the act of comin g I 

arrogate, v. dr'-rogdi (L. ad; rogo, I ask), to as- 
sume more than is proper ; to prefer a claim in 
of pride; to claim undue power: ar roga tin- 
arrogated, pp. : arrogance, :_. • irrogan- 
cy, n. -gdri-ii, or arrogation, n. dr'-rOgd'shun, the 
act or quality of taking too much upon one's self; con- 
nnption : arrogant, a. -gdnt, assum- 
ing too much importance ; presuming and o 
::._-: arrogantly, ad. -If; arrogative, a. dr-, 
claiming unduly. 

arrondisseme'nt, n. dr-rong'-diz-mong' (F.), in 
a district or division of territory for the ex- 
ercise of a particular jurisdiction. 

arrow, n. dr'-ro (AS. arewe: W. aro, a weanon: 
Icel. or, an arrow : Sw. hurra, to hurl), a pointed and 
barbed weapon of war shot from a bow, not now used 
as such in Europe ; a long rod pointed sharply, and 
barbed: arrowy, a. dr'ro-i, of or like an arrow: ar- 
row-headed, a. dr'-rG-hi'd'-id, a name applied : 
like alphabetic figures, very ancient ; a I - 
form: arrow -root', n. a farina or flour, prepared 
from the root of a family of West Indian plants, so 
called from the Indians having emplo; 
root in the cure of wounds made by poisoned arrows. 

arsenal, n. dr'-se-nul (old F. a ale: L. 

naval citadel: .Arab, ddrsanah, a place 
of work), a place where weapons of war, and warlike 
equipments, are manufactured and stored up ; a ma- 
gazine for military stores of all kinds. 

arsenic, n. 6 Gr. 

a metal ; a poisonous mineral substance, in the form 
of a wL::- _ y powder; also called arsen- 

iousacid, -4Mb: adj. pert to: arsenic, a. a/- ■■■■: 
arsenical, a. ir-senH-kdl, containing arsenic : arseni- 
cate. v. dr-iiii : l-kdt, to com) i nie: ar- 

senica'ting, imp. : arsen'ica ted pp. : arseniate, n. 
: at, a salt of arsenic acid : arsenite, n. 
if, a salt of arsenious acid. 

arsis, n. ar'-sis (Gr. arsis, the rise of the voice in a 
syllable— from airo, I raise), in 
syllable of a foot, or that on which the stress of the 
put, the other part of the foot being called 

arson, n. arson (L. arsum, to burn), the crime of 
wilfully setting on fire a dwelling-house or other 

art, v. drf (see are), the 2d sing, of the pr - 

art, n. drf (L. ars. gen. artis, an art), anything done 
by human skill— the opposite of nature; knowledge 
applied to the uses of everyday life — - - : 

■ trade ; skill ; cunning : art and part, a share 
in contrivance and execution: artful, a. 
cunning ; crafty: art fully, ad.-?i.- artless, a. un- 
natural; simple: artlessly, ad. -li: axtlessness, n. : 
artfulness, n. skill; cunning: artifice, n. dr'-tifis 
(L. ars;/acio, I make), a trick; an Ingenious contriv- 
ance, in a good or bad sense: artificer, n. dr-tifl- 

rkman; a contriver: artificial, 6r J -ttJ 
made by art ; not produced by nature : artificially, 
ad -ft: ar tifici'alness, n. : artificiality, n. dr'ti- 
f^h'-idl'idi, appearance or result of art: art union, 
■un : ytin, a subscription lottery of paintings, engrav- 
.: artisan, n. Ar'-tl-zan, a workman; a - me- 
chanic: fine arts, fin'- arts, those productions of 
human skill and genius more immediately address- 
ed to the sentiments of taste, or to the imagination 
— such as painting, sculpture, engraving, mt. 

artemisia, n. dr'-te-ntU-i-d (Artemis, one of the 
names of Diana, who presided over women in child- 
b-rdi, mother-herb, a genus of plants including the 
mugwort, wormwood, &c 

artery, n. dr'-ier-i (L. and Gr. arteria— from. Gr. 
I preserve, because believed by the an- 
circulate air), one of the vessels that 
the blood from the heart to all parts of the body: ar- 
terial, a. ar-te : ri-dl, of or contained in arteries: ar- 

boy./oot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, §U 




terialise, v. dr-ts'-rl-dl-llz', to render the blood from 
the veins similar to that contained in the arteries: 
arte'riali'sing, imp.: arte'rialised', pp. -lizd' : arte- 
rialisation, n. dr-te-rl-dl'-i-za'-shun, the process of 
making into arterial blood: arteriotomy, n. dr-te'-rl- 
ot-o-mi (Gr. tome, a cutting; and artery), opening an 
artery to let blood. 

artesian, n. dr-te'-zhl-dn, applied to a boring or 
perforation made in the earth, in order to obtain a 
c instant flow of water— so called from Artois, in France 
(the anc. Artesium), where first used. 

arthritic, a. dr-thrlt'lk, also arthritical, a. dr- 
thrU'-i-kdl (Gr. arthron, a joint), pert, to the joints or 
to the gout: arthritis, n. dr-thrl'tU, inflammation 
of the joints; the gout: arthrodia, n. dr-thro'-dld 
(Gr. arthrbo, I fasten by joints), a joint in which the 
head of one bone is received into the socket of an- 
other; a ball-and-socket joint. 

artichoke, n. dr'-tl-chok (F. artichaut: It. artici- 
occo), a well-known garden vegetable. 

artful, ar'tifice, <&c— see art. 

article, n. ar'-tl-kl (L. articulus, a joint: F. article: 
It. articolo), a clause or item; a particular thing; a 
contribution in a periodical ; in gram., a word put be- 
fore a noun to point it out and limit its application: 
v. to bind by conditions; to stipulate: articled, pp. 
ur'-tl-kld: articulate, v. dr-tik- d-ldt, to pronounce 
words distinctly : adj. distinct; jointed: articulate- 
ly, ad. -U-. artic'ulate'ness, n.: articulation, n. dr-tlk- 
ii-ld'-shun, distinct pronunciation; a joint: artic'ula' 
ting, imp. : artic ula'ted, pp.: articular, a. dr-tik- u-ldr, 
belonging to the joints: artic'ular ly, ad. -II : articles 
of war, the military code of laws for the government 
of soldiers and the punishment of their crimes : artic- 
ulata, n. dr-tik- u-la'-td, one of the great divisions of the 
animal kingdom, designating those creatures which 
are encircled by jointed rings, as worms, lobsters, &c. 

artillery, n. ar-til'-ler-i (F. artillerie, ordnance— from 
mid. L. artificium, implement with which anything 
is clone), weapons of war; cannon; great guns, Ac. : 
artillery-man, the man who assists to manage a can- 
non : artillerist, n. one skilled in gunnery. 

ar'tisan, n.— see art. 

artist, n. dr'-tlst (L. ars, gen. artis, an art), one who 
exercises any art or craft, particularly that of a painter, 
a sculptor, an architect, a photographer, or suchlike : 
artiste, n. dr-test' (F. an artist— from L.), a profes- 
sional singer, dancer, athlete, or suchlike: artistic, a. 
dr-tis'-tlk, also artis'tical, a. -kdl, of an artist; accord- 
ing to a high degree of art: artis'tical'ly, ad. -II. 

artocarpus, n. ar'-to-kdr'-pus (Gr. artos, bread; kar- 
pos, fruit), the bread-fruit tree of the S. Sea Islands. 

arum, n. a'-rum (L. : Gr. aron, supposed to be anc. 
Egyptian word), the wake-robin found in many British 
woods— a plant esteemed for its medicinal qualities. 

Arundelian, a. dr'-un-del-l-dn (from the Earl of 
Arundel), a name applied to certain ancient marbles. 

arundinaceous, a. d-riin-dl-nd'-shiis (L. arundo, a 
reed), resembling or having the structure of reeds : 
-arundineous, a. dr'-un-dln'-l-us, abounding with reeds. 

aruspice, n. d-rus'-pls (L. aruspex or haruspex, a 
soothsayer), in anc. Rome, a diviner by the inspection 
of the entrails of beasts: aruspicy, n. d-rus'-pi-sl, the 
art of foretelling events by the inspection of the en- 
trails of beasts slain in sacrifice. 

as, conj. prep, or ad. dz (contr. of AS. eallswa, all 
so : Ger. als), signifying agreement in manner in gen- 
eral ; likeness of manner ; for example ; equally. 

as, n. ds (L.), the anc. Roman pound, consisting of 
twelve parts or ounces. 

asafoetida, n. ds'-d-fdt'-l-dd (L. asa, a gum ; factidus, 
fetid: Ar. asd, healing), a gum-resin, having a highly 
offensive odour, obtained from an Indian tree— much 
used in medicine. 

asarabacca, n. ds'-dr-d-bdk'-kd (L. asarum, wild 
spikenard ; bacca, a berry), a plant whose leaves have 
a bitter acrid taste, and very nauseous— used in medi- 
cated snuffs: asarine, n. ds'-dr-ln, a substance ob- 
tained from asarum. 

asbestos, n. ds-b&s'-tds, also asbes'tus (Gr. asbestos, 
unquenchable), a fibrous mineral of the hornblende 
family, having the fibres elastic and flexible, some- 
what resembling flax, and which cannot be consumed 
by fire; the different varieties receive the names of 
rock-ivood, rock-cork, mountain-leather, fossil-paper 
or flax, &c: asbestine, a. ds-bSs'tin, of or like asbes- 
tos : asbes'tiform, n. -tl-faTvrm (Gr. asbestos : L. forma, 
shape), of the form of asbestos. 

ascarides, n. plu. ds-kdr'-i-dez, sing, as'caris (Gr.), 

the small intestinal threadworms: ascarina, n. as- 
kd-ri'-nd, a plant whose anther resembles an intestinal 

ascend, v. ds-s&nd' (L. ad; scando, I mount up; 
scansum, to mount up : It. ascendere), to mount ; to 
go up ; to rise: ascending, imp. : ascend'ed, pp. : as- 
cen'dant, a. superior; surpassing; in astron., above 
the horizon : n. commanding influence ; superiority : 
ascendency, n. ds-sen'-den-sl, power; controlling influ- 
ence: ascensive, a. ds-sen'-slv, rising or tending to 
rise: ascension, n. ds-scm'-shun, the act of going up: 
right ascension, in astron., the arc of the equinoctial 
intercepted between the first point of Aries and the 
circle of declination passing through the place of the 
heavenly body: ascent, n. ds-senf, act of rising; ris- 
ing of a hill : ascendable, a. ds-send'-d-bl, that may 
be ascended : ascen'sion-day, n. the day on which our 
Lord's ascension is commemorated. 

ascertain, v. ds'-ser-tdn' (L. ad, to ; certus, sure), to 
make sure by examination ; to establish : as'certain'- 
ing, imp. : ascertained', pp. -tand' : ascertainable, 
a. ds'-ser-tdn'-d-bl, that may be made sure of by search 
or examination: ascertainment, n. ds'sertan'm&nt : 
as'certain'er, n. one who. 

ascetic, n. ds-sit'-lk (Gr. asketos, exercised), one un- 
duly rigid or austere ; one who retires from the world : 
adj. retired from the world; austere; also ascet'ical, 
a. -l-kdl: asceticism, n. ds-s&t'-i-slzm, the practice of 

ascii, n. plu. dsh'-l-l, or ascians, n. plu. dsh'-l-dnz 
(L. ascii — from Gr. a, without; skia, a shadow), ap- 
plied to the inhabitants of the torrid zone who are sha- 
dowless at noon. They are also called amphis'cii, be- 
cause when not shadowless their shadows will at noon 
fall northwards one part of the year and southwards 
at another. The inhabitants of the N. temperate zone 
at noon have their shadows always falling northwards, 
and those of the S. temperate zone always south, and 
are called antis'cii. In the frigid zones, when the sun 
is above the horizon, the shadows of the inhabitants 
are directed to every point of the compass in succes- 
sion, and they are called peris'cii. 

ascidia, n. plu. ds-sid'-l-d, or ascid'ians, n. plu. -l-dnz 
(Gr. askidion, a little bag), an order of shell-less mol- 
luscs having the appearance of small leathern pouches 
or paps, found as a pap-like gelatinous substance on 
rocks, old shells, &e. : ascidium, n. ds-sid'-l-um, in bot., 
a form of leaf in which the stalk is hollowed out and 
closed by the blade as by a lid ; a pitcher-leaf. 

ascites, n. plu. ds-si'-tez (Gr. askos, a cavity or 
bladder), dropsy of the belly: ascitic, a. ds-sit'-ik, 
also ascit'ical, a. -l-kdl, dropsical : ascit'ical'ly, ad. -li. 

ascititious, a. ds'-si-tish-us (L. ascisco, I receive, I 
adopt), additional ; supplemental. 

asclepiad, n. ds-kle'-pl-dd, a choriambic verse first 
used by Asclepias. 

ascribe, v. ds-krib' (L. ad, to ; scribo, I write), to im- 
pute to ; to assign to as a cause ; to attribute : ascri'- 
bable, a. -bd-bl, that maybe attributed to : ascri'bing, 
imp.: ascribed, pp. ds-kribd' -. ascription, n. ds- 
krlp'-shun, the act of attributing to. 

ascus, n. ds'-kiis (Gr. askos, a cavity or bladder), in 
bot., a membranous tubular cell, of which several are 
sunk in the substance of lichens and fungi containing 
their sporules. 

ash, n. dsh (AS. a?.sc: Icel. askr), a well-known tree; 
adj. made of or pertaining to the ash : ashen, a. dsh'-Sn, 
made of ash; often used for ashes, as in potash: ash- 
coloured, a. coloured between brown and grey, like 

ashamed, pp. or a. d-shdmd' (AS ascamian, to be 
ashamed), confused from a sense of guilt or unworthi- 
ness ; covered with shame. 

ashes, n. plu. dsh'-ez (AS. asca; Icel. aska; Goth. 
azgo; Ger. asche, dust, refuse), the dust or matter that 
remains from a burnt body ; the remains of any body 
reduced to dust : ashy, a. dsh'-l, pale ; like ashes : ash'- 
ery, n. dsh'-er-l, an ash-pit : ash y-pale, pale as ashes : 
Ash-Wednesday, the first day of Lent. 

ashler or ashlar, dsh'-ter (It. asciare, to cut or hew 
smoothly with an axe), rough -hewn stones used for 
facing walls ; free or common stone as it comes from 
the quarry : ash'lering, n. in carpen., the fixing of short 
upright quarterings between the rafters and the floor. 

ashore, ad. d-shor' (AS. t a, on, and shore), on shore ; 
on the land. 

Ashtareth, n. dsh'-td-rBth (Phen. the wife of Baal), 
a goddess of the ancient Sidonians and Philistines, 
identified with Venus of the Romans. 

mate, mdt.fdr, law; mete, met, her; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; 




Asian, a. d'zhl-dn, also Asiatic, a. d'zhl-dt'-ik, of 
or pert, to Asia: Asiaticism, n. d'zhl-dt'i-slzm, imi- 
tation of Oriental manners. 

aside, ad. d-sid' (AS. a, on, and side), to one side ; 
apart from the rest; at a little distance from the 
straight line. 
asinine, ds'l-nln— see under ass. 
ask, v. ask (AS. acsimi: Ieel. aeskia: Ger. heischen, 
to inquire, to demand), to beg ; to solicit ; to seek from ; 
to question; to inquire: asking, imp.: asked, pp. 
dskt: as'ker, n. one who. 

askance, ad. ds-kdns' (It. schiancio, athwart, across; 
scatisare, to turn aside: Dut. schuins, aslant), side- 
ways ; looking towards one comer of the eye : askant, 
ad. ds-kdnt', obliquely; on one side. 

askew, ad. ds-kii' (Gr. skaios: L. sccevas, on the 

left hand : Ger. sch irf, oblique), awry ; obliquely ; aside. 

aslant, ad. d-sldnf (AS. a, on, and slant), on one side. 

asleep, ad. d-slep' (AS. a, on, and sleep), in a state 

of sleep ; at rest. 

aslope, ad. d-slop' (AS. a, on, and slope), in a slop- 
ing manner. 

Asmonean, a. ds'mo-ne'dn, also written Asmo- 
nsean, pert, to the Asmoneans, a family that reigned 
over the Jews 126 years. 

asomatous, a. d-sdm'd-tus (Gr. a, without; soma, 
gen. sotnatos, a body), without a material body. 

asp, n. asp, also aspic, n. ds : plk (L. aspis, a veno- 
mous serpent), a small serpent whose bite is fatal. 

asparagus, n. ds-pdr'-d-gus (L., from Gr. aspara- 
gos), a well-known plant, the young shoots of which 
are used at table: asparaginous, a. ds'pdr-dj'l-niis, 
eaten like asparagus : asparagine, n. ds-pdr'djln, a 
crystalline substance obtained from asparagus: as- 
paragus stone, a translucent mineral of a greenish- 
yellow colour, sometimes passing into a wine colour: 
aspar'tic acid, an acid obtained from asparagine. 

aspect, n. ds'pekt (L. ad; specto, I look), look; ap- 
pearance ; position or situation ; view. 

aspen, n. ds'pen, also asp (AS. aispe: Icel. aspi), a 
tree of the poplar kind whose leaves quiver or shake 
at the slightest breath of air: adj. pert, to an aspen. 
asperate, v. ds'per-dt (L. asper, rough), to make 
rough or uneven : as'pera'ting, imp. : as'pera'ted, pp. : 
asperation, n. ds'per-d'shiin .- asperifolious, a. ds- 
per-l-fo'll-us (L. asper; folium, a leaf), having leaves 
rough to the touch : asperity, n. ds-pei-'i-tl, roughness 
of surface ; the quality that grates on the ear ; sour- 
ness; harshness. 

aspergill, n. ds'per-jll, or aspergillus, n. ds'per- 
jll'lus (L. aspergo, I scatter or throw), in the R. 
Cath. Ch., a short staff surmounted by a brush for 
sprinkling holy water : as'pergil'lifor'mis, n. -jU'lh 
for'-nils (L. aspergo; forma, shape), in hot., applied to 
little tufts of hair which assume the form of a brush. 

aspermou3, a. d-sper'-miis (Gr. a, without; sperma, 
seed), in bot., without seed. 

asperse, v. ds-spers' (L. aspersus, besprinkled), to 
cover all over with evil reports; to slander: aspers- 
ing, imp. : aspersed, pp. ds-perst', slandered : as- 
per'ser, n. one who: aspersion, n. ds-per'shun, a 
sprinkling, as with dust or water ; the act of spreading 
foul or slanderous reports : aspersory, a. ds-per'sor-i, 

asphalt or asphaltum, n. ds-falf or ds-fdl'tum[(L.: 
Gr. asphaltos, bitumen), a blackish substance found 
in various parts of the world ; melted and mixed with 
gravel, it is used for making floors and pavements: 
asphaltic, a. ds-fal'-tlk, pert, to asphalt. 

asphodel, n. ds'fOdil (Gr. asphudelos, a plant sacred 
to Proserpine), the day-lily, called also the king's spear. 
asphyxy, n. ds-flk'si, also asphyxia, n. ds-flk'sl-d 
(Gr. a, without; $phu.ris, the pulse), the temporary 
ceasing of the motion of the heart and arteries as in 
drowning or suffocation ; swooning : asphyxiated, a. 
ds-fik'sid'ted, suffocated as by hanging or drowning, 
or by an accumulation of carbonic acid in the blood. 

aspidiaria, n. ds'pld-i-d'rid (Gr. aspis, gen. aspi- 
dos, a shield), a genus of fossil stems found in the 
coal-measures, so called from the shape of the leaf- 
scaurs : aspidium, n. ds-pld'-i-um, a genus of ferns. 

aspidorhynchus, n. ds'-pl-do-rln-kus (Gr. aspis; 
rhunchos, a beak), a genus of fossil fishes charac- 
terised by the tapering or beak-like prolongation 
of their upper jaws, armed with numerous sharp- 
pointed conical teeth. 

aspidura, n. ds'pi-do'-rd (Gr. aspis, a shield; oura, 
a tail), a genus of fossil star-fishes having a buckler ar- 
rangement of the ossicles that protect the arms. 

aspire, v. ds-plr'(L.aspiro, I breathe or blow towards 
— from ad, and spiro, I breathe : F. aspirer), to desire 
with eagerness ; to pant after; to aim at something 
that can be obtained with difficulty: aspi'ring, imp.': 
adj. ambitious: aspired, pp. ds-pird': aspirer, 
n. one who: aspi'ringly, ad. -II: aspirant, n. ds-pi- 
rdnt, one who seeks with eagerness: aspirate, v. 
ds'-pl-rdt, to pronounce with a full breath : n. a letter 
with a mark to show it must be pronounced with a 
full breath : adj. pronounced with a breathing : as- 
pira'ting, imp. : aspirated, pp. ds'pi-rd'ted ■. as- 
piration, n. ds'-pi-ra-shun, the act of pronouncing a 
letter with a full breath ; an ardent wish or desire to 
attain : aspiratory, a. ds-pi'-rd-tdr'i, pert, to breathing. 

asportation, n. ds'-por-td'shun (L. ab, from; porto, 
I carry), act of carrying or conveying away. 

asquint, ad. d-skwint' (Dut. schuinte, a slope, obli- 
quity), towards one side ; obliquely. 

ass, n. ds (L. asinus, an ass: Ger. esel: Pol. osiol), a 
well-known beast of burden, dull and slow, but patient 
and hardy; a dull, stupid person: asinine, a. ds'-l- 
nln, pertaining to an ass ; like an ass. 

assagay or assagai, n. ds'd-gd (Sp. azagaya, a spear 
or half-pike), a dart or javelin used by the Catfres, &c. 

assail, v. ds-sdl' (F. assaillir, to assault— from L. 
ad, to ; salio, I leap), to leap or fall upon by violence ; 
to attack with a view to overcome or injure, as in words 
or writing: assailing, imp.: assailed, pp. ds-sdld' i 
assailable, a. As-sdi'd-bl, that may be attacked : assail- 
ant, n. ds-sdl'dnt, one who assails or attacks: adj. 
assaulting ; attacking. 

assassin, n. ds-sds-sln (Ar. hashishin. herb-eaters, 
viz., of the resin or extract of hemp), one who kills or 
attempts to kill by surprise or by secret attack; one 
of a famous Eastern sect of professional murderers, 
called Assassins, stimulated thereto by the use of ex- 
tract of hemp : assassinate, v. ds-sds'sindt, to kill, 
or to attempt to kill, by surprise ; to murder by a secret 
attack: assas'sina'ting, imp. : assas'sina'ted, pp. 
-d'-ted: assassination, n. d<s-sds'sl-nd'shun, the act of 
murdering by secret violence or by surprise : assas- 
sinator, n. -sl-nd'-tor, a murderer by surprise. 

assault, n. ds-sauit' (L. salt us, a leaping— see assail), 
a violent attack, with the intention of injuring ; a hos- 
tile attack : v. to fall upon with violence, as in words 
or writing: assault ing, imp. : assaulted, pp. ds-suwlf- 
ed: assaulter, n. one who: assaultable, a. ds-sawlf- 

assay, v. ds-sd' (F. essayer, to try : low L. exagivm : 
Gr. exagion, a weighing), to try or prove, as metals ; 
to attempt; to endeavour: n. examination; trial, as 
of the purity of silver or gold : assaying, imp. : as- 
sayed, pp. ds-sdd': assay er, n. one who. 

assemble, v. ds-sSm'-bl (F. assembler, to gather: 
AS. samod, together: L. ad; simid, together), to 
gather a number of persons or things together; to 
meet together: assembling, imp.: assembled, pp. 
ds-sem'-bld: assembler, n. one who: assemblage, n. 
ds-sem'bldj, a mass of persons; a collection of par- 
ticulars: assembly, n. ds-sem'bll, a number of per- 
sons met in the same place for a common object ; a 
congregation; a convocation: Gen'eral Assem'bly, 
the highest ecclesiastical court in Scotland. 

assent, v. ds-sent' (L. assentior, I assent— from ad, 
to; sentio, I think), to admit as true; to yield; to 
agree: n. act of admitting or agreeing to; consent: 
assent'ing, imp. : assent'ed, pp. : assent'ingly, ad. -II. 

assert, v. ds-sert' (L. assertum, to bind or fasten 
to one's self), to affirm positively ; to maintain : as- 
sert'ing, imp. : asserted, pp. : assertion, n. ds-sir- 
shun, the act of asserting; an affirmation : assertive, 
a. ds-ser'tlv, that affirms positively: assertively, ad. 
■II : assert'or, one who. 

assess, v. ds-ses' (L. assessum, to sit down— from 
ad, to ; sessum, to sit or remain, to set), to set or fix 
a tax to be paid ; to value : asses'sing, imp. : assessed, 
pp. ds-sest': asses'sable, a. -d-bl, that mayor ought to 
be assessed: asses'sably, ad. -6/1: assess'ment, n. the 
amount of a tax laid on a property : asses'sor, n. one 
who : assessorial, a. ds'-ses-so'ri-dl, also assession- 
ary, a. ds-sesh'6n-dr'l, pertaining to an assessor. 

assets, n. plu. ds'sets (L. ad, for ; satis, enough : F. 
assez, enough : Ger. satt, satisfied), funds or property 
available for payment of debts, &c. 

asseverate, v. ds-sev'er-dt (L. assevero, I state 
earnestly), to declare positively ; to affirm solemnly : 
assev'era'ting, imp. : assev'era'ted, pp. : assevera- 
tion, n. ds-sev'-er-d'shiin, a positive declaration; a 
solemn affirmation or assertion. 

coio, boy, f Jot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




assident, a. tis'shdent (L. assidens, sitting by or 
near— from ad, to ; sedeo, I sit), associating with or sit- 
ting by others — applied to symptoms or signs of a 

assiduous, a. rtssld'u-us (L. assiduus, sitting close- 
ly), very attentive; careful; diligent: assiduously, 
ad. -II: assiduousness, n. : assiduity, n. ds'sidu- 
i-tl, close application; great diligence. 

assign, v. ds-sln' (L. ad, to; signo, I mark out: F. 
asskjner), to point out; to allot to; to transfer: n. a 
person to whom property is transferred : assign'ing, 
imp.: assigned, pp. dsslnd': assigner, n. dssln'-tr: 
assignor, n. ds'sl-nor', one who : assignable, a. 
dssln'-a-bl, that may bo transferred; that can be 
allotted or specified: assignation, n. ds'sig-nd'shun, 
a making over to; an appointment to meet, as of 
lovers: assignee, n. ds'si-ne", a person appointed to 
do something ; one to whom an assignment is made : 
assignment," n. dssln'ment the thing assigned; the 
transference of some right or interest. 

assignats, n. ds'sin-yds (F.), paper money issued 
by the French Government during the first Revolution. 
assimilate, v. ds-slm'-i-ldt (L. ad, to; similis, like), 
to make like ; to bring to a likeness ; to change into 
its own substance : assim'ila'ting, imp. : assimlla'- 
ted, pp.: assim'ilable, a. -Id-bl: assimilative, a. as- 
slm'l-ld'-tlv, also assim'ilator'y, a. -tor'l, that can 
make into a like or similar substance : assimilation, 
n. Os-sim'-l-ia'-shuii, the process by which plants and 
animals convert food into the various tissues of their 
own proper substance. 

assist, v. assist' (F. assister, to assist— from L. ad, 
to ; sisto, I am made to stand), to help ; to relieve ; to 
aid ; to succour : assisting, imp. : assist'ed, pp. : as- 
sistance, n. Ossls'-tans, help ; succour ; aid : assis'tant, 
a. helping ; lending aid : n. one who helps or lends aid. 
assize, n. dsslz', plu. assizes, assl'zez (L. ad, to ; 
sessum, to sit : old F. assise, a set rate), plu., a court of 
justice in England held twice a-year in every county ; 
sing., a statute regulating the measure and price of 
commodities : assize', v. to fix measures or rates ; to 
settle : assi'zing, imp. : assized, pp. dssizd' : as- 
si'zer, n. one who. 

associate, v. dsso'shi-dt (L. ad, to ; socio, I join ; 
socius, a companion : F. associer), to join in company 
as a friend or companion : n. a companion ; a part- 
ner : asso'cia'ting, imp.: asso'cia'ted, pp.: associa- 
tion, n. dsso'shi-a'shtin, the union of persons in a 
company for mutual benefit; a society; connection, 
applied to ideas: asso'cia'tive, a. -tlv. asso'cia'tor, 
n. one who : asoo'ciable, a. -d-bl, companionable : 
asio'ciableness, n. : asso'ciabil'ity, n. -btt'i-tl: 
asso'ciate'ship, n. : asso'cia'tional, a. shi-a'shun-dl, 
pert. to. 

assoilzie, v. dssdyl'-e (old F. absoiller— from L. ab, 
from; solvo, I loose), in Scots law, to free one accused 
from a charge ; to find a criminal not guilty ; to set at 
liberty: assoil'zieing, imp. -ing : assoilzied, pp. -ed. 

assonant, a. Os'sQ-nOnt (L. ad, to ; sonans, sound- 
ing), resembling in sound: assonance, n. ds'-sd-7idns. 

assort, v. assort' (L. ad, to; sors, gen. sortis, a 
lot), to arrange into sorts or classes ; to agree or suit: 
assorting, imp. : assorted, pp. : assor'ter, n. one 
who: assortment, n. the act of separating into lots 
or arranging into classes ; a number of things of the 
same kind. 

assuage, v. ds-swaf (L. ad, to ; suavis, sweet : old F. 
assouager, to soften), to soften ; to mitigate ; to allay ; 
to abate or subside: assua'ging, imp. : assuaged, 
pp. dssivajd' : assuage ment, n. mitigation: assua- 
sive, a. diswa'-ziv, soothing ; mitigating : assua'ger, 
n. one who. 

assuetude, n. ds'-tvS-tud (L. assuetudo, custom— 
from ad; suesco, I become used), custom; habit. 

assume, v. Os-sum' (L. assumo, I take to myself— 
from ad, to ; sumo, I take ; sumptus, taken), to take 
upon one's self; to appropriate; to pretend to pos- 
sess ; to take for granted or without proof : assu'- 
ming, imp. : adj. haughty, arrogant: assumed', pp. : 
assu'mingly, ad. -II ."assu'mer, n. : assumption, n. 
assiim'shun, the act of assuming; supposition; the 
taking up into heaven, applied to the Virgin Mary: 
assumptive, a. that maybe assumed: assump'tively, 
ad. -tlv-ll: assumpsit, n. assumpsit, in laiv, a volun- 
tary promise to perform for, or to pay to another. 

assure, v. dshdr' (L. ad, to; securus, sure, certain: 
F. assurer), to make certain ; to give confidence by a 
promise ; to insure : assu'ring, imp. : assured', pp. 
d-sMrd' : assuredly, ad. dshO'rcd-ll: assu'redness, 

mate, mitt, far, law; mete, mSt, 

n. : assu'rer, n. : assurance, n. ti-sh6'-rdns, a declara- 
tion to dispel doubt; the utmost certainty; impu- 
dence; conviction ; a contract to make gooil a loss by 
death or by fire, now restricted to life contingencies. 
Assyrian, a. dsir'-l-an, of or pert, to Assyria: n. an 
inhabitant of. 

astacolite, n. as-tdk'O-llt (Gr. astakos, the crayfish 
or lobster; lithos, a stone), a term applied to the fossil 
remains of crustaceans, like the crayfish or lobster. 

astatic, a. ds-tdt'-ik (Gr. a, without ; statos, that 
stands or remains), being without polarity, as a 
magnetic needle. 

aster, n. Os'-ter (Gr. aster, a star), an extensive genus 
of plants whose flowers have a star-like arrangement, 
asteracanthus, n. ds'ter-d-kdn'thus (Gr. aster, a 
star ; akantha, a thorn or spine), a genus of fossil fin- 
spines of fishes, often of large size, having their sur- 
faces richly ornamented with star-like tubercles. 

asteria, n. Os-te'-ri-O, also asterite, n. Os'-ter-lt 
(Gr. aster, a star), a variety of corundum or star sap- 
phire, which, when cut in a certain way, shows a 
bright opalescent star of six rays: asteriated, a. 
ds-te'ri-a'-tC'd, radiated; star-like: asteridae, n. plu. 
ds-ter'l-de, the star-fish family, of which the common 
five-rayed star-fish is taken as the type. 

asterisk, n. Os'-tcr-isk (Gr. asteriskos, a little star), 
a small star (*) used to refer to a note, or to mark the 
omission of words ; a constellation or star cluster. 

astern, ad. Ostern' (AS. a, on, and stern), at the 
stem ; the hinder part of a ship ; behind. 

asteroid, n. ds'-ter-dyd (Gr. aster a star ; eidos, like- 
ness), one of the minor planets : asteroida, n. Os'-ter- 
dy'da, an order of polypes having a star-like or rayed 
arrangement of their tentacles when fully expanded : 
as'teroi'dal, a. pert, to the small planets. 

asterolepis, n. Os'ter-6-le'pis or -61- (Gr. aster; 
lepis, a scale), a gigantic ganoid fossil fish of the old 
red sandstone. 

asterophyllites, n. plu. ds'ter-6-fil'llts (Gr. aster, 
a star ; phidlon, a leaf), fossil plants found abundantly 
in the coal-measures, having star-like whorls of linear 

asthenic, a. Os-fhSn'-ik (Gr. a, without; sthc7ios, 
strength), weak ; debilitated : as'thenol'ogy, n. -nol-6' 
jl (Gr. a; sthenos; logos, discourse), a discourse on 
diseases connected with debility. 

asthma, n. dst'-ma (Gr.— from a, without ; cio, I 
breathe), a disease of the organs of breathing attended 
with cough and difficulty of breathing : asthmatic, a. 
ast-mdt'ik, also asthmat'ical, a. -i -kdl, troubled with 
difficulty of breathing, 
astir, ad. 0-ster' (a, on, and stir), on the move; active, 
astomatous, a. dstom'dtiis (Gr. a, without; stoma, 
gen. stomatos, a mouth), mouthless ; also spelt asto- 
mous, ds'-to-mus. 

astonied, v. ds-ton'ld, for astonished, a word fre- 
quently occurring in Scripture. 

astonish, v. Os-ton'-ish (old F. estonner, to amaze : L. 
ad, to; tono, I thunder: AS. stunian, to make stupid 
with noise), to fill with sudden fear and wonder ; to 
amaze ; to confound with surprise : astonishing, imp.: 
astonished, pp. -iaht: astonishingly, ad. -li: aston'- 
ishment, n. 

astound, v. ds-tdivnd' (see above), to strike dumb 
with amazement: astounding, imp. : astound'ed, pp. 
astraddle, ad. dstrdd'dl (AS.— see straddle), with 
the legs on opposite sides of a thing. 

astraea, n. dstre'd (Gr. aster, a star), the goddess 
of justice ; one of the minor planets : astrseidae, ds- 
tre'i-de, the family of star corals, so called from the 
arrangement and number of their cell rays. 

astragal, n. ds'trd-gdl (Gr. astragalos, the upper 
joint of the neck, the ankle-joint), the ring -like 
moulding round the top and bottom of the column 
of a pillar ; the beaded zinc bars used by zinc-workers 
in making diamond and ornamental window-frames. 
astral, a. as'trdl (Gr. aster, a star), belonging to the 
stars; starry. 

astray, ad. a-stra' (AS. a, on, and stray), out of 
the right way or proper place. 

astriction, n. dstrlk'shiin (L. ad, to; strictum, to 
bind), the act of binding close or contracting: astric- 
tive, a. dstrlk'-tlv, binding; also astrictory, a. 

astride, ad. Ostrid' [a and stride), with the legs 

astringe, v. dstrlnf (L. ad, to; sfringo, I bind fast), 
to bind together; to contract by pressing together: 
astrin'ging, imp.: astringed, pp. strinjd': astrin- 

her; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 




gent, n. ds-trin'jcnt, that which contracts or draws 
together muscular fibre; the principle in hark that 
tans hides for leather: adj. binding: astrin'gency, 
n. -j&n-sl: astrin'gently, ad. -ft. 

astrography, n. ds-trdg'-rd-fl (Gr. aster or astron, 
a star; grapho, I describe), a description of the stars. 
astrolabe, n. ds'tro-ldb (Gr. astron, a star; labeln, 
to take), an instrument formerly used to take alti- 
tudes of the sim and stars, now superseded by Had- 
ley's quadrant. 

astrology, n. ds-trol'6-jl (Gr. astron, a star; logos, 
discourse), a science that pretends to foretell events by 
observing the stars : astrologer, n. the person who 
pretends to foretell events by the stars : astrological, 
a. ets'trO-loj'i-kdl, pert, to : as'trolog'ical'ly, ad. 
-l-kal-l: astrologise, v. ds-trol'6-jlz, to practise astro- 
logy: astrol'ogi'sing, imp.: astrol'ogised', pp. -jlzd'. 
astronomy, n. ds-tron'Oml (Gr. astron; nomos, a 
law), the science that treats of the motions, magni- 
tudes, and everything connected with the heavenly 
hodies: astronomer, n. ds-trdn'-omer, one given to 
the study of the heavenly bodies: astronomic, a. 
ds'trO-nOm'lk, also as'tronom'ical, a. -nom'l-kdl, 
pert, to: astronomically, ad. -ft: astronomise, v. 
ds-trdn'0-inlz, to assume the habits and study, of an 
astronomer: astron'omi'sing, imp. : astron'omised', 
pp. -mizd'. 

astro-theology, n. ds'tr04M-Sl'6-j% (Gr. astron, and 
theology), natural theology founded on the observa- 
tion of the celestial bodies. 

astute, a. ds-tut' (L. astutus, crafty: It. astuto), 
sagacious; sharp; discerning; crafty: astute'ness, n.: 
astutely, ad. -ll. 

asunder, ad. d-sun'der (AS. a, on, and sunder), apart ; 
separately ; in a divided state. 

asylum, n. d-sVluni (L.— from Gr. a, not; sulcio, I 
rob: It. asilo: F. asile), a place of refuge; a sanctu- 
ary ; a place out of which he that has fled to it may 
not be taken. 

asymmetrical, a. ds'lm-met'rl-kdl (Gr. a, without ; 
summetria. symmetry), not agreeing; inharmonious. 
asymtote, n. ds'lm-tot (Gr. asumptotos, not fall- 
ing together— from a, not ; sun, together; ptotos, apt 
to fall), a line which, though approaching nearer and 
nearer to a curve, can never reach it : adj. approach- 
ing but never meeting. 

asyndeton, n. d-sln'dd-ton (Gr. a, not; sundetos, 
hound together), a figure in rhet. which keeps the 
parts of speech together without the use of conjunc- 

at, prep, at (AS. aet : Icel. at: Dan. ad: Sans, adhi, 
upon: L. ad, to), near to; with; towards. 

atacamite, n. a-tdk'dm-lt' , a native ore of copper, 
called also copper-sand, found in the desert of Ataca- 
ma between Chili and Peru. 

ataxic, a. d-tak'sik (Gr. a, without ; tasso, I put in 
order), wanting order; irregular: ataxia, n. d-tdk- 
sld, irregularity. 

ate, v. et, pt, of eat, which see. 
atelier, n. dt'le-d (F.) the workroom of a painter 
or sculptor — called also a studio. 

a tempo, ad. d-tem'pO (It. in time), in music, used 
to indicate that the interrupted time is to be restored, 
ater, d'ter (L. ater, black), pure black; as a prefix, 
spelt atro. 

Athanasian, a. dfh'd-nd'zhl-dn, pert, to Athanasius, 
a bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century, or to 
the creed called by his name. 

atheism, n. d'the-lzm (Gr. a, without; theos, God), 
the disbelief in the existence of a God: atheist, n. 
d'-the-lst, one who does not believe in the existence of 
a God: atheistic, a. d'the-ls'tlk, pert, to; also a'the- 
is'tical, a. -is'tl-kdl: a'theis'tical'ly, ad. -kdl'l: a'the- 
is'tical'ness, n. 

atheling, n. dth'cl-lng (AS. athel, noble; ing, son 
of), one of noble or royal descent. 

atheneum or athenseum, n. dth-c-ne'iim (Gr. 
Athenaion, the temple of Minerva at Athens), a pub- 
lic reading or lecture room: Athenian, a. d-the'nl-an, 
of Athens : n. one who. 

athericera, n. dth'er-ls'er-d (Gr. ather, a spike of 
corn, the point of a sword or arrow ; keras, a horn), 
a family or section of dipterous insects, having only 
two or three joints to the antennas : ath'erie'erous, a. 
■is'-er-us, pert to. 

atheroma, n. dth'S-ro'md (Gr. or L. atheroma, a 
tumour filled with matter), a species of wen; a curdy 
tumour: atheromatous, a. dth'-er-om'-d-tus, having 
matter resembling milk-curds. 

athirst, a, d-thersf (AS.), wanting drink ; thirsty, 
athlete, n. dth'let; plu. athletes, ath'-le-tez' ', or 
athletee, dth-le'te (Gr. athletes, a wrestler), a wrest- 
ler; one who contends in public games in trials of 
strength: athletic, a. dth-let'ik, pert, to trials of 
strength; strong; robust; vigorous: athletically, 
ad. -kdl'i: athletism, n. ath'le'-ttzm'. 

athwart, prep, d-thivdwrf (AS. «, on, and thwart), 
across; from side to side: ad. among seamen, across 
the line of the ship's course ; in a manner to cross or 

atilt, ad. d-tllt' (a and tilt), in the position of a man 
making a thrust ; hi the posture of a barrel raised 
Atlantic, a. dt-ldn'tik, of the Atlantic Ocean, 
atlas, n. dt'-las (Gr. name of a giant who, the ancient 
Greeks pretended, bore up the earth upon his shoul- 
ders), a collection of maps bound together; the top 
joint of the neck-bones, or that which supports the 
head: atlantes, n. plu. at-ldn'-tez, in arch., the whole 
or half figures of men employed instead of columns or 
pillars: Atlantean, a. dt'-lan-te'-da, also Atlantian, 
at-lan'shi-an, pert, to Atlas, or to the isle of Atlantis; 
strong; gigantic, 
atmology, n. dt-mol'ojl (Gr. atmos, vapour ; logos, 
i. the science of vapour: at'molog'ical, a. 
-lOj'i-kdl, pert, to the science of vapour: atmol'ogist, 
n. -o-jlst, one who. 

atmometer, n. dt-mom'-Z-tn- (Gr. atmos, vapour; 
metron, a measure), an instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation from any moist surface in a 
given time. 

atmosphere, n. dt'mos-fer (Gr. atmos, vapour; 
sphaira, a sphere), the whole mass of air, clouds, and 
vapour surrounding the earth: atmospheric, dt'mos- 
ft r'lk, also atmospherical, a. -ikal, pert, to the 
air: atmospherically, ad. -ft: at'mospheric pres- 
sure, the weight of the atmosphere on a surface, being 
about 14 lb. to the square inch. 

atoll, n. at'ol, (a Malayan word), a coral island, 
consisting of a ring or circular belt, with a lagoon or 
lake in the centre. 

atom, n. dt'-orn (Gr. a, not ; tcmno, I cut), a particle 
of matter that cannot be made smaller; anything ex- 
tremely small: atomed, a. df-Omd, small as atoms: 
atomic, a. ddOm'lk, also atom'ical, a. -l-kal. relat- 
ing t" atoms; consisting of atoms: atom'ically, ad. 
-ll: atomist, n. dt'-o-mlst, one who holds to the doc- 
trine of atoms: atomise, v. dt'omiz', to reduce to 
atoms: at'omi'sing, imp. : atomised, pp. dt'omizd' : 
at'omless, a.: atomism, n. dt-6-mlzm, the doctrine 
of atoms: atomic theory, in chem., the supposed 
resolution of bodies into ultimate particles or atoms, 
and the relative proportions in which they combine 
in compound substances. 

atone, v. dton' (from at one, denoting to be or to 
cause to be at one), to agree ; to make amends ; to 
give satisfaction for an offence or a crime; to expiate 
by sacrifice; to reconcile : atoning, imp. : adj. mak- 
ing amends or satisfaction: atoned, pp. a-tond' : 
atonement, n. d-tOn'ment, reconciliation after en- 
mity; satisfaction ; expiation : ato'ner, n. one who. 
atonic, a. a-ton'-lk (Gr. a, not; tonos, tone), wanting 
tone; debilitated: atony, n. dt'-o-nl, loss of vital 
atop, ad. d-top' (AS. a, on, and top), at or on the top. 
atrabiliary, a. dt'-rd-hil'-i-dr-l, also atrabiliar, a. 
dt'rd-bU'l-dr (L. ater, black; bills, bile), melancholic ; 
hypochondriac, also atrabilious, a, dt'rdbil'i-us. 

atrocious, a. d-tro'-shus (L. atro.r, gen. atrocis), cruel, 
very wicked ; extremely cruel ; criminal in the high- 
est degree: atrociously, ad. -ft: atro ciousness, n. : 
atrocity, n. a-trOs'-l-ti, enormous wickedness; cru- 
elty in the highest degree. 

atrophy, n. dt'ro-fi (Gr. a, without ; trophe, nour- 
ishment), a wasting away without manifest cause ; a 

atropia, n. d-tro'pl-d, also atropine, n. dt'ro-pln, 
or atropina, n. d-tro'pl-nd (Atropos, in anc. math., 
one of the Fates, whose duty it was to cut short the 
thread of life), a very poisonous alkaloid extracted 
from the root of the deadly nightshade— the Atropa 

atrypa, n. dt'rl-pd (Gr. a, not ; trupa, a hole), a 
genus of fossil shells, rounded, ornamented with scaly 
lines of growth, and having the foramen generally 
concealed or very small. 

attach, v. dt-tdch' (F. attacher, to tie, to bind: It. 
attaccare, to attach), to take by legal authority; to 

cdtu, bo~y,fubt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, 




arrest ; to fix ; to win or gain over : attaching, imp. : 
attached, pp. dt-ldcht' -. attach'able, a. -a-bl: at- 
tachment, n. seizing of goods by legal authority; 
■warm affection ; fidelity ; strong regard to : attache, 
n. dt'td-shd' (F.), one attached to an ambassador as 
one of his suite or attendants. 

attack, v. dt-tdk'(F. attaquer: Sp. atacar, to attack 
—see attach), to fall upon with force or violence; 
to assault ; to assail in words : n. a falling upon with 
violence; satire; unfriendly criticism: attacking, 
imp.: attacked, pp. dt-tdkt. 

attain, v. dt-tdn' (L. ad; tango, I touch: F. attain- 
dre, to reach), to come to or reach by exertion ; to 
arrive at ; to gain ; to achieve : attaining, imp. : 
attained, pp. dt-tand' : attainable, a. dt-tdn'-d-bl: 
attainability, n. -bil'l-tl: attain'ableness, n. -bi- 
nes: attain'ment, n. the act of arriving at or reaching 
by effort ; proficiency in any branch of knowledge. 

attaint, v. dt-tdnt'(L. ad, to ; tingo, I stain, or tango, 
I touch ; old F. attaindre, to accuse, to stain), to corrupt; 
to taint; to disgrace; to find guilty of treason or 
felony ; to render infamous : n. a stain ; reproach ; 
hurt: attainting, imp.: attaint'ed, pp.: attainture, 
n. dttdn'tur: attainder, n. dt-tdn'der, that which 
renders impure: the loss of civil rights and whole 
estate for the crime of treason or other capital offence 
by a judicial sentence, is called an act of attainder. 

attar, n. dt'tdr, or otto of roses, 6t-to (Hind, utr, 
essence : Arab, itr, perfume), a precious oil made in 
Eastern countries from roses ; a valuable perfume. 

attemper, v. dt-Um'per (L. ad, to ; tempero, I mix in 
due proportion), to soften or moderate to modify ; to 
mingle: attem'pering, imp.: attem'pered, pp. -perd. 

attempt, v. dt-temt' (L. ad, to ; tento, I try: F. atten- 
ter, to attempt: old F. tempter, to try), to try; to 
make an effort to accomplish; to endeavour: n. an 
attack ; an endeavour to gain a point : attempting, 
imp.: attempted, pp.: attemp'ter, n. one who: 
attempt able, a. -d-bl. 

attend, v. dt-tend' (L. ad, to; tendo, I stretch out: 
F. attendre, to expect), to wait on ; to accompany ; to 
be present ; to listen to to fix the attention upon : 
attending, imp. : attend'ed, pp. : atten'dant, n. a 
follower ; a servant : adj. accompanying; being pre- 
sent: attendance, n. dt-ten'ddns, act of serving or 
waiting on; duty: attention, n. dt-teri-shwi, the act 
of attending ; paying heed to ; steady application of the 
mind ; act of courtesy : attentive, a. dt-ten'tio, paying 
due regard to ; mindful : attent', contr. for attentive : 
attentively, ad. -tlv-li: atten'tiveness, n. the qua- 
lity of being attentive. 

attenuate, v. dt-ten'u-dt (L. ad, to ; tenuo, I make 
thin : F. attenuer), to make thin ; to reduce in thick- 
ness or density : attenuating, imp.: attenuated, pp.: 
attenuation, n. dt-tSn'u-d'shmi, the act of making 
thin, fine, or slender : attenuant, a. dt-tiin'-u-dnt, 
making thin: n. a medicine which attenuates. 

attest, v. dt-tist' (L. ad, to; testor, I bear witness : 
F. attester), to certify ; to bear witness to ; to affirm so- 
lemnly in words or writing: attesting, imp.: attest '- 
ed, pp.: attestor or attes'ter, n. one who: attesta- 
tion, n. dt'tes-td'-shun, the act of bearing witness to ; 
putting a name to a writing in order to show it to be 

Attic, a. dt'tik (L. atticus: Gr. attikos, pert, to 
Attica or Athens), pert, to Attica, a town in Greece ; 
elegant; classical: n. in arch., a plain or decorated 
parapet-wail on the upper part of the facade of a build- 
ing; an Athenian: atticism, n. dt'tl-sizm, the purest 
style of the Greek language : atticise, v. dt'tl-slz, to 
make use of atticisms: at'tici'sing, imp.: atticised, 
pp. dt'ti-slzd'. 

attic, n. dt'tik (Sans, attaka— pronounced attak— 
the room on the top of the house : F. attique), the fiat 
or floor on the upper part of a house ; a garret. 

attire, v. dt-tlr' (old F. atour, female head-dress ; 
atirer, to adorn), to dress ; to adorn with garments ; 
to array : n. clothes ; apparel : atti'ring, imp. : at- 
tired, pp. dt-tlrd': atti'rer, n. one who. 

attitude, n. dt'ti-tud (F. attitude, posture: It. 
attitudine, disposition to act), position of persons or 
things; posture: attitudinal, a. dt'-ti-ttV-dl-ndl, pert, 
to: attitudinise, v. dt'ti-tu'dl-nlz, to assume af- 
fected airs or postures : at'titu'dini'sing, imp. : at'ti- 
tu'dinised, pp. -nlzd. 

attle, n. dt'tl, a term used in Cornwall for rubbish 
thrown out of a mine, containing little or no ore. 

attollent, a. dt-tol'lent (L. ad, to; tollens, lifting 
or raising), raising or lifting up. 

attorney, n. dtter'-nl, plu. attor'neys (Norm. 
attourne : low L. attornatus, put in the place of any 
one), one who acts for another, as in a court of law ; 
a lawyer : attorneyship, n. the office of an attorney : 
attorney-general, in Eng., the head law-officer of 
the crown. 

attract, v. dt-trdkt' (L. ad, to; tractus, drawn), to 
draw to by some kind of influence ; to allure : attrac- 
ting, imp.: attracted, pp. dt-trdk'ted: attrac'tor, n. 
one who: attractable, a. dt-trdk'td-bl, that may bo 
attracted: attrac'tabil'ity, n. -bll'i-tl: attractile, a. 
dt-trdk'4U, that can attract: attraction, n. dt-trak- 
shun, the act of drawing to; the power that bodies 
have of coming together and uniting, — attractions 
take place between bodies— affinities between the par- 
ticles of a body: attractive, a. dt-trdk'-tlv, drawing 
to; alluring: attrac'tively, ad. -tlv-H: attractive- 
ness, n.: attrac'tingly, ad. -II. attraction of gravita- 
tion, that power which acts at all distances through- 
out the universe: capillary attrac'tion, that power 
which causes liquids to rise in small tubes or porous 
substances : chemical attraction or affinity, the power 
by which the ultimate particles of bodies of unlike 
kinds unite themselves together to form a new body 
possessing new and specific properties. 

attrahent, a. dt'-trd-hent (L. ad, to ; traho, I draw), 
drawing or attracting. 

attribute, v. dt-trib'-ut (L. ad, to ; tributum, to grant, 
to bestow. F. attribuer), to give as due; to ascribe 
to: attrib'uting, imp.: attributed, pp. dt-trib'u-ted: 
attribute, n. dt'tri-biit, a quality considered as be- 
longing to, or inherent in, any person or thing : at- 
tributive, a. dt-trlb'u-tiv, pert, to an attribute: at- 
tributable, a. dt-trlb'utd-bl, that may be ascribed to : 
at tribu'tion, n. -bu'-shun, commendation. 

attrition, n. dt-trlsh'un (F.— from L. ad, to; tritus, 
rubbed), the act of wearing by rubbing ; state of being 
worn by friction; the least measure of sorrow, or 
lowest degree of repentance— as opposed to contrition, 
the highest degree or real repentance. 

attune, v. dt-tun' (L. ad, and tune), to put in 
tune; to make musical; to arrange fitly: attu'ning, 
imp.: attuned, pp. dt-tund'. 

auburn, a. aw'-burn (old F. or Sp. albran, a wild 
duck in its first year, having generally a peculiar 
brown), of a tan or dark colour ; of a rich chestnut 

auction, n. awk'shun (L. audio, increase), a public 
sale of any description of property to the highest 
bidder: auc'tionar'y, a. -dr'i, pert, to: auctioneer, 
n. awk'shun-er', one empowered to sell property by 
auction : auctioneering, n. 

audacious, a. aw-dd'-shiis (L. audax, gen. audacis, 
bold : F. audacieux : It. auclace), very bold and dar- 
ing; impudent; forward: auda'ciously, ad. -II: au- 
dacity, n. aw-dds'4-tl, boldness; impudence: auda- 
ciousness, n. 

audible, a. aw'-dl-bl (L. audio, I hear : It. audible, 
audible), that may be heard ; loud enough to be per- 
ceived by the ear : audibly, ad. -bll: audibleness, n. 
aw'dl-bl-nes : au'dibillty, n. -bll'l-ti, the being loud 
enough to be heard: audience, n. aw'di-ens, admit- 
tance to a hearing ; an interview ; an assembly of hear- 
ers: audit, n. aw'dlt (L. audit, he hears), an exam- 
ination of accounts by a person or persons appointed 
for the purpose, in order to ascertain whether they be 
correct : v. to examine and settle as to the'eorrectness 
of accounts: au'diting, imp.: audited, pp. aw'-dU-6d: 
auditor, n. a hearer ; one who examines accounts : 
au'ditorship, n. the office of an auditor: auditory, 
n. aw'dl-tor'l, an assembly of hearers: adj. able to 
hear ; pert, to the sense of hearing. 

auf, n.— see oaf, a silly fellow. 

Augean stable, n. aw-je'dn std'bl, in Grecian 
myth., a stable belonging to Augeus, king of Ellis, in 
which he kept a great number of oxen ; having never 
been cleaned, it was regarded as almost an impossibil- 
ity to clean it, till it was assigned to Hercules as one 
of his labours : hence what is impracticable or what 
would be very difficult to clean. 

auger, n. aw'gir (AS. naf-gar: Fin. napa, a navel, 
the middle of a thing), an iron tool for boring holes. 

aught, n., or ought, aYvt (AS. d-wiht: Goth, waihts, 
a thing), anything; a tittle or jot. 

augite, n. aw'jlt (Gr. auge, brilliancy), a mineral 
of the hornblende family of a greenish -black, pitch, or 
velvet, or sometimes of a leek-green colour : augitic, 
a. av.'-jltUk, pert. to. 

augment, v. awg-mSnt' (L. augeo, I increase ; aug- 

mate, mdt.fdr, laio; mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




mentum, an increase : F. augmenter), to increase ; to 
make or become large in size or extent : augment, n. 
awg'-ment, an increase; a prefix ; augmenting, imp.: 
augmented, pp.: augmentable, a. awg-ment'd-bl, that 
may be increased: aug'menta'tion, n. -td'-shun, an 
increase ; the act of enlarging : augmen'tative, a. -tiv, 
having the power to augment : n. in gram., opposite 
of diminutive : augmenter, n. one who. 

augur, n. aw'-gur (L.— from avis, a bird), among the 
due Romans, one who professed to tell future 
events by natural tokens, as the singing and flying of 
birds, and the flashing of lightning; v. to profess to 
ioretell events; to guess; to be a sign: au'guring, 
imp.: augured, pp. aw'gur d: au'gurship, n. : au- 
gural, a. aw'gu-rdl, pert, to: augurous, a. aw' 
yu-rus, foreboding ; predicting : augurate, v. aw' 
gu-rdt, to predict: au'gura'ting, imp.: au'gura'ted, 
pp. : augury, n. aw'yu-ri, the art of foretelling 
events; an omen or prediction. 

august, a. aw- gust' (L. augustus, sacred, majestic: 
It. augusto : F. august e), grand ; inspiring awe ; ma- 
jestic : august'ness, n. dignity of appearance ; grand- 
eur in mien : augustly, ad. -ll. 

August, n. aw'-gilst, the eighth month in the year, 
named from Ca?sar Augustus: Augustan, a. aw-yiis' 
tan, pert, to Augustus or his age ; literary or refined. 

Augustins, n. plu. aw-gus'tlns, monks who follow 
the doctrines and rules of St Augustin. 

auk, n. awk (Dan. alkc), the name of various sea- 

aularian, n. aw-ld'-rl-dn (L. aula, a hall), at Oxford, 
the member of a hall, as distinguished from a colle- 

aulic, n. aw'-lfk (L. aulicus: Gr. aid ikos — from 
Gr. aide, a royal palace), of or pert, to a royal court. 

aunt, n. ant (contr. from L. ainita, an aunt), the 
Bister of one's father or mother. 

aura, n. aw'-rd (L. andGr. aura— from Gr. ao, I blow 
or breathe), a very gentle breeze ; a breath ; a subtle 
invisible vapour supposed to proceed from a body. 

au'ral— see under auricle. 

aurate, n. aw'-rdt (L. aurum, gold), a salt of auric 
acid : aura'ted, a. of or like gold : auric, a. aw'-rlk, 
of or from gold. 

aurelia, n. aw-re'-li-d (L. aurum, gold; aureolus, 
golden), the chrysalis of an insect : aure'lian, a. -l-dn, 
pert, to the aurelia : n. an amateur collection of in- 
sects : aureola, n. aw-re'6-kl, a circle of rays round 
the head of a portrait, to indicate something more 
than human— popularly called a glory. 

auricle, n. aw'-rl-kl (L. auricula, the ear-flap: F. 
auricule), the outside ear; a venous chamber situated 
at the base of the heart, resembling the external ear; 
auricled, a. aw'-rl-kld, having ears, or things like ears : 
auricular, a. aw-rlk'-ii-ldr, pert, to the ear; secret: 
auric ular'ly, ad. -It: auricular confession, confession 
of sins made to a priest with a view to absolution : au- 
ric'ulate, a. -kit, also auric'ula'ted, a. shaped like 
the ear: auriform, n. aw'-rl-faTcrm (L. auris, an ear; 
forma, a shape), in the shape of an ear : au'rist, n. 
one who studies diseases of the ear: auricula, n. aw- 
rlk'-u-ld, a species of primrose called bear's ear, a na- 
tive of Swiss Alps. 

auriferous, a. aTc-nf'-er-us (L. aurum, gold; fero, I 
produce), that yields or produces gold. 

aurora, n. aw-ro'-rd (L. the goddess of the morning), 
the rising light of the morning; the plant crowfoot: 
auro'ral, a. belonging to the northern lights: auro'- 
ra borealis, n. bor'-e-d'-lis, shooting lights of varied 
colours seen in the northern parts of the heavens, gen- 
erally called the northern lights : -australis, n. -aws- 
trd'-lis, the southern lights. 

auscultation, n. aws'-kul-td'shun (L, auscultatio, a 
listening with attention— from Gr. ous: L. auris, an 
ear ; and cultus, used or exercised : F.), the method of 
discovering the extent and seat of any disease con- 
nected with the respiratory organs, by applying the 
ear to the part alone, or with the help of an instru- 
ment called a stethoscope: auscultatory, a. aivs-kul- 
tdtor'l: aus'culta'tor, n. one who. 

auspices, n. plu. aw'-spis-6z (L. auspicium, augury 
from birds— from avis, a bird; sjxcio, I inspect), 
omens; influence; patronage and care; protection: 
auspicious, a. aTcspUh'-us, prosperous; lucky; for- 
tunate ; favourable : auspici'ously, ad. -It: auspicious- 
ness, n. aw-splsh'-us-nls, a state of favourable promise. 

austere, a. aws-ter' (L. austerus, rough: Gr. aus- 
teros: It. austero: F. austere), severe; harsh; stern; 
sour: austerely, ad. -ll: austere'ness, n. : austerity, 

cote, boy, fo~bt; pure, oiid; chair, 

n. aws-ter'-l-ti, strictness in manners or life ; severity ; 
rigour: plu. austerities, -i-tiz. 

austral, a. aics'-trdl (L. australis, southern — from 
auster, the south : It. australe : F. austral), pert, to 
the south: Australasian, a. aws'-trdl-d'-zhi-dn (L. 
auster, and Asia), pert, to Australasia: Australian, 
a. aws-trd'li-dn, pert, to Australia. 

Austrian, a. aws'-trl-dn, of or from Austria. 

authentic, a. aw-then'-tlk, also authentical, a. 
-tl-kdl (F. authentique : Gr. authentes, the real author' 
of any act— from auton entos, that sets himself about 
his own business), not false ; being what it professes 
to be ; not a fiction ; genuine : authentical ly, ad. 
-ti-lrd-l: authenticate, v. aw-then'-tl-kdt, to estab- 
lish by proof; to prove to be genuine or true : authen- 
ticating, imp. : authen'tica'ted, pp. : authen'tica - 
tion, n. -kd'shun, the act of proving by authority : 
authenticity, n. -tis'-l-tl, correctness as to facts; the 
not being false ; reality ; truth. Note.— A genuine book 
is one written by the person whose name it bears ; an 
authentic book is one which relates matters of fact as 
they really happened. 

author, n. aw'-ther (L. auctor, an author— from au- 
geo, I increase : F.auteur), one who creates or produces; 
a first mover ; a writer of a book : authoress, n. fern. 
div'-ther-Cs, a woman who : authority, n. aw-thdr'-l-tt. 
legal power; rule; influence; credit: authorities, n. 
plu. -tlz, persons in power; standard books quoted: 
authoritative, a. aw-thor'-l-td'-tlv, having an air of 
authority; positive; peremptory: authoritatively, 
ad. -ll: author Ita'tiveness, n.: authorise, v. aw'tho- 
rlz', to empower; to make legal; to justify: autho- 
rising, imp.: authorised', pp. -rizd': authorisation, 
n. -ziP-shun, the act of empowering or giving authority 
to : au thorless, a. : authorship, n. 

autobiography, n. aw'-to-bi-og'-rd-fl (Gr. autos, 
himself; bios, life; grapho, I write), a life written by 
the individual himself: autobiographical, a. -i-kdl, 
pert, to: autobiographical ly, ad. -ll: -bioglapher, 
n. one who. 

autocracy, n. aw-tok'-rd-sl (Gr. axdos, self; kratos, 
power), government residing in a single person; 
supremacy : autocrat, n. aw'-to-krdt, a sovereign 
exercising absolute power; a title assumed by the 
emperors of Russia: autoe'ratrix, n. fem. -triks, a 
woman who : au'tocrat'ic, a. -Ik, pert, to : also au'to- 
crat'ical, a.: autocratically, ad. -krdt'-l-kdl-i: au'- 
tocrat'ical ness, n. 

autogeneal, a. aw'-td-je'-ni-dl, also autog'enous, a. 
cuv-toj'-e-nus (Gr. aidos, self; gennao, I produce or 
generate), self-begotten or self-generating. 

autograph, n. aw'-tu-grdf (Gr. autos, self; graphe, 
writing), a person's own handwriting: autographic, 
a. -Ik, also autographlcal, a. -ikdl, pert, to: au- 
tographlcal'ly, ad. -ll: autography, n. aw-tog'-rd-fi, a 
process in lithographic printing by which a writing or 
drawing is transferred from paper to stone ; original 
of a treatise. 

automalite, n. cnc-tom'd-lit (Gr. automolos, a de- 
serter—alluding to oxide of zinc being present in a 
mineral not resembling an ore ; lithos, a stone), a 
mineral— a variety of corundum of a dark-green or 
black colour. 

automata, n. aTv'to-mdth (Gr. autos, self; man- 
thano, I learn), one who is self-taught. 

automaton, n. aTv-tom'd-tbn (L. and Gr. aidoma- 
ton, — from Gr. autos, self, and memaotes, being eager- 
ly desirous), a self-moving figure or machine; plu. 
autom'ata or automatons : automatic, a. aw'to- 
mut'lk, also automatical, a. -i-kdl, having power 
of motion in itself ; acting from concealed machinery ; 
self-regulating: autom ical'ly, ad. -ll. 

autonomasy, n. aw'to-nom'd-sl (Gr. autos, self; 
onoma, a name), in rhet., a common name used in the 
same sense as a proper name — as, he has gone to the 
city, instead of London. 

autonomy, n. aw-ton'-o-mX (Gr. autos, self; nomos, 
a law : F. autonomic, freedom), the power or right 
of self-government; retention of national laws and 
constitution: autonomous, a. aiu-ton'6-mus, under 

autopsy, n. aw-tdp'-sl, also autopsia, n. aic-top'-sX-d 
(Gr. autos, self; opsis, sight ), seeing a tiling one's self; 
ocular observation : autoptical, a. aw-top'-tt-kdl, see- 
ing with one's own eyes : autop'tically, ad. -ll. 

autumn, n. aw'-tuin(h. autumnus, the autumn — from 
auctus, increased, abundant), the third season of ths 
year, popularly beginning with August, but really 
about 21st Sept. : autumnal, a. of or pert, to autumn. 

game jog, shun, thing, there, zedl. 




Auvergne, n. 6-vern', a district in central France 
noted for its extinct volcanoes and other objects of 
great interest to geologists. 

auxesis, a. awg-ze'-sls (Gr. auxesis, increase), in 
rhet., a figure by which anything is magnified too 

auxiliary, a. aYog-zU'-l-d-rl (L. auxilium, help — 
from auxit, it has increased), helping; assisting: n. a 
helper; an assistant; applied to the verbs shall, will, 
may, can, must, &c. : plu. auxiliaries , -rlz, foreign 
troops : auxil'iar, a. helping. 

avail, v. aval' (L. ad, to ; valeo, I am strong : F. 
valoir, to be worth), to turn to advantage; to be of 
use; to profit: n. profit; advantage: availing, imp.: 
availed', pp. : available, a. d-vdl'-d-bl, profitable ; 
that can be turned to advantage : avail'ably, ad. -Ml: 
avail'abil'ity, n. -bU'-l-tl, also avail'ableness, n. 
-bl-nes, the power of furthering an object in view. 

avalanche, n. dv'-d-ldnsh' (F. avalange— from a val, 
downwards : L.— ad, to, and vallis, a valley), a vast 
body of snow sliding down a mountain ; a sudden or 
violent impulse of any mass of human beings. 

avanturine, n., also aventurine, n. d-vdn'tu-rln 
(F. par aventure, by accident), a variety of quartz 
deriving its peculiar play of colours from imbedded 
spangles, or by minute fissures of mica ; an artificial 
mineral far exceeding the natural in brilliancy ; a 
btight brown colour. 

avant-courier, n. d-v6ng'-k6r'-i-d (F. avant, before), 
a runner; a person sent beforehand to give notice of 
the approach of another: avant-guard, n. -gdrd, the 
van ; the first body of an army. 

avarice, n. dv'-d-rls (L. avaritia, an eager desire— 
from avanis, greedy: It. avarizia: F. avarice), an 
unbounded desire of getting and possessing wealth ; 
greediness; covetousness : avaricious, a. dv-d-rish- 
us, greedy of gain; covetous: av'aric'iousness, n. 
-us-nis, greediness of gain : av'ariclously, ad. -II. 

avast, int., ad. d-vdsf (It. basta, enough, cease: Dut. 
houd vast, hold fast), a nautical term; hold; stop; 

avatar, n. dv'-d-tdr' (Sans, avat&ra, descent), the 
descent of a Hindoo deity in a visible form or in- 

avaunt, int. d-vawnt' (F. avant, before), begone; 
go forward. 

ave, n. d'-vS (L. ave, hail— from aveo, I am happy or 
safe) : ave Maria, d'-ve-md-ri'd, hail Mary— the first 
words of an address to the Virgin Mary. 

avenaceous, a. dv'-e-nd'-shus (L. avena, oats), of or 
like oats: avenage, n. dv'6-ndj, a stipulated quan- 
tity of oats paid as rent. 

avenge, v. d-venf (old F. avengier: new F. venger, 
to revenge— from L. vindicare, to avenge), to take 
satisfaction for an injury by justly punishing in some 
way the person that injures ; to revenge, is to punish 
for a real or supposed injury in a malicious or spite- 
ful manner: aven'ging, imp.: avenged, pp. d-v6njd' : 
aven'ger, n. one who : avenge'ment, n. 

aventurine— see avan'turine. 

avenue, n. dv-6-nu (F. avenue— from L. ad, to, and 
venio, I come), a passage ; a road to ; an entrance 
into ; a shady walk under trees. 

aver, v. d-ver' (F. averer, to maintain as true— 
from L. ad, to, and verus, true), to declare positivelv ; 
to assert : aver 'ring, imp. : averred, pp. d-ver -d' : 
aver'ment, n. a positive declaration or assertion. 

average, n. dv'-er-aj (Ger. ha/erei, sea -damage — 
from Scand. haf or hav, the open sea,— applied to the 
money paid by those who have received their goods 
in safety to indemnify the others whose goods had 
been thrown overboard in a storm : It. avaria, calcu- 
lation and distribution of the loss arising from goods 
thrown overboard), a mean proportion ; the mean of 
any collection of sums, numbers, or quantities, found 
by dividing the totals by the number of the sums or 
quantities : adj. being in a condition common to many, 
—as a man of average height, an average crop: v. to 
make equal to others ; to reduce to a level ; to propor- 
tion : av'era'ging, imp. : averaged, pp. dv'-er-ajd'. 

averse, a, d-vcrs' (L. a, from ; verto, I turn ; versus, 
turned), disinclined to; unfavourable to; unwilling: 
aversely, ad. -II: averse'ness, n.: aversion, n. d-ver- 
shun, dislike to ; hatred ; repugnance of mind : avert', 
v. d-vert', to turn aside or away from; to take off: 
averting, imp.: avert'ed, pp.: avert'er, n. one who. 

aviary, n. d'-vldr'-i (L. avis, a bird), a bird-cage; 
a place where birds are kept. 

avicula, n. d-vlk'-u-ld (L. a little bird), a free un- 

equal-valved fossil shell fixing itself by a byssus, the 
living types of which are the pearl oysters. 

aviculopecten, n. d-vlk'-u-lo-pck'-ten (L. avicula ; 
pecten, a comb), an extensive genus of fossil bivalves. 

avidity, n. d-vid'lti (L. aviditas, vehement desire 
—from avidus, greedy: It. aviditate: F. avidite), 
eagerness ; greediness ; intense desire. 

avocation, n. dv'-o-kd'-shun (L. avocatio, a calling 
off from any occupation— from a, from ; voco, I call), 
a calling from ; occupation ; business. 

avoid, v. d-vdyd' (L. a, from; vito, I shun; vacuus, 
empty : F. vuide, empty), to keep at a distance from ; 
to shun ; to evacuate ; to become vacant : avoidable, 
a. d-vdyd'-d-bl, that can be kept from or shunned: 
avoidance, n. -dns, the act of : avoiding, imp. : 
avoided, pp.: avoid'er, n. one who. 

avoirdupois, n. or a. dv-er'-dupdyz' (F. avoir, to 
have; du, of the; poids, weight), goods that sell by 
weight ; the weight of 16 oz. to the pound employed 
in the selling of all kinds of goods sold by weight, ex- 
cept silver and gold. 

avouch, v. d-vowch' (F. avouer, to avow— applied 
to the admission by a tenant of a certain person as his 
feudal superior; called in L. advocare), to affirm; 
to assert; to affirm in favour of: avouch'ing, imp.: 
avouched, pp. d-vowcht': avouch'er, n. one who. 

avow, v. d-vdw' (see above), to declare openly with 
a view to justify ; to own or confess : avow'ing, imp.: 
avowed, pp. d-vdivd'.- avow'er, n. one who: avow- 
able, a. d-vow'-d-bl, that may be openly acknowledged : 
avow'al, n. an open confession or declaration : avow'- 
edly, ad. -II. 

avulsed, a. d-vidst' (L. a, from ; vtdsus, plucked or 
pulled), plucked or pulled off: avulsion, n. d-vvl'shwn 
(F. avulsion), a pulling or tearing asunder one thing 
from another. 

await, v. d-wdt' (F. guetter, to watch ; a and wait— 
which see), to look for; to be ready for: awaiting, 
imp. : await'ed, pp. 

awake, v. d-u-ak' (AS. awacian—see wake), to rouse 
from sleep; to infuse new life into: adj. not sleep- 
ing: awa'king, imp.: awaked, pp. d-wakt: awoke', 
pt. d-rvok': awaken, v. d-ivdk'n, same meaning as 
awake: awakening, imp. d-wdk'-nlng -. n. a revival 
of religion : awakened, pp. d-wdk'-6nd -. awaliener, 
n. one who. 

award, v. d-wawrd' (prov. F. eswarder, to inspect 
goods : It. guardare : F. regarder, to look at), to 
assign to by sentence : n. a sentence ; the decision of 
arbitrators: award'ing, tap. : award'ed.pp.: award- 
er, n. one who. 

aware, a. d-ivdr' (AS. gewaere: old H. Ger. gaivar), 
informed of ; foreseeing; vigilant. 

away, ad. d-ivd' (AS. aiceg: prov. Ger. evoeg), at a 
distance ; absent : int. begone. 

awe, n. aw (AS. ege: Dan. ave, correction, fear: Icel. 
cegir, terrible), fear mingled with reverence; solemn 
dread : v. to influence by fear ; to strike with rever- 
ence : awing, tap.: awed, pp. avd.- aweless, a.: awe'- 
struck, impressed or struck with awe : awful, a. aiv' 
fool, terrible ; dreadful: awfully, ad. -II: aw'fulness.n. 

aweary, a. d-wer'-l (AS. a and weary), weary; tired. 

awhile, ad. d-hwil' (a and while), for a short time. 

awkward, a. awk'-iverd (AS. aivoh, awry: Icel. of- 
gata, a side-way : Swed. afwig, inside out : F. gauche, 
left hand), clumsy; bungling; unable to use hands or 
tools easily: awk'wardly, ad. -II: awk'wardness, n. 

awl, n. awl (AS. eel: Ger. ahle: Icel. air), a shoe- 
maker's tool for boring holes : awl'-shaped. 

awme or aume, n. awm (Ger. aum), a German mea- 
sure of capacity for liquids, especially for the Rhenish 
wines, containing 41 English wine-gallons. 

awn, n. awn (Icel. ogn: Sw. agn: Gr. achne, chaff), the 
beard of corn or grass : awnless, a. : awn'y, a. awn'-l, 
pert, to : awned, a. awnd, furnished with awns. 

awning, n. awn'-lng (Low Ger. havenung— from 
haven, a place for shelter from wind or rain), a cover 
spread above the deck of a vessel, or any open place, 
to afford a shade. 

awry, a. or ad. d-rl' (AS. a, and writhe, to twist— 
which see), asquint ; unevenly ; uneven ; crooked. 

axe, n. dks (AS. cex: Icel. b'xi: Dan. okse: Gr. 
axine, an axe), a well-known iron instrument: axe- 
head, n. : axe'-shaped, a. : axe'-stone, a mineral ; a 
sub-species of jade, of a deep sea-green or leek colour, 
used by the New Zealanders and certain South Sea 
islanders in making hatchets, &c. : axinite, n. dk- 
sln-lt, a mineral, one of the garnet family— so called 
from the axe-like form of its crystals. 

mate, mdt, far, law; mite, met, her; pine, phi; note, ndt, m6ve; 



axial, a.— see axis. 

axil, n. dk'sll (L. axilla, the arm-pit: Dut. oxel: 
Scot, oxter), the arm-pit ; in hot., the upper angle 
formed by the attachment of a leaf or branch to its 
support : axillar, a. dk'-slldr, or axillary, a. pert, to 
the arm-pit ; arising from the axil in plants. 

axiom, n. ak'sl-um (Gr. axioma, an established 
principle : F. axiome), a self-evident truth ; an estab- 
lished principle in an art or science: axiomatic, a, 
dk'-sl-o-mdt'-lk, also axiomatical, a. -l-kdl: ax'io- 
mat'ically, ad. -kcll-l. 

axis, n. dk'-sis (L. axis: Gr. axon, a pole or axle- 
tree : Sans, aksha, a wheel), the line, real or supposed, 
round which anything revolves : axial, a. of or relat- 
ing to an axis: axle, n. dk'-^l, called also axle-tree, the 
wooden or iron bar round the ends of which wheels 
can turn; in hot., the central portion of the young 
plant whence the plumule and radicle are given off; 
the central organ-bearing buds : axled, a. dk'sld, fur- 
nished with axils. 

axotomous, a. dk-sot'd-mus (Gr. axon, an axis; 
temno, I cut) applied to minerals that can be cleaved 
in one particular direction. 

axunge, n. dk'siinj , also axungea, dk-sfin'jl-d 
(L. axis, an axle-tree ; unguo, I smear), the hardest 
and firmest part of the fat of animals ; hog's lard. 

ay, ad. d'l, or as pron. I (AS. gea: Ger.ja, yea, yes), 
yea; yes; certainly; indeed; more than that: int. 
noting a complaint: ayes, n. plu. d'-iz, used in the 
House of Commons when counting the votes — those 
voting in favour of a motion are called the ayes, those 
voting against it are called the noes, nOz: ay, ay, 
yes, yes. 

aye, ad. d (AS. ava .- L. cevum, an age : Gr. aiei, al- 
ways), always ; ever ; to eternity. 

Aymestry limestone, d'mes-trl-, according to 
Murchison, the middle member of the Ludlow group 
of Silurian strata— from Aymestry, Hereford, where 
it is well exposed. 

Ayrstone, n. dr'ston, a soft variety of whetstone 
found on the Water of Ayr — called also snake-stone, 
from its mottled appearance. 

azimuth, n. dz'-l-muth (Ar. assamt, a way or path), 
in astron., the angular distance of a celestial object 
from the north or south point of the horizon (accord- 
ing as it is the north or south pole which is elevated) 
when the object is referred to the horizon by a verti- 
cal circle: azimuthal, a. dz'-l-mutfi'dl, pert, to: azi- 
muth compass, an instrument adapted for observing 
bearings, consisting of a magnetic bar or needle mov- 
ing freely in a horizontal plane on a vertical pivot. 

azoic, a. d-zo'lk (Gr. a, without ; zoe, life), without 
life ; wholly destitute of life : azote, n. dz'ot, nitrogen 
gas, the breathing of which causes death: azotic, 
a. d-zot'lk, pert, to: azotised, a. dz'o-tlzd, containing 
nitrogen or azote. 

azure, n. d'-zhdbr [F.azur: It. azurro blue— from 
Pers. lazur), the blue colour of the sky: adj. of a 
sky-blue colour : azured, a. d'zhoord, being of an 
azure colour : azure-stone, so named from its colour ; 
a familiar name for the lapis lazuli : azurite, n. dz'u- 
rlt, blue carbonate of copper; a prismatic azure spar. 

azygous, a. dz'i-giis (Gr. a, without; zugon, a yoke), 
in anat., without a fellow or corresponding part. 

azymous, a. dz'-l-mus (Gr. a, without ; zume, leaven), 
unlermented or unleavened— applied to sea-biscuit. 

B.A., bachelor of arts— see A.B. : B.C., initial letters 
of "Before Christ": B.D., bachelor of divinity: B.L., 
bachelor of laws : B, name of a musical sound. 

Baal, n. bd'dl (Ar. the idol: Heb. lord), a high object 
of worship among the anc. Chaldeans and Syrians, 
supposed to represent the sun. 

babble, v. bdb'bl (F. babiller, to prattle: Dut. bab- 
bel, babbling ; bnbbelen, to chatter), to talk idly ; to 
utter words imperfectly as children; to tell secrets: 
n. senseless talk : bab'bler, n. an idle talker : bab'bling. 
imp. : n. foolish talk: babbled, pp. bdb'bld. 

babe, n. bdb, also baby, n. bd'-bl (W. baban: F. 
poupee: It. bambino, a babe : Dut. poppe, a bunch of 
flax, a doll), a young child of either sex: babish, a. 
ba'blsh, childish; also babyish, a. ba'bi-ish: ba'bish- 
ly, ad. -II; also, babyishly, ad. bd'bhlsh'll: ba'bish- 
ness, n. : babyhood, n. : babyism, n. bd'bl-izm. 

babel, n. bd-bel (Heb.), confusion like that of the 
Tower of Babel, where the confusion of languages 
took place : ba'bel-quartz, a variety of rock-crystal. 

babingtonite, n. bdb'lng-ton-lf (after Dr Babing- 
ton), a mineral of the hornblende family, occurring in 
small black attached crystals. 

baboon, n. bd-b6n' (Dut. baviaan: old E. baber- 
lipped, from its large lips : F. babouin, a monkey— 
from babines, the large lips of a beast), a monkey of 
the largest kind. 

Babylonian, a. bab'l-lo'nl-dn, Bab'ylo'nish, a., or 
Babylonic, a. bab'l-lon-lk, of or relating to Babylon; 
mixed or confused. 

baccate, a. bak'kdt (L. bacca, a berry), resembling 
berries: baccated, a. bdk'kated, having many ber- 
ries: bacciferous, a. bdk-sif'er-us (L. bacca; fero, I 
produce), producing berries : baccivorous, a. bdk-slv- 
or-iis (L. bacca; voro, I devour), berry-eating. 

bacchanal, n. bdk'kd-ndl, also bacchanalian, n. 
bdk'-kd-nd'll-dn (L. and Gr. Bacchus, the heathen god 
placed over drinking and feasting), one who indulges 
to excess in intoxicating drinks ; one engaged in noisy 
and drunken revels : adj. riotous ; pertaining to revel- 
ling and drinking: bac'chanals, n. plu. -ndlz, also 
bae'ehana'lia, n. plu. -nd'-li-d, drunken feasts ; feasts 
in honour of Bacchus : bacchic, a. bdk'klk, jovial ; 
drunken: bacchantes, n. plu. bdkkdn'tez, the per- 
sons who took part in the festivals of Bacchus. 

bachelor, n. bdch'e-ler (old F. bachelier, a lad: 
W. bachgen, a boy: low L. baccalaureus), an unmar- 
ried man of any age ; one who has taken the first de- 
gree in arts in a college or university; a knight: 
bach elorship, n. : bach elorism, n. 

back, n. bdk (Icel. bak: Pol. opak, the wrong way: 
Fin. paha, bad), the upper part in animals, and the 
hinder part in man; the rear; the part out of sight; a 
miner's term for joints ; that part of a mineral lode 
nearest the surface : adj. that is situated behind ; pre- 
vious : v. to mount ; to support ; to put or move back : 
ad. to the place from whence one came ; to a former 
state or condition; behind; not advancing again: 
backing, imp. : backed, bdkt, pp. : backer, n. bak'er, 
one who supports another in a contest: backs and 
cutters, applied to a jointed structure— the backs run- 
ning in lines less or more parallel to the strike of the 
strata, the cutters crossing these, generally at right 
angles: backs, n. plu., among leather -dealers, the 
leather selected from the thickest and stoutest ox- 
hides : backing of the wind, when the wind appears 
to shift against the sun's course, being a sign of more 
wind or bad weather. 

back, n. bdk, also bac, n. bdk (Bret, bac, a boat : Dut. 
back, a trough : Dan. bakke, a tray), a brewer's vat or 
large open tub for containing beer; a ferry-boat: 
backet, n. bdk'-6t (from back, in the sense of a wide 
open vessel ; F. baquet, a tub or pail), in a kitchen, a 
wooden or iron vessel for carrying coal or ash. 

backbite, v. bdk'blt (see back), to slander; to speak 
ill of a person behind his back : backbiting, imp. : n. 
the act of slandering the absent : backbitten, pp. 
bak'-blt-ten: backbiter, n. -bi-ter, one who. 

backbone, n. bdk'bon (see back), the bone of the 
back ; the vertebral column ; the watershed of a dis- 

backdoor, n. bdk'ddr (see back), a back or private 
passage ; an indirect way. 

backgammon, n. bdk-gdm'mon (Dan. bakkc, a tray; 
gammen, a game), a game played with a box and dice. 

background, n. bdk'grdivnd (see back), ground in 
the rear or behind ; parts dimly seen ; in a picture, the 
part behind and subordinate to the principal figures : 
backroom, n. bdk'-r6m, a room in the back part of the 
house: backside, n. bdk'sid, the hinder part; the 
rear: backpiece, n. bdk'pes, piece of armour which 
covers the back : backsettler, n. bdk-set'ler, one set- 
tled in the outlying districts of a new country : back'- 
handed, a. {back and hand), with the hand turned 
backward ; indirect: back'ing-up, in cricket and other 
games, the act of stoppingthe ball and driving it back. 

backshish or backsheesh, n. bdk'shesh (Pers. 
bakhshish, to give), in the East, a present or gratuity 
of money. 

backsfide, v. bdk -slid (see back), to fall off; to turn 

coiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




away from gradually : backsliding, imp. : backslider, 

11. bdk-sll'der, one who falls from religion and the 
practice of virtue. 

backstairs, n. plu. bdk'starz (sec back), the stairs 
in the back part of a house ; a private or indirect way : 
back'stair, a. indirect ; private ; undue : backsword, 
n. btlk'sQrd, a sword having a back and one sharp 
edge : backstaff, n. bdk-stdf, an instrument for taking 

backward, a. bSk'-wird (back and ward), unwilling; 
slow ; dull : ad., also back'wards, back ; in time past ; 
towards the back: back'wardly, ad. -lit backward- 
ness, n. 

backwoods, n. plu. bdk'wobdz (bark and woods), 
the unsettled parts of a new country : backwoodsman, 
n. buk'wiTodz-man, one who inhabits the far-off woods 
in America. 

bacon, n. ba'kn (old Dut. backe, a pig; old F. bacon), 
swine's flesh salted and dried. 

Baconian, a, bdkohil-an, of or pert, to Bacon or 
his philosophy. 

bactris, n. bdk'Ms (Gr. baktron, a cane, from the 
smaller stems being formed into walking-sticks), a 
flue species of palms ; one of the species producing a 
fruit of the size of a cherry. 

baculite, n. bilk'udlt (L. bactdum, a staff), a fossil 
shell of the chalk epoch, straight, many chambered, 
and conical— prevails in the chalk of Normandy. 

baculometry, n. bdk'-uddm'-e-trl (L. baculum; a 
staff: Gr. metron, a measure), the art of measuring 
accessible or inaccessible distances or lines by the help 
of staves or rods. 

bad, a. bdd (Ger. bose: Dut. boos: Pers. bud, bad), 
ill; evil; hurtful; opposite of good: bad'ly, ad. -II, 
not well : bad'ness, n. 

bade, v. bdd, past of bid, which see. 

badge, n. bdj (Ger. batz, a dab, a coarse patch ; 
batzen, to patch), a mark or sign of distinction: 
badge'less, a. 

badger, n. bdj'er (F. bladier, a corn-dealer— in al- 
lusion to some of the habits of the animal), an animal 
that burrows in the ground: v. to pester; to tease: 
bad'gering, imp. : badgered, pp. bdj'erd. 

badigeon, n. bdd'l-zhun (F.), a preparation of saw- 
dust, slaked lime, powdered stone, and alum, for col- 
ouring the walls of houses; a mixture of plaster and 
freestone used by sculptors in repairing defects in 
their work ; a kind of cement used by joiners, &e. 

badinage, n. bdd'-l-ndzh' (F. a joke), banter; play- 
ful talk. 

badius, a. bdd'l-iis (L.), in bot., chestnut-coloured; 

baffle, v. bdf'fl (Norm. F., beffler, to deceive or 
mock: F. bafouer, to ridicule or disgrace: Sp. befar: 
It. b"ffare, to jeer), to escape detection ; to elude ; to 
confound; to defeat: baffling, imp. bdj "-fling: baf- 
fled, pp. bdf-fld: baffler, n. one who. 

bag, n. bag, (Gael, balg, a leather bag or wallet: Ger. 
balg, the skin of an animal), a sack ; a pouch ; a purse : 
v. to put into a sack; to puff up or out: bagging, 
imp. : n. bdg'glng, the cloth or coarse materials for 
making bags ; the act of putting into bags : bagged, 
pp. bdgd: bagman, n. a person employed to solicit 
orders for a manufacturer. 

bagasse, n. bd-g&s' (F.), the sugar-cane after it has 
been pressed, used for fuel in the sugar manufactories 
—in the Antilles called bagauz, n. bd-gawz'. 

bagatelle, n. bdg'-d-t6l' (F., also F. bague, a trifle— 
from L. bacca, a berry), a trifle ; a thing of no import- 
ance ; name of a game. 

baggage, n. bdg'-gaj (F. bagagc, luggage— from old 
F. bagues, goods: AS. beag, a ring of silver or gold as 
a type of value : Icel. baugr), all the articles necessary 
for an army; luggage ; things required for a journey. 

bagging, n. bdg'glng— see bag. 

bagnio, n. ban'ijO (It. bagno, a bath— from L. bal- 
neum), a bath ; a prison ; a bad house. 

bagpipes, n. bdg'-plps {bag an&pipc), a musical wind- 
instrument: bag'piper, n. one who plays tin 1 bagpipes. 

baguette, n. ba-gW (F. a rod or wand), in arch., a 
small round moulding less than an astragal. 

baikalite, n. bd'kdl-lt, a dingy, green crystalline 
variety of the mineral augite found at the mouth of 
one of the rivers that fall into Lake Baikal, Siberia. 

baikerite, n. ba'ker-lt, a choeohite-brown-eoloured 
mineral wax. found near Lake Baikal, Siberia. 

bail, v. bal (old F. battler, to deliver: F. bail, a 
giving over, a granting: It. balia, power— from L. 
bajulus, a bearer, generally with authority), to set 

mate, mat, far, law; mite, met, 

free; to liberate on the security of another; to Lava 
out or free from water : n. surety for another : bailing, 
imp. : bailed, pp. bald: bailable, a. bai'abl, that may 
be bailed : bail'bond, n. a written security given for 
the appearance of a prisoner to take his trial: bail- 
ment, n. delivery of goods in trust: bailee, n. bale', 
he to whom goods are delivered in trust or on bail. 

bailey, n. bal'-l (law L. ballium), an area of ground 
within the walls of a fortress— applied to a prison, as 
Old Bailey: bailie, n., or baillie, ball (F. baillie, an 
ambassador), Scotch name for an alderman or magis- 
trate of a burgh. 

bailiff, n. bal'lf(F. bailli—see bail), an officer of jus- 
tice; an agent or steward over land: bailiwick, n. 
bai'l-wlk (F. and AS. wic), the limits of a bailiffs 
authority or jurisdiction. 

Baily's Beads, in astron., an appearance as of a 
string of beads round the sun in an eclipse. 

Bairam, n. bl'rdm, a festival among the Turks, 
celebrated for three days immediately after the fast 
of Kamazan. 

bait, n. bat (AS. baton, to bait a hook : Icel. beit i Sw. 
bete, pasture, grazing: Sw. beta, food), any substance 
put on a hook to entice fish to swallow it ; anything 
to allure or entice; refreshment taken on a journey; 
v. to allure by food ; to give food or drink to a beast 
on a journey; to refresh with food on a journey: 
baiting, imp. : baited, pp. bat'Sd. 

bait, v. bat (AS. betan, to kindle a fire by blowing 
it up : old F. abetter, to incite), to provoke and harass 
with the help of others ; to attack with violence, as 
with dogs : baiting, imp. : baited, pp. 

baize, n. baz (F. baye: Dut. baey: probably Baiae, 
where first made), a coarse woollen stuff. 

bake, v. bak, (Icel. baka, to warm : Ger. bahen, to 
foment : Dut. backern, to warm one's self), to harden 
by fire or the heat of the sun ; to dress food in an oven 
or by fire : ba'king, imp. : n. the quantity baked at one 
time: baked, pp. bakt, or baken,'kcn: baTier, 
n. one whose employment is to bake : ba'kery, n. bd'- 
ker-l, the place where bread is baked; also bake- 

balaenidse, n. plu. bd-le'nl-dc (Gr. phalaina, or L. 
balazna, a whale), the whale family ; the fossil remains 
of great whales: balaenodon, n. bd-le'nO-don (L. bala:- 
na, a whale: odous, gen. odontos, a tooth), sub-fossil 
teeth of whales, not exactly referable to any known 

balance, n. bdl'dns (F. : It. bilancia: Sp. balanza 
— fromL. bis, double ; lanx, gen. lands, a dish), a pair of 
scales ; part of a watch ; equality of weights, power, or 
force ; the difference between the debtor and creditor 
side of an account ; overplus ; a sign of the zodiac ; the 
sum due on an account : v. to make equal ; to settle ; 
to regulate and adjust; to hove equal weight, power,, 
or influence ; to hesitate : balancing, imp. : balanced, 
pp. bdl'dnst: bal'ancer, n. one who. 

balanite, n. bai'-d-nit (L. balanns, an acorn: Gr. 
balanos), a name applied to fossil shells of the bar- 
nacle family, whose shells generally consist of six 
principal valves arranged in conical form : balanoid, 
a. bdl'd-ndyd (Gr. balanos, an acorn ; eidos, a form), 
applied to a family of barnacles having shells ar- 
ranged conically like an acorn. 

balass, n. bdl-ds (Sp. balax: F. balais), a lapidary's 
term for the varieties of the spinel ruby of a fine rose- 
red colour inclining to orange. 

balaustine, n. bd-laTcs'tln (Gr. balaustion, a pome- 
granate flower), the wild pomegranate tree: balaus- 
ta, n. badaws'ta, fruit formed like the pomegranate ; 
an mdehiseent inferior fruit, with many cells and 
seeds, the seeds being coated with pulp. 

balcony, n. bai'ko-nl (F. balcon: It. balcone: Pers. 
bala kJumeh, an upper chamber), a railed-in raised 
space or platform in front of a house, usually before the 
windows: balconied, a. bdl'ko-nld, having balconies. 

bald, a. bnwld (Fin. paljas, naked, bare: Dan. 
bavldet, unfledged: Gr. balios, speckled with white 
hair; Sp. pelado, hairless), wanting hair; destitute of 
natural covering; naked; inelegant; in bot., without. 
beard or awn; having a white mark on the face: 
bald'ly, ad. -It: baldness, n. : bald-faced, having a 
white mark on the face, as a stag: bald-coot, a black- 
bird with a conspicuous excrescence of white skin 

above its beak. 

baldachin, n. bdl'dd-kln (It. baldacchino : Sp. balda- 
auino, a canopy), in arch., a structure within a build- 
ing in the form of a canopy supported by columns, 
placed over portals, thrones, altars, beds, &c. 

her; plne.jrtn; note, not, hi fire; 




balderdash, n. baulkUr-ddsh (W. baldorddi, to bab- 
ble or prate : Dut. balderen, to bawl : Dan. bxddre, to 
make a loud noise), words jumbled together without 
sense, taste, or judgment. 

baldrick, n. bawl-drik (Icel. belti: L. balteus, a belt), 
a girdle or richly ornamented belt ; a shoulder-belt. 

bale, n. bed (F. balle: Swed. bah It. bulla, a pack of 
goods : Dut. bual, a bag), a bundle or package of goods. 

bale, v. bed, (Swed. balja-. Dan. balle: Dut. bualien, 
to empty out water with a pail), to free from water 
by laving it out, as in a boat : baling, imp. : n. the act 
of freeing from water, as a boat: baled, pp. beda. 

baleful, a, bed'/obl (AS. bealo, torment: Icel. bol, 
calamity), mischievous; destructive; sorrowful: bale- 
fully, ad. -It: bale'fulness, n. 

Balearic, a. bed'-e-dr'-lk (L. baleares: from Gr. ballein, 
to throw — the inhabitants being good slingers), of or 
relating to Majorca and Minorca, islands in the Medi- 
terranean Sea. 

balister or ballister, n. bdl'-is-ter—see baluster. 

balistes, n. bd-lls'-tez (Gr. ballo or baleso, I strike, 
as with a dart), an extensive genus of fishes ; the file- 
fish, so called from its rough, jagged, and dart-like fin- 

balk, v. baTck (Icel. balkr, a division between stalls : 
Sw. balka, to partition off; balk, a hewn beam), 
to disappoint ; to frustrate ; to refuse : n. a ridge of 
unploughed land; a beam; sudden disappointment: 
balk'ing, imp. : balked, pp. baivkt : the balks, a 
place situated among the rafters, as a hay-loft : balk- 
er, n. one who signals to the fishermen the course of 
the herring-shoals. 

ball, n. bawl {¥. balle: It. pallet: Sp. bala: L.pila), 
a round body; a globe; a bullet; a child's toy: v. to 
form into a ball: balling, imp.: balled, pp. bawld: 
ball-cock, a hollow metal globe attached to the end of 
a lever to regulate the supply of water in a cistern, by 
floating on the surface of the water: ball and socket, 
an instrument or joint of brass with a perpetual screw, 
movable in any direction, very useful in scientific in- 
struments, &<;. -. ball-cartridge, a cartridge having a 
bullet besides powder. 

ball, n. bawl (It. ballare, to shake or jog: old F. 
baler, to move or stir: mid. L. ballare, to move back- 
wards and forwards: Gr. ballo, I leap or bound), an 
entertainment of dancing. 

ballad, n. bdl'-kid (F. ballade, a song: It. ballata, 
a song suns in dancing), a simple popular song: bal- 
ladry, n. bed'-lCtd-rl, the subject or style of ballads: 
ballad-singer, one who sinus ballads on the streets. 

ballast, n. bed'-ldst (AS. bat, a boat; hlaest, load: 
Dan. bag-lest, the back load or worthless load), any 
heavy substance placed at the bottom of a ship or 
boat to steady it ; the load of sand, stones, &c, which 
a ship carries when there is no cargo; the gravel, 
broken stones, &c, placed on the permanent way of a 
railway, immediately under the sleepers and rails, in 
order to steady them: v. to steady; to load with bal- 
last : bal'lasting, imp. : ballasted, pp. 

ballet, n. bal'la (F. : It. ballo, a dance), a kind of 
dance ; a scena acted in dancing in a theatre, and 
associated with music. 

ballUta, n. bed-lls'-td (L.— from Gr. bedlo, I throw), 
a military engine used by the ancients for throwing 

balloon, n. bdl-lon' (F. ballon, a football: It. bal- 
lone—see ball), any round hollow body; a spherical 
body filled with light gas, so as to rise and float in the 
air : ballooning, n. the art of ascending in balloons : 
balloon ist.n. one who : air'-balloon, one raised into the 
atmosphere by being filled with a gas lighter than air : 
fire-balloon, one filled and raised by rarefied or heated 
air by placing fire under its mouth. 

ballon, n. bdl'lon (F.— see ball), a round globe on the 
top of a pillar ; a round short-necked vessel used as 
receiver in distillation. 

ballot, n. bed-lot (F. ballotte, a little ball— from 
balle, a ball), a little ball used in voting; a ticket or 
written vote : v. to choose or vote by ballot : ballot- 
ing, imp.: balloted, pp. bdl'-lot-ed. 

balm, n. bam (F. baume— from Gr. balseimon: L. 
balsamum, balsam), a fragrant plant ; a valuable 
ointment that soothes and heals ; that which soothes, 
mitigates, or heals : v. to anoint with balm ; to 
soothe: balm'ing, imp.: balmed, pp. bdmel: balmy, 
a. b&in'-l, like balm ; mild ; soothing : balmily, ad. 
i-ll: balm'iness, n. : balsam, n. bawl'-sdm. a soothing 
ointment of an oily nature ; a semi-fluid resin : 
balsamic, a. bed-sdm-lk, or balsamical, a. -i-kdl. 

like balsam ; soft ; unctuous ; mitigating : balsam '- 
ically, ad. -II: bal'samif'erous, a. -if'-ir-us (L. — ; 
Jero, I produce) : balm of Gilead, or balsam of 
Mecca, common names for the resinous juice of the 
balsam-tree of Syria, reckoned very precious : balsam 
of sulphur, an ointment prepared from sulphur and 
oil of turpentine : balsam of Saturn, an ointment pre- 
pared from sugar of lead and oil of turpentine, &c. ; 
balsam'ics, n. plu. -Iks, in meet, applied to several 
preparations for external use. 

Baltic, a. bawl'tlk (old Sw. beclt, as two of its en- 
trances are still called : L. balteus, a belt), from the 
Baltic or its shores, or relating to them. 

baluster, n. bed'-us-ter (F. balustre: It. balauslro : 
Sp. barauste — from bara or vara, a rod), a little 
pillar ; a small column or pilaster ; corruptly spelt 
bannisters when placed as a guard to a staircase : 
balustered, a. bed'-us-tird', furnished with balusters: 
balustrade, n. bdl'-iis-trdd (F.), a row of little pillars 
united by a coping, serving as a fence for staircases, 

bamboo, n. bdm-bo' (Malay, bambu), a strong 
Indian reed, with hollow-jointed stems. 

bamboozle, v. bdm-bo'-zl (Dut. bum, to hum, and 
baesen, to rave or talk idly), to deceive ; to confound ; 
to mislead : bamboo'zling, imp. : bamboozled, pp. 

ban, n. bdn (L. bannire, to call to the ban or stand- 
ard : Sp. or It. bando, a decree, banns of marriage : Sw. 
bann, excommunication), a public notice; a curse; a 
censure ; an interdict ; in Slavonia, the viceroy or 
lord-lieutenant : v. to curse ; to interdict ; to pro- 
claim : ban'ning, imp.: banned, pp. bdnd: bans or 
banns, a proclamation in church necessary to con- 
stitute a legal marriage. 

banana, n. bd-ml'-nd (Sp.), an herbaceous plant and 
its fruit, differing from the plantain in having its 
stalks marked with dark purple stripes and spots, 
and the fruit shorter and rounder. 

banco, n. being'-ko (It. a bench, a bank), a word used 
in commerce to denote the difference in value between 
bank-money and current money on the Continent ; a 
bench: sittings in banco, so called when all the 
judges of a court are present. 

band, n. bdnd (from the verb to bind: Goth, bandi: 
F.bande: It. banda, a strip, a band : Ger. banele, bor- 
der, margin), that with which anything is bound ; a 
narrow strip of cloth or similar material for binding 
or swathing ; a stripe or streak of different colour or 
material ; a cord ; afillet ; a tie : in arch., alow mould- 
ing : v. to join or tie together : banding, imp. : band'ed, 
pp. : bandage, n. bdn'-ck'ij, a fillet ; a swath ; a Ions 
narrow strip of cloth used in binding up a wound or 
an infirmity : v. to tie up with a strip of cloth ; to dress 
with a bandage : bandaging, imp. : bandaged, pp. 
bdn'-dajel: bandbox, n. bd?id-bdks, a slight paper box: 
bandlet, n. band-let, also ban'delet (F. bandelette, a 
little band), in arch., a flat moulding or fillet: ban- 
doleers, n. plu. bdn'-do-lerz' (F. bandoidiere), small 
wooden cases covered with leather, each containing 
powder sufficient for a charge; the shoulder-belts 
worn by anc. musketeers : bandog, a kind of large 
dog ; a mastiff. 

band, n. bdnd (It. banda: F. bande, a band or com- 
pany: It. bandare, to side: Sp. banda, a side or 
party: F. bander, to join in league with), a company 
of men united for any common object or design ; a, 
body of soldiers ; a body of musicians : v. to unite to- 
gether in confederacy ; to associate : banding, imp. : 
band'ed, pp. : band'er, one who : train-bands, trdn'- 
bdndz, regiments composed of citizens of London, who 
used to be drilled after the manner of the militia. 

bandit, n. bdn'-dit ; banditti, n. plu. bdn-eht'e, also 
bandits (It. bandito, one proclaimed or denounced— 
from It. and mid. L. bandire, to proclaim, to de- 
nounce), an outlaw ; a robber; a highwayman. 

bandore, n. bdn'-ddr (Sp. bandurria — from Gr. 
pandoura, a musical instrument with three strings), 
a stringed musical instrument like a lute. 

bandrol, n. bdn'-drol, also written ban'nerol (F. 
banderole, a little flag or streamer), in the army, the 
little flag attached to a trumpet. 

bandy, v. bdn'-dl (F. bander, to drive the ball from 
side to side at tennis— from Sp. banda, a side), to beat 
to and fro, as a ball in play ; to exchange ; to retort ; 
to give by turns ; to contend : n. a bent club for 
striking a ball at play : bandying, imp. : bandied, 
pp. bdn'-did: ban'dier, n. one who: ban'dy-legs, (F. 
bander, to bend), crooked legs. 

culv, boy, foot; pure, 6«J; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, (here, zeal. 




bane, n. ban (AS. bana, murderer: Icel. bana, to 
slay: old H. Ger. bana, death-blow), a poison of a 
deadly quality; any fatal cause of mischief: baneful, 
a. bdn'/ool, poisonous; pernicious: bane'fully, ad. -ll: 
bane'fulness, n. : bane -wort, n. bdnivert, deadly 

bang, v. bdng (Sw. bang, stir, tumult : Goth. 
banja, a blow; imitative of the sound of a blow), to 
treat or handle roughly ; to shut with a loud noise, as 
a door : n. a heavy blow ; the thump or sound of a 
stroke ; an intoxicating Turkish drug : bang'ing, imp. : 
banged, pp. bdngd. 

bangles, n. bdng'-glz, ornaments worn on the arms 
and ankles in India and Africa. 

bangue, n. bdng, also spelt bang (Sans, bhangga, 
hemp : F. and Sp. bangue), the prepared leaf of Indian 
hemp, used as a stimulant in the East. 

Banian, a. bdn'ydn (from the Bannians in India, 
who abstain from animal food), among seamen, applied 
to those days on which they receive no butcher's 
meat : n. the Indian fig-tree ; a Hindoo of the trading 

banish, v. bdn'tsh (F. bannir, to banish: mid. L. 
bannire, to proclaim, to denounce— see ban and ban- 
dit), to condemn to exile ; to compel to leave a country ; 
to send as a prisoner to another country : ban'ishing, 
imp.: banished, pp. bdn'-lsht: banishment, n. the 
state of being sent out of a country as a criminal ; a 
driving away. 

banister, n. bdn'ls-ter, corrupted from baluster, 
which see. 

bank, n. bdngk(V. banc: Ger. bank, a bench, a bank: 
It. banco, a bench, a merchant's place of business), a 
mound or ridge of earth ; any steep ascent ; a heap of 
anything ; a place where a collection of money is kept ; 
the margin of a river or the sea: v. to raise up a 
mound of earth or a dyke to enclose; to deposit 
money in a bank : banking, imp. : adj. pert, to a 
bank : banked, pp. bdngkt : bank'er, n. one who deals 
in money : bank ing, n. the business or employment 
of a bank: adj. of or relating to the business of bank- 
ing: bank'able, a. -d-bl, receivable at a bank: bank'- 
note, an engraved form or bill, properly signed and 
attested, issued by a bank, and bearing a promise to 
pay on demand, in gold or silver, a certain specified 
sum: bank-stock, shares in the trading capital of a 

bankrupt, n. bdngk'rupt (It. banco, a merchant's 
place of business : L. ruptus, broken : It. bancarotta), 
any one who becomes unable to pay his just debts: 
adj. declared to be in debt beyond the power of pay- 
ment : v. to disable one from paying the claims of his 
creditors : bankrupting, imp. : bankrupted, pp. : 
bankruptcy, n. bdngk'rupt'-sl, the state of being a 
bankrupt ; failure in trade. 

banner, n. bdn'ner (F. banniere: It. bandiera — 
from banda, a strip of cloth : Goth, bandva, a sign), a 
square flag ; a flag or ensign : bannered, a. bdn'-nerd, 
bearing banners: ban'nerless, a. without a banner: 
banneret, n. bdn'ner-et, a little banner: knight ban'- 
neret, a knight of a higher order privileged to raise 
his own banner in the field : ban nerol, n. a little flag. 
Bannians, n. plu. bdn'ydnz, a religious sect among 
the East Indians who believe in the transmigration of 
souls, and consequently abstain from the use of the 
flesh of animals. 

bannock, n. bdn'nok (Scot.), a cake made of oat- 
meal or peasemeal. 

banns, n. bdnz (see ban), public notice of an in- 
tended marriage given in a church. 

banquet, n. bang'kivet (F.— from banque, a bench 
or table: It. banchetto, diminutive of banco, a bench 
Or table), a feast ; a rich entertainment ; anything de- 
lightful : v. to feast ; to treat with a feast : ban'queter, 
n. one who : banqueting, imp. : banqueted, pp. 

banquette, n. bdng-kdr (F.— from banc, a bank), in 
fort., a raised way or foot-bank, from three to four 
feet wide, running along the inside of a parapet. 

bantam, n. bdn'-tdm, a small breed of fowls with 
feathered legs— probably from Bantam in Java: adj. 
applied to the breed. 

banter, v. bdn'ter (unknown, but probably origin- 
ated as a slang word: F. badiner, to joke), to joke 
with in words and in good-humour; to rally: n. wit 
at the expense of another : ban'tering, imp. : bar- 
tered, pp. -terd. 

bantling, n. bdnt'-llng (from the bands in which the 
child was wrapped), a young child ; an infant. 
banyan— see banian. 

baobab, n. ba'6-bdb', called also A'danso'nia, a 
large tree, a native of Africa. 

baptism, n. bdp'-tlzm (L. and Gr. baptisma— from 
Gr. bapto, I dip in water), the initiatory sacrament of 
the Christian religion ; the dipping among water, or 
sprinkling with water: baptismal, a. bdp-tiz'mdl, 
pert, to baptism: baptis'mally, ad. -ll: bap'tist, n. 
one of a religious sect which opposes infant baptism ; 
John the Baptist : baptise, v. bdp-tlz 1 , to administer 
the rite of baptism : bapti'ser, n. one who baptises : 
bapti'sing, imp.: baptised, pp. bdp-tlzd' : bapti- 
sable, a. bap-ti'-zd-bl, that may be baptised: baptis- 
tery, n. bdp'tls-ter-l, a place for baptising: baptistic, 
a. bdp-tls'tik, also baptis'tical, a. -tl-kdl, pert, to 
baptism: baptis'tical 'ly, ad. -ll. 

bar, n. bar (F. barre : It. barra, a bolt : Celt, bar, 
the top, a branch : AS. beorgan, to shut in, to shelter), 
a bolt ; a long piece or rod of any solid substance of 
small diameter ; an enclosed place at an inn or a court ; 
a division in music, or the line that makes the divi- 
sion ; a sandbank at the entrance to a river ; the body 
of lawyers that plead ; any hindrance ; a stop : v. to 
secure ; to fasten ; to hinder ; to shut out ; to restrain : 
bar'ring, imp. : barred, pp. bard: barry, a. bdr'rl, in 
her., applied to an escutcheon having bars or equal 
divisions across from side to side : bar'less, a. : bar'- 
wise.a. -ivlz: bar'shot, n. doubled shot joined by abar, 
used for destroying masts and rigging in a naval 
engagement : bar'-iron, a long thick rod of malleable 
iron prepared from pig-iron for the use of blacksmiths : 
barmaid, a woman who attends at the bar of atavern, 
&c. : barricade, n. bdr'rl-kdd' (Sp. barricada: Gael. 
barrach, branches, brushwood : F. barrer, to stop the 
way), an obstruction hastily thrown up; an impedi- 
ment ; a defence : v. to fasten ; to fortify ; to secure : 
barricading, imp. : bar'rica'ded, pp. : bar'rica der, 
n. one who: barrier, n. bdr'rl-er (F. barriere), a boun- 
dary; a limit; defence; line of separation : barrister, 
n. bdr'rls-ter, one who pleads in defence of any person 
near the bar in a court of law ; an advocate. 

barb, n. barb (F. barbe— from L. barba, a beard), a 
beard, or that which resembles it ; a horse from Bar- 
bary (Dut. paard, a horse) ; the sharp shoulders of an 
arrow-head or of a hook to prevent its being easily 
drawn back again; the trappings of a horse: v. to 
furnish with barbs: bar'ber, n. (F. barbier), one who 
shaves beards: barb'ing, imp.: barbed, pp. bdrbd, 
bearded; armed. 

Barbadoes, n. bdr-bd'doz, of or from Barbadoes, 
one of the West India islands : Barbadoes tar, a mi- 
neral tar of commerce found in several of the West 
India islands. 

barbarian, n. bdr-ba'rl-dn (Gr. barbaros: L. 6a?-- 
barus, rude— a word imitative of the confused sound 
of voices, conveying no meaning, by repeating the 
syllables bar, bar: F. barboter, to mumble, to mutter ; 
baragouin, gibberish, jargon), a rude savage man ; 
an uncivilised man; a foreigner: adj. belonging to 
a savage; uncivilised: barbaric, a. bdr-bdr'lk, pert, 
to semicivilised or uncivilised nations : barbarism, n. 
bdr'bdr-lzm, an impropriety of speech ; an uncivilised 
state; rudeness of manners: barbarity, n. bdr-bdr'l- 
tl, extreme rudeness; cruelty, like a savage; inhu- 
manity: barbarise, v. bdr'bd-rlz, to make barbar- 
ous: bar'bari'sing, imp.: bar'barised', pp. -rlzd": 
barbarous, a. bdr'bd-rus, uncivilised ; savage; ignor- 
ant; cruel: barbarously, ad. -ll: barharous'ness, n. 

barbate, a. bdr'bdt, or barbated, a. bdr'bd-ted 
(L. barbatus, having a beard), in bot., bearded: bar- 
bule, n. bar'bul, a very minute barb or beard. 

barbecue, n. bdr'-bl-ku (F. barbe-a-queue, from 
snout to tail), in the West Indies, a term used for dress- 
ing a hog whole by splitting it to the backbone and 
laying it upon a gridiron above a fire, which also sur- 
rounds it: v. to roast or dress a hog whole, or any 
other animal, in some way: bar'becu'ing, imp.: bar- 
becued, pp. bdr'bl-kud. 

barbel, n. bdr'-bcl (Dut. barbeel— from L. barba, a 
beard), a certain river-fish having on its upper jaw- 
four beard-like appendages or wattles. 

barberry, n. bdr-ber'rl (Sp. berberis), a wild bush, 
or its fruit— see berbery. 

barbet, n. bar-bet (F.— from barbe, a beard), a species 
of dog having long coarse hair; a bird of warm cli- 
mates almost covered with bristles and very stupid ; 
a kind of worm that feeds on the aphides. 

barbette, n. bdr-bef (F.: It. barbetta, a tuft of hair 
on the pastern-joint of a horse), an earthen terrace in- 
side a parapet, raised to such a height as to admit of 

mate, m&t.fdr, law; mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 



guns being fired over the crest of the parapet. Guns 
are said to be en barbette when placed on such an 
earthen mound, or on a high carriage. 

barbican, n. bdr'bl-kdn (AS. barbacan: F. and It. 
barbacane: Sp. barbacana), a watch-tower; an out- 
work or fort at the entrance of a bridge. 

barcarolles, n. plu. bdr'-kd-rol'lez (It. barca, a 
barge), the songs of the Venetian gondoliers. 

bard, n. bard (F. barde: It. bardo: L. bardus— from 
W. bardd), one who sung his own poems among the 
ancient Celts; a poet: bardic, a. bdr'dlk, pert, to 
bards or minstrelsy: bardism, n. bdr'-dlzm, the learn- 
ing and maxims of bards. 

bards, n. plu. bdrdz (F. bardes, trappings for horses, 
covering the front, back, and flanks: Sp. barda), thin 
broad slices of bacon with which capons, pullets, &c, 
are dressed and baked for table. 

bare, a. bar (AS. bozr: Ger. baar: Icel. ber, bare: 
Fris. baer, clear), naked; without covering; plain; 
simple; poor: v. to make naked; to strip or uncover: 
baring, imp.: bared, pp. bard: barely, ad. bdr'-ll, 
with difficulty: bareness, n.: barefaced, a. bdr-jdsf, 
shameless; impudent: barefacedly, ad. -fds'-ed-ll: 
barefac'edness, n. effrontery ; assurance; impudence: 
bare-pdies', applied to a ship lying-to without any 
sails set: barefoot, a. ad. with the feet bare. 

baregine, n. bd-rd'zhln.a eurious infusorial deposit 
occurring in certain thermal waters, first discovered 
in the hot springs of Bareges, in the Pyrenees. 

bargain, n. bar' gin (old F. barguigner, to haggle: 
It. baratta, strife— from the syllables bar, bar— see 
barbarian), an agreement ; a cheapened commodity : 
v. to make a contract or agreement ; to sell on specu- 
lation: bargaining, imp. bdr'-gen-lng : bargained, pp. 
bar'-gend: bargainee, n. bar'-yen-e", he who accepts a 

barge, n. bdrj (Dut. barsie: old F. barge, a boat: 
Icel. barki, the throat, the bows of a ship), a boat, 
generally a pleasure-vessel ; a flat-bottomed boat for 
conveying goods from vessels ; another word for bark : 
bargeman, n. : barge-couples, pieces of wood mortised 
into others to strengthen a building. 

barilla, n. bdrll'la (Sp.), a plant cultivated in Spain 
from whose ashes the best alkali is obtained, being an 
impure carbonate of soda. The barilla obtained from 
the ashes of sea-weed growing on the coast of Scot- 
land is called kelp. 

barium, n. bd-rl-um (Gr. bancs, heavy), the metal- 
lic basis of baryta, discovered in 1808 by Sir H. Davy. 

bark, n. bdrk (Dan. bark: Icel. borkr), the outside 
covering of a tree : v. to peel or strip off bark : bark- 
ing, imp.: barked, pp. bdrkt: barker, n. one who: 
barkery, n. bdrk'-i-r-i, a tan-house. 

bark, n. bdrk (AS. beorcan, to bark: Icel. barki, the 
throat), the peculiar noise or clamour of a dog : v. to 
make the noise of a dog: bark'ing, imp.: barked', 
pp.: bark'er, one which. 

bark or barque, n. bdrk (F. barque . low L. barca), 
a small ship; a ship that carries three masts, without 
a mizzen top-sail. 

Barker's mill, n. bdr'kerz, a machine moved by the 
centrifugal force of water, invented by Dr Barker 
more than a century ago. 

barley, n. bdr'-ll (AS. bere: W. barllys— from bara, 
bread, and llys, a plant), a well-known grain much used 
for making malt: barley-corn, n. a grain of barley; the 
third part of an inch in length— said to be the origin 
of our measure of length, three barley-corns placed 
end to end being one inch : barley-sugar, a sweetmeat, 
formerly made with a decoction of barley: barley- 
water, an infusion of barley : barley-brake, a rural 
play : pearl-barley, barley dressed for domestic use. 

barm, n. barm (AS. beorm: Ger. berm: Dan. bcerme, 
the dregs of oil, wine, or beer), yeast ; leaven for bread ; 
the scum or slimy substance from beer: barmy, a. 
bdr'mi, containing yeast. 

barn, n. barn (AS. berern— from bere, barley; em, a 
place: Dut. berm, a heap: Dan. baarm, a load), a 
covered building for farm produce. 

barnacle, n. bdr'-nd-kl (F. barnache: Gael, bair- 
neach: Manx, 6a rnagh, a limpet, conical-shaped : pro- 
perly AS. beam, a child ; aac, oak— expressive of the 
old belief that the barnacle, externally resembling an 
acorn, grew on oak-trees), a conical shell-fish found on 
bottoms of ships, and on planks or stones under water ; 
a sort of goose : bar'nacles, n. plu. -klz (prov. F. ber- 
niques, spectacles — from bomi, blind), irons put on 
the noses of horses to make them stand quiet. 

barolite, n. bar'-O-lit (Gr. barus, heavy; lithos, a 

cuiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, 

stone), a carbonate of baryta— also called Witheritc, 
from its discoverer. 

barometer, n. bd-rom'-e-ter (Gr. baros, weight ; vie- 
tron, a measure), an instrument that indicates changes 
in the weather, and used to ascertain the heights of 
mountains from the pressure of the atmosphere : bar- 
ometric, a. bar'-o-met'-rlk, also barometrical, a. bar- 
6-met'rl-kdl: bar'omet rically, ad. -kdl-l: barometry, 
n. bd-rom'-e-trl .- aneroid barom'eter, dn'-er-dyd (Gr. 
a, without ; neros, moist ; eidos, a form), a barometer 
which indicates the varying pressure of the atmos- 
phere, not by the varying height of a column of a fluid, 
but by the compression and expansion of a small 
metal vessel. 

baron, n. bdr'-0n (F.: It. barone: Sp. varon.- origi- 
nally signifying man or husband), a rank of nobility 
next to a viscount; two sirloins not cut asunder: 
baronage, n. bdr'-on-dj, the dignity or estate of 
a baron : bar'oness, n. the wife of a baron : barony, 
n. bdr'-o-nl, the lordship of a baron; a division 
of a county in Ireland answering to an English 
hundred: baronial, a. bd-ro'-nl-dl, pert, to a barony: 
baronet, n. bdr'6-net, the title next below a baron, 
established in England as an order in the reign of 
James I. : baronetage, n. bdr'-o-netdj, the dignity 
of a baronet; baronets as a body: baronetcy, n. 
bdr'-o-nit'-sl, the title and dignity of a baronet. 

baroselenite, n. bar'6-sel-enlt (Gr. barus, heavy; 
selene, the moon), a name applied to barytes, in allu- 
sion to its high specific gravity, and the resemblance 
of some of its crystals to those of selenite. 

barouche, n. bd-rosh' (Ger. barutsche : L. birotus 
—from bis, twice ; rota, a wheel), a four-wheeled car- 
riage with a falling top. 

barque, n. bdrk— see bark, a small ship. 

barrack, n. bdr'-rdk (Sp. barraca, a cabin or hut: 
Gael, barrack, brushwood: F. baroque), a house for 
soldiers, commonly used in the plu., being originally 
a collection of huts clad or covered with boughs: 
barrack-master, the officer who superintends sol- 
diers' barracks. 

barracoon, n. bdr'rdkdn (from barrack), in Africa, a 
fort or castle ; an enclosure where slaves are quartered. 

barras, n. bur'rds (F.), a substance consisting of 
resin and oil that exudes from the wounds in fir-trees. 

barrator, n. bdr'-rd-tor (old F. bareter, to deceive: 
Icel. baratta, a contest; — see barter), an encourager of 
lawsuits; fraud in a shipmaster: barratry, n. bar- 
rd-trl, a fraud in a shipmaster against the owners 
or underwriters, as embezzling the goods or running 
away with the ship: barratrous, a. bur'-rd-trus, guilty 
of the crime of barratry : bar'ratrous'ly, ad. -trus'-li. 

barrel, n. bdr'rSl (F. baril: It. barile: Sp. barril), a 
vessel or cask having more length than breadth, bulg- 
ing in the middle: v. to pack or put into a barrel: 
barrelling, imp.: barrelled, bdr'reld: barrel-bulk, in 
shipping, a measure of capacity for freight equal to 
five cubic feet. 

barren, a. bdr'rSn (old F. brehaigne or baraigne, 
unfruitful), not producing young ; not fertile ; dull ; in 
bot., without pistils: bar'renly, ad. -II: barrenness, 
n. bdr'-rin-nes, unfruitfidness; sterility. 

barricade, n. : barrier, n. : barrister, n.— see un- 
der bar : bar rier-reef, a name given to those coral-reefs 
which run parallel to the shores, chiefly of islands, and 
enclosing a lagoon-channel more or less extensive. 

barrow, n. bdr'ro (AS. berewe— from beran, to 
carry: It. bara, a litter: Ger. bahre, a barrow), a 

barrow, n. bdr'ro (AS. beorg or beorh, a hill or 
mound), a hillock or mound raised over the graves of 
warriors or nobles, especially those killed in battle. 

barter, v. bdr'-ter (old F. bareter, to deceive: Sp. 
baratar, to truck or exchange : It. barattare, to truck 
or barter— see bargain), to traffic by exchanging one 
kind of goods for another; to exchange; to trade: n. 
traffic by exchanging : bartering, imp. : bartered, 
pp. bdr'terd: bar'terer, n. one who. 

bartizan, n. bdr'-tl-zdn' (a corruption of brattic- 
ing, which see: F. bretesche, a portal of defence: It. 
bertesca, a kind of rampart), a small overhanging 
turret which projects from the angles of towers, or 
the parapet and other parts of the building. 

barwood, n. bdr'-ivdbd, a red dyewood brought from 

baryta, n. bd-rl'td, also barytes, n. bd-rl'-tSz (Gr. 
barus, heavy), a mineral, one of the simple earths, of 
great specific gravity, widely diffused and common- 
ly occurring in beds or veins of metallic ores ; the na- 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




tive sulphate of baryta is generally known as cawk or 
heavy spar: barytic, a. bd-rlt'lk, of or containing ba- 
ryta: baryto-calcite, n. bd-ri'to-kdl'slt (Gr. bancs, 
heavy: L. calx, gen. calcis, lime), a mineral of a white, 
yellowish, or greenish colour, occurring massive and 

barytone, a. bdr'l-tOn (Or. barvs, heavy; tonos, a 
tone), pert, to a grave deep sound: n. a male voice 
between tenor and bass. 
basal, a. bd'-sdl— see base. 

basalt, n. bd-saTvlt' (Gr. and L. basaltes ; Ethiopio, 
fittsaZ, iron), a dark greyish - black stone of volcanic 
origin, often occurring in the form of columns 
or prisms, three, five, or more sided, regular and 
jointed: basaltic, a. bd-satol'-Uk, pert, to or containing 
basalt : basaltine, a. bd-sawl'tin, crystallised horn 
blende: basaltiform, n. bd-saTcl'tl-f alarm (basalt; 
L. forma, shape), resembling basalt in its columnar 

basanite, n. bdz'dn-lt (Gr. basnnizn, I test; basanos, 
a touchstone), a mineral— called also Lydian ttone 
or Lydite, from the province of Lydia, where first found; 
a compound variety of flinty slate of a velvet-black 
colour, used for testing the purity of gold and silver 
—seldom used in this way now; applied to a rock having 
a base of basalt and more or less crystals of augite. 

base, a. bd$[F. bas, mean, low: It. basso; L. bassus: 
Gr. bathus, deep), mean ; worthless ; of low station ; 
deep; grave: basely, ad. -II: base'ness, n. vileness; 
worthlessness: base-born, a. born out of wedlock; 
vile: base-hearted, a., also base-souled, a. vile in 
heart or spirit. 

base, n. bas (L. and Gr. basis, the foundation), the 
bottom; the foundation; the foot; the support; the 
principal ingredient in a compound body ; the low or 
grave parts in music: v. to found or establish on a 
base : ba'sing, imp. : based, pp. bdsd : basic, a. 
bd'zlk, acting as a base; possessing the base in ex- 
cess: basal, a. bd'-sdl, forming the base: baseless, 
a. bds'-lis, without foundation: basilar, a. bds'-i-ldr, 
in bot., attached to the base of an organ: base'- 
ment, n. the ground floor ; the part below^the level of 
the street; the part on which the base is placed: 
basis, n. bd'-sls (L.), the pedestal of a column; that on 
which anything is raised: plu. bases, bd'-sez: base'- 
court, the outer or lower yard of a castle, appropriated 
to stables, offices, &c. : base'-line, injxrspec, the com- 
mon section of a picture and the geometrical plane ; 
in surv., a line, sometimes exceeding 100 miles in 
length, measured with the greatest possible exact- 
ness, with the view of determining the relative posi- 
tions of objects and places; longer base lines are 
measured by triangulation : base of operations, the 
line of country or fortresses from which military opera- 
tions can be advanced by troops, and munitions of 
war supplied, and to which retreat can be made in 
case of necessity. 

bashaw, n. bd-shaTo' (Ar. basha : Pers. 'paslia), a 
Turkish governor ; an imperious person. 

bashful, a. bdsh'-fth! (see abash), very modest ; shy ; 
easily confused: bashfully, ad. -II: bash'fulne3S, n. 
modesty in excess. 

basify, v. bd'-sl-fy (see base), to convert into a base ; 
ba'sifying, imp.: basifled, pp. bd'-sl-fld: basifier, 
n. bd'-sl-fl'-er, he or that which. 

basil, n. bdz'-ll (Sp. bisel, bevel-edge of a thing— 
from base), the slope of the edge of a tool : v. to grind 
or form the edge of a tool to an angle : bas'iling, imp. : 
basiled, pp. bdz'-lld. 

basil, n. bdz'-ll (P. basilic: It. basilico, the basil— 
from Gr. basilikns, royal), literally the royal herb— 
a highly aromatic plant; a pot-herb: basil-weed, 
wild basil. 

basilica, n. bd-zll'-l-kd (Gr. basilikos, kingly), a royal 
or public hall where justice was administered; the 
middle vein of the arm ; a magnificent church: basil- 
icon, n. bd-zll'-l-kon, a yellow ointment: basilic, a. 
bd-zU'lk, also basilical, a. bd-zil-l-kdl, pert, to a 
public or regal edifice; pert, to the middle vein of 
the arm. 

basilisk, n. bdz'-l-llsk (L. basiliscus— from Gr. basi- 
leus, a king), the cockatrice ; a fabulous serpent hav- 
ing a white spot on its head resembling a royal 

basin, n. bd'-sn (F. bassin: Ger. becken: It. barino), 
a circular hollow vessel for containing water, &c. ; a 
pond; a bay; a dock; the district of country drained 
by a river: ba'sin-shaped, a.: basined, a. bd'-snd, 
enclosed in a basin; in geol., any dipping or disposi 

tion of strata towards a common centre or axis ; the 
depressions and receptacles of seas or lakes. 

ba'sis— see base. 

bask, v. bdsk (Icel. baka, to warm : Dut. bakern, to 
bask, as in the sun), to lie at ease enjoying the heat 
of the sun or of a fire ; to be prosperous under benign 
influence : basking, imp. : basked, pp. bdskt, 

basket, n. bds'ket (W. basged^- from basg, a netting, 
a plaiting, as of twigs or splinters: L. bascatida), an 
article of domestic use, made of osier-twigs or any 
pliable substance: v. to put into baskets: bas'keting, 
imp. : basketed, pp. : basket-hilt, the hilt of a sword 
made to defend the whole hand from being wounded : 
bas'ket-hil'ted, a. having a basket-hilt. 

Basquish, a. bds'-klsh, of or pert, to Biscay or its 

bass, n. bas (It. basso, low, deep), the lowest part in 
a harmonised musical composition: adj. low; deep; 
grave: basist, n. bds'-lst, in music, a singer of bass: 
bass-clef, bds'-klef, the character placed at the begin- 
ning of the stave containing the bass part of a musi- 
cal composition: bass-singer, one who sings the deep- 
est or lowest part in music. 

bass, n. bds (Dut. bast, bark or peel : Dan. baste, to 
bind), a mat made of bast ; a door-mat. • 

bass, n. bds (AS. beers, a perch), a name given to 
several species of the perch. 

bass-relief, n. bds'-re-lef (It. basso, low; rilevare, 
to raise up again), sculptured figures which do not 
stand far out from the surface ; when they stand fur- 
ther out they are said to be in alto-relievo : It. basso- 
relievo, bds'-sd-re-le'-vo : F. bas-relief, bd'-re-lef. 

basset, n. bds'-sef(see basil), a miner's term for the 
outcrop or surface-edge of any inclined stratum : v. 
to incline in a direction towards the surface of the 
earth, as a stratum or seam of coal : bas'seting, imp. : 
bas'seted, pp. : spelt also with it. 

basset, n. bds'-set (F. bassette), a game at cards in- 
vented at Venice. 

bassetto, n. bds-sSt'-td (It.), a small bass viol. 

bassinette, n. bds'-sl-net' (F.) a wicker basket, with 
a covering or hood over one end, in which young 
children are placed as in a cradle. 

bassoon, n. bds-sdn' (F. basson: It. bassone— from 
basso, low or deep), in music, a bass wind-instrument, 
consisting of a very long tube and a reed for the ad- 
mission of the wind : bassoon 'ist, n. a player on. 

bassorine, n. bds'-so-rin (first discovered in bas'sora- 
gum), a substance obtained by treating gum-resin suc- 
cessively with ether, alcohol, and water. 

bast, n. bast (Dut. bast, bark, peel : Sw. basta, to 
bind), proper spelling of bass, a mat ; inner bark of 
the lime-tree, from which matting is made ; a thick 
mat : basta, impera. bds'-td(It.), in music, enough ; stop 
—used by the leader of the band. 

bastard, n. bcls'tdrd (old F. bastard; Gael, baos, for- 
nication: old E. baste, fornication— from old F. bast, a 
pack-saddle), a child born out of wedlock ; anything 
spurious: adj. spurious; not genuine; false; applied 
to metallic ores containing a very small percentage of 
metal, or to an impure mineral— as bastard-iron- 
stone, bastard-limestone: bas tardism, n. -dizm, the 
state of a bastard: bastardise, v. bds'-tdr-dlz', to 
prove to be a bastard; to reduce to the condition 
of a bastard: bas'tardi'sing, imp.: bas'tardised', 
pp. -dlzd': bas'tardly, a. or ad. -II: bastardy, n. 
bds'-tdr-ell, state of being illegitimate. 

baste, v. bast (F. baston or baton, a stick: Icel. 
beysta, to beat: Sw. bosta, to thump: Dan. bask, 
a slap), to beat with a stick ; to moisten meat with 
fat whilst roasting, to hinder it from burning: ba'- 
sting, imp. : basted, pp. bd'-sted : ba'ster, n. one who. 

baste, v. bast (It. basta, a long stitch: Sp. bastear, 
to sew slightly: F. batir, to stitch), to sew with long 
stitches to keep the pieces of a garment in shape while 
it is being permanently sewn : ba'sting, imp.: ba'sted, 

Bastile, n. bds-tel' (F. bastille), a famous castle or 
state prison in Paris, destroyed by the populace in 

bastinade, v. Ms'-H-ndd' ', or bastinado, bds'tt- 
nd'-do (Sp. bastonada, a blow with a stick: F. baston- 
nade— from baton, a stick), to give a sound beating to 
with a stick: n. a punishment in use among many 
Eastern nations by which the offender is beaten on 
the soles of the feet : bas'tina'ding, imp. : bas'tin- 
a'ded, pp. 

bastion, n. bdst'yon (Sp. and F. : It. bastinne— from 
F. batir, for bastir, to build), a mass of earth built as 

mate, mat, far, latv ; mete, met, hCr; pine, pin; not:, not, m6ve; 




a wall and faced with sods or tricks, standing out 
from a fortified work to protect its walls : bastioned, 
a, bdst'yond, furnished with bastions. 

bat, n. bdt (It. battere: F. baltre, to beat: Hung. 
lot, a stick : Gael, bat, a staff), a heavy stick; a piece 
of wood broader at one end than at the other ; the 
management of a bat at play ; cotton in sheets for 
quilting ; a piece of brick : v. to play with a bat at 
cricket: bat ting, imp. : batted, pp. bdt' ted: bats- 
man, n. bats-man, in cricket, the man who holds the 

bat, n. belt (bak, as the common name of an animal : 
Scot, buk, baki or bakie-bird : Sw. nuttbaka, the night- 
back: L. blatta, a night-moth), name of a small animal 
like a mouse, but with wings without feathers, which 
only comes abroad at night : bat'tish, a. like a bat : 
bat'fowling, a method of catching birds at night. 

batardeau, n. bat'ar-dtj' {¥.), in mil., a, strong wall 
of masonry built across a ditch to sustain the pressure 
of the water, containing a sluice-gate, armed at the 
top with iron pikes, and rendered impassable by a 
tower with a conical top, raised in the middle. 

Batavian, a. bdtd'-vl-dn, Dutch. 

batch, n. bdeh (AS. baccui: Dut. baksel, an ovenful— 
from bukken. to bake), a quantity of bread baked at 
one time; an assortment of things of the same kind. 

bate, v. bat (F. abattre, to break down: Sp. batir, 
to lose courage, to lessen), to lessen anything; to 
retrench; to take away: ba'ting, imp.: bated, pp. 

bath, n. bath (AS. baeth: Icel. bada: Ger. baden, to 
bathe : Icel. baka, to heat), a place to bathe in ; that 
in which the body or a part of it is bathed ; in chem., 
hot water, hot sand, &c, used as a source of heat 
or for modifying it ; a Heb. measure : bathe, v. bath, 
to wash the body or a part of it with water, &c. ; to 
lie in a bath: bathing, bd'-thlng, imp.: bathed, pp. 
bdthel: bather, n. one who: dry-bath, one made of 
hot sand, ashes, &c: air-bath exposure of the body to 
the refreshing influence of the air; also one among 
hot air, as in a Turkish bath : plunge-bath, a bath in 
which the whole body is immersed: douche -bath, 
ddsh'-, in which a stream of water is made to fall 
from above on the body : shower-bath, in which the 
water is poured upon the body in the form of ashower: 
medicated -baths, mCd'-i-ka'-tcd-hnihs, in which the 
water is impregnated with medical preparations : 
bath-metal, a mixed metal called prince's metal : 
bath-stone, n. bath'ston, oolitic freestone extensively 
quarried for building purposes near Bath, very soft, 
but becoming hard on exposure to the atmosphere: 
bath-brick, n. -brlk, a well-known kind of stone used 
for cleaning and polishing metal utensils. 

Bath, n. bath, a high order of British knighthood. 

bathos, n. bd'-thos, (Gr. bathus, deep ; bathus. depth), 
a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the mean in 
speaking or writing; the profound, ironically, in con- 
tradistinction to the sublime. 

bathymetrical, a. bdth'-i-met'-rl-kdl (Gr. bathus, 
deep; metron, a measure), applied to the distribution 
of plants and animals along the sea -bottom which 
they inhabit. 

batlet, n. bdt'-ldt (see bat), a flat piece of wood for 
beating linen in the washing. 

batman, n. bau-'mdn (Ger. baver, a peasant, a 
countryman: old E. bau-n. a fortified enclosure for 
cattle), a person appointed to every company of a 
regiment to take charge of the cooking utensils, &c, 
usually an officer's servant: bat-horse, baw-, the pack 
or baggage horse: allowed to a batman. 

baton, n. bd'tong, more rarely batoon, n. bd-ton', 
(F. baton, for baston, a stick), in her., a mark of ille- 
gitimate descent ; a staff; a club; a marshal's staff of 
office ; a short staff as a badge of office. 

batrachia, n. bd-trd'-ki-d (Gr. batrachos, a frog), 
an order of reptiles comprising the frog, toad, sala- 
mander, and siren: batra'chian, a. of of relating to 
the frog tribe : n. one of the frog tribe : batrachoid, 
a. bdt'-rd-kdiid, formed likeafmg: batracholites, bci- 
trdk-6-litz (Gr. — ; lithos, a stone), fossil remains of 
animals of the frog kind. 

batta, n. bdt'-td (Hind.), an allowance to the officers 
serving in the East Indies in addition to their pay. 

battalion, n. bdt-tdl'yon (F. bataillon — from' bat- 
tre, to beat: It. battaglia— from battere, to beat: L. 
battuere, to strike or beat), a body of soldiers of from 
500 to 800 men— less than a regiment ; battalion and 
regiment are often synonymous: battalia, n. bdt- 
tdl'-yd, the order of battle; the main body in array: 
battalioned, a. bat-tdl'-yond, formed into battalions. 

cc-Tc, boy, f Jot; pure, bud; chair, 

batten, v. bdt -n (Goth, gabatnan, to thrive: Icel., 
bat-'iia, to get better), to fatten ; to grow or become 
fat ; to live in ease and luxury : battening, imp. : 
battened, pp. bdt'-nd. 

batten, n. bdt'-n (F. baton, a staff or stick— from 
bat, which see), a small piece of wood used by carpen- 
ters and plumbers : v. to fasten or form with battens : 
bat'tening, imp. : n. narrow flat rods of wood fixed to 
the wall on which the laths for the plaster-work are 
nailed: battened, pp. bdt'-nd. 

batter, v. bdt'-Ur (F. battrc, to beat— from L. bat- 
tuere, to beat or strike), to beat with repeated blows ; 
to beat with great force or violence ; to wear out witli 
service : n. a mixture of various ingredients beaten 
together: battering, imp.: battered, pp. bdt'tCrd: 
batterer, n. one who : bat'tering-ram, n. an ancient 
military engine for beating down walls, consisting of 
a long beam having a head like a ram's, and swung. 

battery, n. bdt'-tir-l (F. batterie — from battre, to 
beat), in mil., a parapet or wall breast high, thrown 
up to protect the gunners and others, or as a position 
for guns ; any number of guns and mortars ranged in 
order for firing ; an apparatus for generating the elec- 
tric fluid: masked-bat tery, a battery screened from 
the sight of the enemy by anv contrivance. 

battle, n. bdt'-tl (F. bataille : It. battaglia — from 
battere, to beat), a fight between enemies ; an encoun- 
ter between armies : v. to contend in fight : battle- 
array, n. bdt'tl-dr-rd', order of battle: battle-axe, 
n. -dks, a weapon of war not now in use : battle-field, 
the place where a battle between armies has been 
fought: battling, imp.: battled, pp. bdt'tld: bat- 
tlement, n. bat'-tl-mcnt, a wall pierced with openings, 
or made notch-like, for military purposes or for orna- 
ment : bat tlemen ted, as having battlements. 

battledore, n. bdt'-tl-dor (Sp. batador, a washing- 
beetle), a toy used in play, with a handle and fiat 
part, for striking a shuttlecock upwards. 

battue, n. bat'-tdb (F.— from L. battuere, to beat), a 
beaing up of game to gather it into a limited area ; 
the game beaten up. 

bauble, n. bau'bl—see bawble. 

baulk, n. baXbk (see balk), a piece of foreign timber 
of from 8 to 1(5 inches square: bawk, n. baTck, a cross- 
beam in the roof of a house uniting and supporting the 

bawbee, n. baTc'-be", (F. bas-billon, base bullion 
or coin), the name in Scotland and north of England 
for a halfpenny. 

bawble, n. baw'-bl, also spelt bau'ble (F. babiole, a 
toy: Hung, bub, a bunch ; buba, a doll), a showy trifle ; 
a worthless piece of finery. 

bawd, n. baud (\V. baw, dirt, filth: old F. baude), 
one who promotes debaucheiy: bawdy, a. baw'dl, 
filthy; unchaste. 

bawl, v. bawl (AS. bau or bow, the cry of a dog: L. 
baubari, to bark as a dog: Icel. baula, to low as an 
ox), to cry out with a loud full sound: bawling, imp.: 
bawled, pp. bdTrld: bawl'er, n. one who. 

bay, a. &«(L. badius, brown: Sp. bayo: It. bajo: F. 
bai), brown or reddish ; inclining to a chestnut colour : 
bayard, n. bd'-drd (F. bai, a chestnut-brown : Dut. 
paard, a horse), a bay horse : adj. blind; stupid. 

bay, n. bd (Sp. bahia— from prov. Sp. badar, to 
open, to gape : It baja : F. bale), an arm of the sea 
bending into the land; state of being hemmed in: 
bay-window, a window that projects outwards, 
forming a kind of bay within: bay'-salt, a sort of 
coarse salt, formed by the natural evaporation of sea- 

bay, n. bd (It. abbaiare: F. abbayer: L. baubari, to 
bow-wow as a dog), the bark of a dog when his prev is 
brought to a stand : at bay, at a stand, and turned to 
keep the enemy in check; a stag is at bay when he 
turns and faces his pursuers : v. to bark as a dog at his 
game ; to keep an enemy from closing in : baying, 
imp. : bayed, pp. bad. 

bay, n. bd (F. bale, a berry— from L. baca, a berry: 
Sp. baya. the cod of peas, a husk), the laurel-tree, 
which bears red berries : bays, n. plu. bdz, an honor- 
ary garland or crown of victory, originally made of 
laurel branches with its berries. 

bayonet, n. bd'-on-e't (from Bayonne, in France, 
where first made; F. baionette) a steel dagger at the 
end of a gun or musket: v. to stall or kill with a bay- 
onet: bayonet'ing, imp.: bay'onet'ed, pp. Parti- 
ciples more properly spelt with tt. 

bazaar, n. bd-zdr', (Pers. bazar, a market), a cover- 
ed place where goods are exposed to sale ; a large 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




room for the sale of goods; a sale of miscellaneous 
goods for a charitable object. 

B.C., first letters of " Before Christ" : B.C.L., bache- 
lor of civil laws: B.D., bachelor of divinity: B.A., 
bachelor of arts. 

bdellium, n. del'-ll-iim (L.— from Gr. bdcllion), a 
gummy substance of an agreeable odour brought from 
the East. 

be, v. be (AS. beon: Gael, beo, alive: Gr. bios, life: 
Sans, bhu, to be), Infin. of the verb am, denoting to 
exist, to become, to remain; used in hypothetical and 
secondary propositions— as " // / be," "If thou be:" 
being, imp. be- lag: been, pp. 

be (AS.) a prefix, signifying to make. When be is 
prefixed to a noun, the noun becomes a verb— thus, 
calm and friend are nouns, but becalm and befriend 
are verbs : be prefixed to a verb signifies about, over, 
for— thus, speak and think become bespeak and be- 
think: be in a preposition, an adverb, or a conjunc- 
tion, has the force of by or in— thus, because, conj. 
signifies, by the cause of: behind, prep, in the rear of. 

beach, n. bech (AS. becc, a brook: Icel. bakki, 
a bank), the shore ; the space on the margin of a sea 
over which the tide alternately flows and ebbs; the 
margin of the sea or of a large river: v. to run a 
ship on shore : beach'ing, imp. : beached, pp. becht, 
run on shore— as a boat or ship: beachy, a. bech'-l, 
having beaches. 

beacon, n. be'-kn (AS. beacen, a sign, a nod : Icel. 
bakna, to signify by nodding), a lighthouse or signal 
to direct navigation ; something that gives notice of 
danger: v. to afford light or direction, as a beacon: 
beaconed, a. be'kond: bea'coning, imp.: beaconage, 
n. be'kon-dj, money paid for the support of a beacon. 

bead, n. bed (AS. bead; gebed, a prayer, as formerly 
helping the memory in reciting prayers), a small ball 
pierced for hanging on a string; a round moulding, 
also called beading: bead-tree, a tree the pips and 
nuts of whose fruit are pierced and strung as beads : 
bead'proof, liquors, as alcohol, that carry bubbles 
when shaken: bead'roll, in R. Cath. Ch. a list of 
those to be mentioned at prayers: beads'man, n. or 
-woman, one employed to pray for others ; a recipient 
of certain charities. 

beadle, n. be'-dl (AS. bydel— from bidan, to wait : 
F. bedeau: It. bidello), a messenger; a church or 
parish officer : beadleship, n. the ohice of a beadle. 

beagle, n. be'-gl (Gael, beag: W. bac, little), a small 
hunting-dog, tracking by scent. 

beak, n. bek (F. bee: It. becco; Gael, beic), the 
bill or nib of a bird ; any pointed thing : beaked, a. 
bekt, having a beak; pointed: beaker, n. (Ger. 
berher, a goblet), a large beaked cup or glass ; a flagon. 

beam, n. bem (AS. beam, a tree: Ger. baum: 
Icel. badmr), any large and long piece of timber or 
iron; the principal piece of timber in a building; 
the rod from which the scales are suspended ; the horn 
of a stag ; ray of light : v. to throw out rays, as the 
sun ; to dart ; to glitter or shine : beaming, imp. : adj. 
darting of light in rays : n. dawn ; first indication : 
beamed, pp. bemd: beam'less, a. giving out no rays 
of light : beamy, a. bem'-i, radiant ; antlered as 
a stag : beam-bird, the spotted fly-catcher : beam- 
ends, a ship is said to be on her beam-ends when 
she inclines very much to one side : beams, n. plu. 
strong thick pieces of timber stretching across a 
ship from side to side to support the decks. 

bean, n. ben (Ger. bohne : Icel. baun : W. ffaen : 
L. /aba), a longish round or flattish-round vegetable 
contained in a pod: bean-tre'foil, bean-tres'sel , 
bean-ca'per, plants : bean-fly, a fly of a pale purple 
colour found on bean-flowers : bean-goose, a migratory 
bird visiting England. 

bear, v. bar (AS. beran; Goth, bairan, to carry: 
L. fero : Gr. phero, I bear : Sans, bhri), to carry ; to 
support; to suffer; to produce ; to bring forth : bore, 
pt. bar, or bare, bar : born, pp. born, brought forth : 
borne, pp. born, carried : bearer, n. bar'er, one 
that carries or brings forth ; a messenger : bear'- 
ing, imp. carrying; producing: n. behaviour; ges- 
ture; the situation of one object with respect to 
another; the .figures, called charges, on an escut- 
cheon: bearable, a. bdr'-d-bl, that can be endured: 
bearably, ad. -Ml : bear with, to endure ■ bear up, 
not to faint or fail : bear off, to restrain ; among 
seamen, to remove to a distance: bear down, to 
overthrow or crush by force: bear out, to main- 
tain and support to the end : bear through, to 
conduct or manage : bear a hand, among seamen, to 

mate, mdt, far, Uau; mete, mSt, 

make haste; to be quick: bear away, in navi., to 
change the course of a ship and make her run before 
the wind. 

bear, n. bdr (AS. bera: Ger. bar: Icel. biorn: L. 
/era, a wild beast), a wild animal covered with rough 
shaggy hair ; name of two constellations— the " Urea 
Major " and the " Ursa Minor" ; a name applied to a 
speculative jobber on the stock exchange ; any brutal 
or ill-behaved person: bearish, a. b&r'-tsh, rude; vio- 
lent in conduct : bear-bait'ing, the sport or diversion 
of causing dogs to fight with a bear, formerly common 
in this country : bear's-grease, the fat or tallow of a 
bear, extensively used as a pomatum : bear-garden, a 
place where bears are kept for sport: bear'-ber'ry, 
bear '-bind', bear's-breech, bear's -ear, bear's -foot, 
bear's-wort, popular names of plants: bear-fly, an 

beard, n. berd (Ger. bart: Russ. boroda: W. 
bar/: L. burba, a beard : Icel. bard, a lip or border), 
hair that grows on the lips and chin of a man ; the 
awn of corn ; the gills of oysters and other shell-fish : 
v. to set at defiance ; to oppose openly : bearding, 
imp. berd'ing: bearded, pp. berd'ed : beardless, a. 
without a beard ; young : beard'lessness, n. : beard- 
grass, a plant. 

beast, n. best (Gael. Mast : Dut. beest : L. bestia, a 
beast : Gael, beo, living), any four-footed animal ; a 
person rude, coarse, and filthy : beastly, a. -il, like a 
beast : beast'liness, n. -line's, great coarseness : best- 
ial, a. best'y-dl, pert, to a beast, or having the qualities 
of one : beast'-like, a. resembling a beast : bestiality, 
n. best'y-al'i-tl, the quality of beasts : bestially, ad. -II. 

beat, v. bet (AS. beatan: It. battere: F. battre, to 
beat or strike), to knock ; to strike ; to strike often ; 
to crush or mix by blows ; to overcome in a fight, in 
battle, or in strife ; to throb like the pulse : n. a stroke ; 
a throb ; the rise or fall of the hand or foot to mark the 
time in music : beat'ing, imp. : beaten, pp. bet'-n : 
beat'er, n. one who ; a crushing instrument : to beat 
about, to search diligently for : to beat down, to lower 
the price: to beat off, to drive back: to beat time, 
to regulate time by the measured motion of the hand 
or foot : to beat out, to extend by hammering : to beat 
the gen'eral, to give notice to soldiers to march : to 
beat the tat'too', to give notice to soldiers to retire to 
quarters : to beat to arms, to summon soldiers to get 
ready their arms and prepare for battle : to beat a 
parley, to give a signal to an enemy for a conference : 
to beat up, to attack suddenly, as an enemy's quar- 
ters : to beat up for, to go diligently about in order 
to procure : police 'man's beat, district to be walked 
over and watched by a policeman : beat'er up, one 
who searches for and starts game for a sportsman. 

beatify, v. be-dt'i/l (L. beatus, happy ; /acio, I 
make), to make happy ; to bless with complete enjoy- 
ment in heaven: beatifying, imp.: beatified, pp. 
-/id ■. beatific, a. be'd-tif-lk, also beatifical, a. 
-l-kdl, that has the power to make happy: be'atif- 
ically, ad. -II: beatlfica'tion, -ka'shun, in the Church 
of Rome, the pronouncing of a deceased person to be 
blessed: beatitude, n. bedt'-ltud, happiness of the 
highest kind ; the blessedness pronounced by our Lord 
on the virtues. 

beatricea, n. be'd-trl'se-d, a remarkable fossil oc- 
curring in the middle Silurians of Canada. 

beau, n. bo (F. beau, good, fair : L. bellus, gay, hand- 
some), a gay man that attends much to dress ; in 
J'amiliar language, a man who pays attention to a lady ; 
a lover : plu. beaux, boz : beauish, a. bo'lsh, like a 
beau; foppish: beau-esprit, n. bo'Ss-pre' (F.), a man 
of wit : beau-ideal, n. bo'i-de'dl (F. beau ; ideal, ima- 
ginary), an imaginary standard of absolute perfec- 
tion ; a model of excellence in the mind or fancy : 
beau-monde, n. bo-mongd" (F. beau; monde, the 
world), polite people ; the fashionable world. 

beauty, n. bu'tl (F. beaute, beauty: It. bello: L. 
bellus, pretty, handsome), the appearance and proper- 
ties in any person or thing that please and delight 
the eye ; those qualities in a thing that delight the 
mind or any of the senses ; a lovely and pleasing per- 
son: beauteous, a. bu'tl-us, pleasing; lovely: beau'- 
teously, ad. -II: beau'teousness, n. : beautiful, a. 
bil'tt-fM, lovely; fair; elegant: beau'tifully, ad. -Il: 
beautify, v. bu'tl-/l, to make beautiful; to adorn: 
beautifying, imp.: beautified, pp. bu'tl/ld: beau- 
tifier, n. one who adorns. 

beaver, n. be'-v&r (AS. beo/er: Ger. biber: F. bievre 
—from L. fiber), an amphibious animal valued for 
its fur ; a hat or cap made of the fur. 

Tier; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




beaver, n. bc'ver (old F. baviere— from barer , to 
slaver), the movable part of a helmet which covered 
the face, and was raised or let down to enable the 
wearer to eat or drink. 

bebeerin, n. beb'ir-in, a vegetable alkali found in 
the bebeerena, beb'er-e'nd, or greenheart tree of 
British Guiana. 

becafico, n. be'kdfe'ko (It.— from picco, a beak or 
peak ; Jico, a tig), a tig-pecker, a bird of passage re- 
sembling a nightingale which feeds on figs and grapes. 

becalm, v. be-kdm' [be and calm) to still; to make 
quiet: becalm'ing, imp.: becalmed, pp. be-cdmd' : 
adj. applied to a vessel that lies still for want of wind. 

became, v. be-kdni'—see become. 

because, conj. be-kawz' (be and cause), for this cause 
that ; on this account that. 

beck, n. bik (AS. beacen, a sign : Icel. bakna, to nod), 
a nod of the head meant to invite attention ; an Eng- 
lish weight of 16 lb. or a measure of 2 gals. : v. to make 
a sign with the head; to call by a nod: becking, 
imp. : becked, pp. bekt. 

beck, n. bek (AS. becc: Ger. bach: Icel. beckr), a little 
stream ; a brook. 

becket, n. bek'-it, among seamen, a piece of rope 
placed to confine another rope or a spar ; a small circle 
or hoop of rope used as a handle. 

beckon, v. bek'n (from beck), to make a sign to 
another by nodding or by a motion of the hand or 
finger : beckoning, imp. bek'nlng : beckoned, pp. 

becloud, v. bS-klowd' (be and cloud), to obscure ; to 
dim : beclouding, imp. : becloud'ed, pp. 

become, v. bS-kum' (AS. becuman, to attain to, to 
befall: Ger. bekommen, to get; bequem, fit, proper), to 
pass from one state to another; to befit; to sit grace- 
fully: becom'ing, imp.: adj. appropriate; graceful: 
became', pt. : becomingly, ad. -flw becom'ingness, n. 

bed, n. bid (Icel. bedr: Ger. bett: Goth, badi), 
something on which to sleep ; a couch ; the bottom 
or channel of a river ; a plot of ground in a gar- 
den; a layer; in geol., a stratum of considerable 
thickness: v. to lie; to sleep; to sow: bed'ding, imp.: 
bed'ded, pp.: bed'ding, n. materials of a bed: bed- 
chamber, n. -chdm'-bcr, a room in which there is a 
bed: bedrid, a. also bedridden, a. (AS. bed-rida, 
one who rides on his bed), wholly confined to bed by 
age or sickness: bedclothes, n. plu. the blankets, 
sheets, &c, of a bed: bed'fellow, n. one who lies 
in the same bed : bed'post, n. one of the four stand- 
ards that support a bed : bed'stead, n. -sted, the 
wooden or iron framework of a bed : bedtick, n. bed' 
tlk, the case for holding the materials of a bed: bed- 
hang'ings, curtains for a bed : bed'-plate, the founda- 
tion plate of a marine or a direct action engine : bed- 
rite, n. bed-fit, privilege of the marriage-bed. 

bedabble, v. be-dab'bl (be and dabble), to sprinkle 
with ; to cover with : bedab'bling, imp. : bedab'bled, 
pp. -bid. 

bedaub, v. bS-dawb' (be and daub), to besmear; to 
sprinkle; to soil with anything thick and dirty: be- 
daub'ing, imp. : bedaubed, pp. be-dawbd'. 

bedazzle, v. be-daz'zl (be and dazzle), to confuse the 
sight by a too strong light ; to make dim by lustre or 
glitter : bedazzling, imp. : bedaz'zled, pp. -zld. 

bede, n. bed, among miners, a kind of pickaxe used 
for separating the ores from the rocks in which they 
are imbedded. 

bedell, n. bekUl (AS. bydcl: It. bidello-. L. bedellvs), 
a higher beadle or officer of a court or university : be- 
delry, n. be'del-rl, the extent of a beadle's office. 

bedeck, v. be-clek' (be and deck), to adorn; to grace: 
bedecking, imp. : bedecked, pp. be-dekt'. 

bedeguar or bedegar, n. bed'c-gar (Pers. bdddivard, 
a kind of white thorn or thistle), a spongy excres- 
cence found on rose-bushes, caused by the puncture of 
a small insect. 

bedew, v. bS-du' (be and deic), to wet, as with dew; 
to moisten gently: bedewing, imp.: bedewed, pp. 
be-dud' : bedew er, n. one who. 

bedehouse, n. bed'hmvs (AS. bead, a prayer), a 
charity house where the poor prayed for their bene- 
factors— see bead. 

bedim, v. be-dim' (be and dim), to darken; to ob- 
scure : bedim ming, imp. : bedimmed', pp. bS-dimd'. 

bedizen, v. be-diz'n (F. badigeoner, to rough-cast 
in plaster), to load with ornament ; to dress with un- 
becoming richness: bediz'ening, imp.: bedizened, pp. 

bedlam, n. bed'hlm (contr. from the hospital of St 

Mary of Bethlehem in London, used as a house for the 
insane), a madhouse ; a lunatic asylum ; a place where 
there is a great deal of noise and uproar : bedlamite, 
n. -It, one confined in a madhouse. 

Bedouin, n. bcd'-vb-ln (Ar. bedaivi, living in the 
desert— from badw, a desert), an Arab of one of the 
unsettled tribes of Arabia and Northern Africa. 

bedraggle, v. be-drag'gl (be and draggle), to soil the 
clothes by suffering them in walking to reach the dirt : 
bedrag'giing, imp. : bedrag'gled, pp. -gld. 

bee, n. be (AS. beo : Ger. biene: Gael, beach), an 
insect that makes honey and wax; an industrious 
and careful person: beehive, be'hlv, a case or box in 
which domestic bees build their honeycombs and store 
their honey: bee-flower, a plant whose flowers repre- 
sent singular figures of bees and flies : bee-garden, an 
enclosure where bees are reared: bee-line, the most 
direct line from one place to another : bee-master, one 
who keeps and rears bees: bee's-wax, bte'icaks, a 
wax collected by bees : bee's- wing, a crust in port wine : 
bee'-bread, the pollen or dust of flowers collected by 
bees : bee-eat'er, a bird that feeds on bees. 

beech, n. bech (Ger. buche: Icel. beyke: L. fagus), 
a large forest-tree having a smooth bark, producing 
mast or nuts : beech-mast, the nuts of the beech-tree : 
beech-oil, an oil obtained from beech-nuts : beechen, 
a. bech'en, made of beech. 

beef, n. bef (F. ba:uf an ox: It. bove: L. bos, gen. 
bovis, an ox), the flesh of animals of the ox, bull, or 
cow kind: beeves, bet's, plu. of beef when the animals 
are meant: adj. consisting of beef: beef-steak, n. 
-stclk, a slice of beef -flesh raw or cooked : beef-eater 
(old F. buffetier— from buffet, a sideboard), a yeoman 
of the guards in England, who used to be a keeper of 
the sideboard or buffet : beef- wood, the wood of an 
Australian tree resembling beef in appearance. 

beekites, n. bek'-lts (after Dr Beke, dean of Bristol, 
by whom they were first publicly noticed), a particular 
form of chalcedony deposited on fossils, as sponges, 
corals, or shells. 

beeld or beild, n. bcld (AS. byld), a place of shelter ; 
a h>w thatched house ; protection. 

Beelzebub, n. be-el'-zi-bub (Or.— from Heb. baal, lord; 
zebub, a fly), in Scrip, the prince of devils. 

been, ben (AS. beon), pp. of the verb be. 

beer, n. ber (AS. beor: Ger. bier: F.biere, beer, 
drink: L. bibere, to drink), an intoxicating liquor 
made from prepared barley, called malt, and hops; 
a liquor made by infusion and fermentation from any 
vegetable substance. 

beestings, n. plu. best'ingz, also spelt biesting, 
and beest'ning (AS. beost or byst), first milk given by 
a cow after calving. 

beet, n. bet (¥. bette: Ger. beete: L. beta), a garden 
or field vegetable with large roots, from which sugar 
is extensively manufactured in France : beet-rave, a 
variety of beet. 

beetle, n. bet'l (AS. bitel, the biter), a general name 
of insects having a horny wing-cover: beetle-headed, 
dull ; stupid : beetle-stone, a name given to nodules 
of ironstone, &c, which, when split up, bear a fancied 
resemblance to the body and limbs of a beetle. 

beetle, n. bet'l (AS. byfcl, a mallet— from bat, which 
see), a heavy wooden hammer or mallet. 

beetle, v. bet'l (AS. beotan, to threaten), to hang 
or extend out: beetling, imp. jutting: beetled, pp. 
bet -Id: beetle-browed, a. having prominent brows. 

beeves, n. plu. bevz (see beef), sing, beef; black 

befall, v. U-fawl' (be and fall), to happen to ; to 
come to pass: befell, pt. be-fi'l' : befallen, pp. be- 
fau-l'-Hn: befalling, imp. 

befit, v. be-fit' (AS. be: F.fait, wrought), to suit ; to 
become: befit'ting, imp. : befit'ted, pp. 

befool, v. be-fdl' (AS. be : F. fol, idle), to lead astray ; 
to delude: befooling, imp. : befooled, pp. be-fold'. 

before, prep. bS-for' (be and /are; AS. beforan), 
in front of; in presence of: ad. in front; further 
onwards: conj. further onward in time: beforehand, 
ad. bc-for'hdnd, sooner in time; previously ; at first: 
before'time, ad. ■tim, formerly; of old time. 

befriend, v. be-frend' (be and friend), to assist; to 
favour; to aid in a difficulty: befriending, imp.: be- 
friended, pp. be-frind'-ed. 

beg, v. beg (from bag, as when alms were uniformly 
given in kind, the bag was a universal characteristic 
of the beggar), to ask earnestly ; to beseech ; to en- 
treat; to solicit charity; to take for granted; to as- 
sume: beg'ging, imp.: begged, pp. begd: beggar, n. 

colv, bo~y,foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




beg'ger[Sw. begaera, to ask: Gael, baigcan, alittle bag), 
one much reduced in circumstances ; one who assumes 
what he does not prove; one who is poor and asks 
charity: v. to reduce to poverty: beggaring, imp.: 
beggared, pp. beg'-gerd: beg'garly.a. -Zi,mean; poor: 
ad. meanly: beg'garliness, n. -li-nSs, poverty; mean- 
ness: beggary, n. beg'-ger-l, a state of great poverty: 
beg'garman, n. a man who is a beggar. 

beget, v. be-get' (AS. begettan, to obtain), to gene- 
rate ; to produce ; to cause to exist : beget'ting, imp. : 
begot', pt. : begotten, pp. be-got'n: beget'ter, n. one 

begin, v. bc-glri (AS. beginnan), to commence ; to 
enter upon something new; to take the first step: 
begin 'ning, imp. : n. first cause ; origin ; first state ; 
the rudiments: began, pt. be-gun' -. begun, pp. be- 
gun': begin'ner, n. one who takes the first step; an 
author of a thing; one without experience. 

begird, v. begird' (AS. begjirdan), to surround: to 
encompass; to encircle: begird'ing, imp.: begird'ed 
or begirt', pp. 

begone, int. bS-gon' (impera. of be, and pp. of go; 
Dut. begaan, touched with emotion), depart ; go away, 
emphatically : woe-begone, wo'-be-gon, oppressed 
with woe. 

begonia, n. begO'nld (after M. Begon, a French 
botanist), an interesting genus of plants common in 
our gardens. 

begot, v., begot'ten, v. (see beget), procreated. 

begrime, v. be-grlm' (AS. be: Sw. gram, dregs, 
mud), to soil deepiy all over with dirt: begri'ming, 
imp.: begrimed, pp. be-grimd'. 

begrudge, v. be-gruj' (AS. be: F.gruger, to grieve: 
Gr. grudsein, to mutter), to grudge ; to envy the pos- 
session of: begrud'ging, imp. : begrudged', pp. 

beguile, v. be-gW (AS. be: old F. guille, deceit), to 
deceive; to cheat; to amuse: beguiling, imp.: be- 
guiled, pp. -gild': begui'lingly, ad. dl: begui'ler, n. 
one who : beguile'ment, n. act of deceiving. 

beguins, n. plu. beg'wlnz (F. beguin, a linen cap: 
low L. beghina), a sect of religious women in Germany 
who devote themselves to works of piety and charity. 

begum, n. be'-giim, or begaum, -giwm; in the E. 
Indies, a princess or lady of high rank. 

begun, v.— see begin. 

behalf, n. bi-hdf (AS. behefe, profit : Goth, halbs, 
half), support; favour; side or cause; defence. 

behave, v. b6-hav' (AS. behabben, to restrain— from 
habban, to have: Ger. gehahen, to behave), to govern ; 
to conduct ; to act : beha'ving, imp. : behaved, pp. 
-havd': behaviour, n. bH-hdu'-ykr, conduct, good or 
bad; manners. 

behead, v. bc-hZd' (be and head), to cut off the head ; 
behead'ing, imp. : n. the act of cutting off the head— 
a punishment for -,'reat crimes formerly common in 
this country : behead'ed, pp. 

behemoth, n. be'he-moth (Heb.), the animal de- 
scribed by Job, and supposed to be the hippopotamus 
or river-horse. 

behen, n. be'hen (Ar.), the name of a plant whose 
root is medicinal. 

behest, n. be-hSst' (AS. behces, a vow: Icel. heita, 
to be named), command ; order ; precept. 

behind, prep, bedilnd' (AS. behindan: Fin. hanta, 
the tail), at the back of; after: ad. remaining; at a 
distance: out of view: behind'hand, a. backward; 
tardy : ad. in arrears. 

behold, v. bi-hOld' (AS. be; healdan, to observe), to 
look steadily upon ; to view ; to see with attention : 
beholding, imp. : beheld', pt. and pp. : beholden, a. 
hrdwhl'-eii, indebted; obliged: bshold'er, n. one who : 
behold', int. see! lo! 

behove, v. bS-hdv' (AS. behoftan, to be fit; behefe, 
advantage: L. habeo : Dut. hehben, to have), to be fit; 
to be necessary for; used chiefly in the 3d pers. sing. : 
behoving, imp. bediu'-ving : behoved, pp. bd-hdvd' : 
behoof, n. bcdidf, need; profit; advantage. 

being, v. be'-lng (see be), imp. of be: n. existence; 
a state of existence; a person existing; any living 

belabour, v. b8-hl'-b/r (AS. be: L. labor, toil, ex- 
ertion), to beat soundly; to thump: belabouring, 
imp. : belaboured, pp. -bird. 

belate, v. be-hlt' (AS. be .- L. latus, carried), to make 
a person too late ■ bela'ting, imp. : bela'ted, pp. : 
adj. too late ; benighted. 

belay, v. b6da' (Dut. beleggen, to lay around), to 
block up; among seamen, to fasten, as a rope: be- 
lay 'ing, imp.: belayed, pp. bedad' .- belay 'ing-pins, 

the wooden pins on which the ropes are belayed or 

belch, v. belsh(AS. bealean: Dut. bolke?i, to bellow), 
to throw up anything violently, as from the stomach, 
or from a mountain : n. the act of throwing up or out ; 
eructation: belch'ing, imp. : belched, pp. belsht. 

beldam, n. bel'ddm (F. belle, handsome ; dame, 
lady), anciently, a good lady — now, an old noisy 
woman; a hag. 

beleaguer, v. bede'-ger (Dut. belegeren, to besiege: 
AS. be: Ger. lager, a camp), to besiege ; to surround a 
place with an army so as to prevent any one escap- 
ing from it ; beleaguering, imp. : beleaguered, pp. 

belemnite, n. bel'em-nlt (Gr. belemnon, a dart), a 
fossil abundant in chalk and limestone, apparently 
the internal bone or shell of extinct naked cephalo- 
pods, allied to the existing squid and cuttlefish— com- 
monly called arrow-head or finger-stone, also thunder- 
bolt or thunder-stone: belemnoteuthis, n. be-leru' 
no-tu'thls (Gr. belemnon, a dart; teuthis, the squid 
or cuttlefish), a fossil of the belemnite family of 
cephalopods, sometimes so well preserved that the 
receptacle and ink bag have been found in their nat- 
ural positions. 

belfry, n. bel'frt (F. beffroi, a watch-tower: low L. 
beJfrediim), the part of a steeple or building where a 
bell is hung. 

Belgian, a. bel'jl-dn, also Belgic, a. bSl'-jik, of or 
from Belgium, bel'-ji-um, a country of Europe lying 
north of France : n. an inhabitant of. 

Belgravian, a. bel-gra'vi-dn (Belgravia, a fashion- 
able quarter of London), pert, to Belgravia, or fashion- 
able life. 

Belial, n. be'di-dl (Heb. unprofitableness), wicked- 
ness ; an evil spirit: adj. worthless. 

belibel, v. bedt-bl (AS. be: F. libelle, a bill, a 
lampoon), to traduce; to libel; to slander. 

belie, v. bidl' (AS. belecgan: Ger. behigen, to de- 
ceive by lies), to show to be false ; to feign ; to pi e- 
tend: belying, imp. bedl'-ing: belied, pp. bedld'. 

belief, n. bedcf (AS. geleafa, belief: Goth, gal- 
aubjan, to believe: Ger. glakben, to believe), trust in 
a thing as true; credit; persuasi'on: believe, v. be- 
lev', to trust in as true; to credit; to be persuaded of: 
believing, imp. :• believed, pp. bedevd': believ'er, 
11. one who ; a Christian : believ'able, a. -dbl, able to 
be believed : believlngly, fid: -11. . 

bell, n. bell (AS. bellan: Icel. bnlia, to sound loudly), 
a hollow body producing musical sounds when struck ; 
anything expanding mouth outwards like a bell, as 
the cups of flo.wers : v. to grow in the form of bells ; 
to make a loud noise : bel'ling, imp. : belled, pp. 
beld: bell-founder, n. one engaged in the making 
of bells: bell'-hang'er, n. one whose, trade is to fit 
up bells in houses t bell-shaped, 'in .hot., applied to 
a corolla when it b'eMies or swells out like a bell, as 
the Canterbury bells : bell'-met'al, n. a mixed metal 
for making bells, consisting" of .a mixture of copper 
and tin: bell-ring'er, n. one wh'orings a bell: bell- 
man, a town -crier : bell, book, and candle, a phrase 
for execration, derived from the ceremonies of excom- 
munication in the R. Cath. Ch. : to bear the bell, 
to be the first or leader, as the foremost horse in a 
team, or a wether in a flock of sheep which wore a 
bell; to take the prize: to shake the bells (from tho 
bells of a hawk), to affright: bell-flower, bluebell, 
names of flowers shaped like a bell: diving-bell, a 
bell-shaped machine, or usually square, so constructed 
that a person can descend in it among water — used by 
workmen in laying foundations of piers on river or 
sea bottoms, and in descending to wrecks, &c. : bells, 
on board a ship, the half-hours of the watch, marked 
by striking a bell at the end of each: bell-crank, a 
bent lever, used for changing a vertical into a hori- 
zontal motion: bell-metal-ore, a Cornish miner's 
term for sulphuret of tin, an ore consisting of tin 
and copper pyrites, and having a brilliant bell-metal 

belladonna, n. bcl'ld-ddn'nd (It. fair lady, from its 
having been used as a cosmetic by ladies— from It. 
bt lla, beautiful ; donna, lady), an extract of the deadly 
nightshade— a valuable medicine in very small doses, 
but a deadly poison if exceeded; systematic name, 
at'ropa bel'ladon'na (Gr. atropos, one of the three 
Fates whose duty it was to cut the thread of life— in 
allusion to its deadly effects). 

belle, n. bel (F. beauty), a voung lady much admired. 

belles-lettres, n. plu. beldet'-tr (F.J, polite literature 

md!c, mdt.fdr, laic; mite, met, hir; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 




in all its branches, particularly poetry ; the rules of 

Bellerophon, n. bel-l'r'd-fon (from Bellerophon, a 
fabulous hero of antiquity), an extensive genus of fossil 
nautiloid shells, consisting of a single chamber, like 
the living Argonaut. 

bellicose, a. bel'-li-koz' (L. bellicosus, very warlike, 
—from bellum, war), inclined to war; warlike. 

belligerent, a. bel-lij'-tr-ent (L. bellum, war; gero, 
I carry on), waging war; carrying on war: n. a nation 
or state carrying on war. 

bellow, v. bel'-lo (AS. bellan, to sound loudly), to 
make a loud noise ; to roar : n. a loud shout ; a roar : 
bellowing, imp.: bellowed, pp. bcl'-lod: bel'lower, 
u. one who. 

bellows, n. bSl'-loz (AS. and Sw. baelg, a bag or 
pouch: Gael, balg, a leather bag: L. bulga, a womb 
or belly), an instrument or machine for blowing up a 
fire, or for supplying the pipes of an organ with wind. 

belly, n. bil'-tl (see bellows, above), that part of the 
body of an animal which contains the bowels ; that 
part of a thing which swells out ; a hollow place or 
cavity : v. to fill or swell out ; to become protuber- 
ant: bellying, imp. : bellied, pp. bel'lid: adj. puffed 
up; swelled: bellyful, a, bSl'li-fdbl, as much as fills 
the belly: bellyache, n. bel'-ll-dk, pain in the bowels. 

belomancy, n. bel'-o-mcln'-sl (Gr. belos, an arrow; 
manteia, divination), a kind of divination in which 
arrows were used as lots. 

belong, v. be-long' (Dut. belangen, to attain to, to 
concern: Ger. gelangen, to arrive at: L. pertinere, to 
reach or extend to), to be the property of or business 
of; to be an inherent quality of; to be related to or 
connected with ; to have a residence in : belong ing, 
imp.: belonged, pp. bSlongd' : belongings, n. plu. 
those things which pertain to one, as qualities or 

Beloochee, n. bel'-ob-che", a native of Beloochistan : 
adj. pert. to. 

beloptera, n. belop'terd (Gr. belos, a dart; pteron, 
a wing), a curious fossil organism, like a belemnite, 
occurring in tertiary strata, and evidently the inter- 
nal bone of a cephalopod. 

beloteuthis, n. be'-lo-UV-thls (Gr. belos, a dart; teu- 
this, the squid or cuttlefish), a genus of flattened spear- 
head-shaped belemnites, allied to the cuttlefish of ex- 
isting seas. 

beloved, a. bS-lUv'Sd: pp. bS-luvd' (be, and loved), 
much loved ; greatly esteemed ; dear to the heart. 

below, prep, belo' (be and low), under; unworthy 
of : ad. in a lower place. 

belt, n. belt (L. balteus, a girdle or belt: Icel. belti), 
a band or girdle ; a strap by which a sword or other 
thing is hung: v. to encircle : belt'ing, imp.: belt'ed, 
pp.: adj. having a belt ; arrayed in armour. 

beltane, n. bel'-tan, or bel'tein, bel'-tin (Gael. 
bealteine, Bel's fire— Bel being the name for the sun; 
teine, fire), a festival of remote antiquity, but now 
going into disuse, —still partially observed in Scot- 
land on 1st May, generally among trade corporations 
—and in Ireland on 21st June; supposed to be the 
relics of the worship of the sun, such as kindling fires 
on hills, and other ceremonies, the significance of 
some of which is not known. 

beluga, n. be-lo'-gd (Russ. white fish), a cetaceous 
fish from 12 to 18 feet in length. 

belvedere, n. bel'-ve-der' (It.— from L. bellus, fine, 
neat ; videre, to see), in arch., a turret or cupola raised 
above the roof of a building ; in Italy, an open gallery 
or corridor; a lookout - place in a garden or on a 
hill ; a plant. 

bema, n. be'-md (Gr. a tribunal) a raised structure 
for an elevated seat ; a chancel ; a bishop's throne. 

bemire, v. bc-mlr' (AS. be: Icel. myri, a swamp), 
to soil by passing through dirty places: bemi'ring, 
imp. : bemired, pp. be-mlrd'. 

bemoan, v. be-mon' (be and moan), to lament; to 
express sorrow for ; to bewail : bemoan'ing, imp. : 
bemoaned, pp. bemond'. 

bench, n. bensh (AS. bene: Dan. bank: Icel. bekr: 
see bank), a long seat of wood or stone; a strong table; 
the seat of the judges; the judges or magistrates on 
it: v. to furnish with benches: bencher, n. bensh'-ir, 
a gentleman of the Inns of Court. 

bend, v. bend (AS. bendan: Icel. benda, to stretch), 
to crook ; to incline ; to turn over or round : n. a turn ; 
a curve: bend'ing, imp.: bend'ed or bent, pp.: 
ben'der, n. one who : bendable, a. bend'-d-bl, that may 
be bent : bend'let, n. in her., a little bend. 

beneath, prep, beneth' (AS. be, and neothan, be- 
neath), under; lower in position or rank: ad. in a 
lower place ; below. 

Benedick, n. ben'-e-dlk, also spelt Benedict (one of 
Shakespeare's characters in Much Ado about Nothing, 
who begins as a confirmed bachelor and ends by marry- 
ing Beatrice), a late, unwilling, or unexpected convert 
to matrimony; sometimes applied to a bachelor. 

Benedictines, n. plu. ben'-e-dlk'tlns, the followers of 
St Benedict of Norcia, who flourished in the first half 
of the sixth century ; called also blackfriars. 

benediction, n. ben'e-dik'-shun (L. bene, well; dic- 
tum, to speak), a blessing pronounced; kind wishes 
for success: benedictory, a. ben'6-dlk'tdr-t, express- 
ing wishes for good. 

benefaction, n. ben'-e-fdk'-shun (L. bene, -well; fac- 
tum, todo), doing good 'to another; a benefit or good 
conferred : ben'efac'tor, n. one who bestows a benefit 
or good: benefactress, n. a woman who confers a 

benefice, n. ben'-e-fis (L. beneflcium, a favour— from 
bene, well ; facio, I make or do), a church-living or 
preferment: beneficed, a. bSn'-e-fist, possessed of a 
church-living: beneficence, n. be-nef'-isens, active 
goodness; the practice of doing kindness to those in 
need: beneficent, a. -sent, kind; charitable: benefi- 
cently, ad. -It: beneficial, a. ben'e-fi$h'al,useful; pro- 
fitable; helpful: beneficially, .ad. -It: beneficiary, n. 
ben'e-flsh'l-ar-i, one who receives anything as a gift; 
one who holds a benefice : benefit, n. ben'e-fit, any- 
thing tending to the good of another; a favour; pro- 
fit : v. to do good to ; to gain advantage from : ben- 
efiting, imp.: benefited, pp. -fit'-ed: benefit cf 
clergy, a privilege once enjoyed by persons in holy 
orders of being exempted from the punishment of 
death, and only burnt in the hand if convicted of cer- 
tain crimes, which exemption was extended to all who 
could read. 

benevolence, n. bc-nev'6-lens (L. bene, well; volo, I 
wish), goodwill ; the disposition to do good ; the good 
done ; a compulsory tax or assessment, formerly im- 
posed on the people by the kings of England: benev- 
olent, a. kind ; possessing the desire to do good : be- 
nev'olent ly, ad. -ll. 

Bengal, n. bengatrl', a thin stuff made of silk and 
hair, so called from Bengal, in India, where first made : 
Bengal light, a firework used for signals: Bengalee, 
n. bdng'-gal-e" , the language of Bengal: Bengalese, 
n. sing, or plu. beng'-gd-lez', a native of Bengal. 

beng, n. beng, also spelt bang or bangue (Per.s. 
bengh), the prepared leaf of the Indian hemp, used as 
a narcotic. 

benight, v. bS-nlt' (be and night), to overtake 
with darkness : benighting, imp. : benight'ed, pp. : 
adj. involved in darkness, ignorance, or superstition. 

benign, a. be-nln' (L. benignus, kind), of a kind 
and gentle disposition ; gracious : benig'nant, a. be- 
nlg'-ndnt, kind; gracious: benignity, n. -nl-tl, kind- 
ness; goodness of heart: benignly, ad. be-nln'-ll: be- 
nig'nantly, ad. -/<'. 

benison, n. ben'-l-sun (old F. benoison, benediction), 
blessing ; benediction. 

benjamin, n. ben'-jd-mln, common name of the gum 
benzoin, of which benjamin is a vulgar corruption. 

bennet, n. ben'-et (L. benedictus, praised or com- 
mended : F. benoite), the common name for the Geum 
urbanum or herb avens, a medicinal plant. 

bent, n. bent (see bend), curvature ; the tension or 
strain of the mental powers; disposition towards 
something; inclination: adj. curved; inclined; prone 
to; determined; in bot., hanging down towards the 

bent, n. bSnt (Ger. binse, reed or bent grass), the 
culms or dry stalks of pasture grasses ; a coarse grass 
which creeps and roots rapidly through the soil by its 
wiry and jointed stems, and thus binds it together, 
very difficult to eradicate. 

benumb, v. be-num' (AS. benccman: Ger. beneh- 
tnen, to take away, to stupefy), to deprive of feeling; 
to make torpid; to stupefy: benumbing, imp.: be- 
numbed, pp. be-mhnd': benumb 'ness, n. 

benzoate, n. ben'-zo-at (¥.), a salt of benzoic acid: 
benzoine, n. beti'-zo-in, a compound obtained from oil 
of bitter almonds in brilliant prismatic crystals whicli 
are inodorous and tasteless: benzole, n. ben'-zol: or 
benzin, n. ben'-zln, a clear colourless fluid of a pecul- 
iar, agreeable, ether-like odour, obtained from coal-tar : 
benzyle, n. ben'zil; or benzoyle, n. ben'zoyl (benzoin; 
and Gr. (h)ule, the substance from which anything is 

coiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal 




made), an assumed compound forming the radical of 
oil of bitter almonds, benzoic acid, &c. 

benzoin, n. b&n-zo'ln or Mn-zdyn' (said to be from 
Ar. benzoab), called also by a vulvar corruption 
benjamin; a fragrant resin obtained from a large tree 
of Sumatra: benzoic, a. Mnzo'lk, applied to an acid 
obtained from the gum benzoin, conunonly called ben- 
jamin flowers. 

bequeath, v. bg-kweth' (AS. becioccthan— from be, 
and cwazthan, to say), to give or leave by will ; to 
hand down to posterity : bequeathing, imp.: be- 
queathed, pp. be-kwethd': bequest, n. be-kwest', 
something left by will ; a legacy. 

berberine, n. bir'ber-ln (L. berberis, the berberry— 
from Ar. berberi, wild), an alkaline substance in the 
form of needle-like crystals of a beautiful bright yel- 
low, obtained from the root of the berberry shrub. 

bere, n. ber (AS. bere), a variety of barley; bigg or 

bereave, v. bS-rev' (AS. bereafian, to deprive of), to 
take from; to deprive of; to render destitute: be- 
reaving, imp. : bereft, bg-reft', or bereaved, pp. 
be-revd : bereav'er, n. one who: bereavement, n. 
bi-rev'-mgnt, a heavy loss, particularly of friends, by 

berengellite, n. bSr-Sng'ggl-lt (from St Berengela, 
in Peru, S. Amei\, where found abundantly ; Gr. lithos, 
a stone), one of the mineral resins, of a dark-brown 
colour witli a green tinge, having a disagreeable odour 
and bitter taste. 

berg, n. berg (Sw. berg, a mountain), a hill, gene- 
rally of ice ; a contr. of iceberg, which see : berg-mahl 
or -mehl, berg-mCW (Sw. mountain -meal), a recent 
infusorial earth of a whitish colour and mealy grain, 
also called/o*si7/araia, of common occurrence in bog 
and ancient lake deposits. 

bergamot, n. ber'ga-mot (F. and Sp. bergamote), a 
kind of pear or citron highly esteemed; a perfume 
obtained from its rind; tapestry of a coarse kind, first 
made at Bergamo, in Italy. 

bergmaster, n. berg'mds-ter (AS., Ger., or Sw. berg, 
a mountain or mine ; and master), the chief officer 
or judge among the Derbyshire miners: bergmote, 
n. berg-mot (AS. berg; gemote, an assembly), a court 
or assembly for deciding all causes and disputes among 
the Derbyshire miners. 

Berlin, n. ber-lln' or ber'lln, a kind of carriage first 
made in Berlin ; fine worsted for fancy-work. 

berm, n. berm (F. berme: Ger. brame) in fort., a 
path or space of ground from 3 to 5 feet in width 
left between the exterior slope of the parapet and the 
bernacle, n. ber'nd-kl— see barnacle, 
berry, n. bgr'rl, plu. berries, ber'rXz (AS. berie: 
Icel. ber: Ger. beerc: L. bacca), any small juicy fruit: 
berried, a. bcr'rid, furnished with berries. 

berth, n. berth (Icel. byrdi: Dan. byrde, a burden; 
a supposed corruption of breadth), the position of a 
ship at anchor; a space or room in a ship ; a place to 
sleep in : to give a wide berth, to leave considerable 
room for. 

beryl, n. bSr'll {'L.beryllus : Pers. bulur, a crystal), a 
precious stone of a deep rich green colour : berylline, 
a. bir'll-ln, like the beryl ; a lapidary's term for the 
less brilliant and colourless varieties of the emerald. 

beryx, n. bSr'-lks, a fossil fish belonging to the perch 
family, known to the quarrymen by the name of John 

berzeline, n. bgr'zel-Xn (after Berzelius, a Swedish 
chemist), a mineral ; selenite of copper, occurring in 
thin dendritic crusts of a silver-white colour and me- 
tallic lustre : berzelite, n. ber'zel-lt, a name applied 
to several minerals. 

beseech, v. be-sech' (old Eng. beseke: AS. be, and 
secan, to seek), to ask for earnestly; to entreat; to 
implore : beseech'ing, imp. : besought', pp. and pt. 
bg-sawt': beseech'er, n. one who: beseechingly, ad. -II. 
beseem, v. bH-setn' (old Sw. saema: Ger. gezie- 
men: Dut. betazmen, to be fitting, to become), to be- 
come ; to befit ; to be decent for : beseeming, imp. : 
beseemed, pp. bG-semd': beseemlngly, ad. -II. 

beset, v. bS-sdt' (AS. besettan), to surround; to en- 
close; to press on all sides; to perplex: beset'ting, 
imp.: adj. habitually attending: beset', pt. pp. 

beside, prep. bS-sld' {be and side; by the side), at 
the side of a person or thing; over and above: be- 
sides, prep, be-sldz', over and above: ad. or conj. 
more than that; moreover: beside himself, out of his 

besiege, v. bS-sdf (AS. be: F. siege, to besiege), to 
surround any place with soldiers, as a city or town, in 
order to take possession of it by force ; to beset : be- 
sie'ging, imp.: adj. employed in a siege; surrounding 
with armed forces: besieged, pp. be-sejd': besie'ger, 
n. one who. 

besmear, v. bS-smSr' {be and smear), to cover all 
over; to soil with dirt: besmearing, imp.: besmear- 
ed, pp. bg-smerd". 

besom n. be'zum (AS. besem — from besmas, rods: 
Ger. besen), a large brush of birch or hair for sweeping ; 
a broom: V. to sweep: be'soming, imp.: besomed, pp. 

besot, U-sot' (AS. be: Ger. salt, full: F. sot, dull, 
gross), to stupefy; to make dull or senseless: besot- 
ting, imp.: besotted, pp.: besot'tedly, ad. -ll: besot- 
tedness, n. stupidity; infatuation : besot'tingly, ad. -ll. 

besought— see beseech. 

bespangle, v. bd-spang'gl (AS. be: Gael, spang, any- 
thing sparkling : Dut. spang, a spangle), to adorn with 
spangles; to cover with glittering objects : bespan- 
gling, imp.: bespangled, pp. be-spdng-gld. 

bespatter, v. bg-spdt'-ter (Dut. bespatten, to splash), 
to sprinkle with water or mud . bespat'tering, imp. : 
bespat'tered, pp. -terd. 

bespeak, v. be-spek" {be and speak), to speak for 
beforehand ; to engage for a future time ; to forebode ; 
to show : bespeak' er, n. one who : bespeaking, imp. : 
bespoke, pt. bg-spok': bespoken, pp. be-spo'-kin. 

bespread, v. be-spred" (AS. be: Dut. spreeden: Dan. 
sprede, to spread or scatter), to spread over ; to cover- 
over: bespreading, imp.: bespread', pp. 

besprinkle, v. bg-spring'kl (AS. be: Dut. sprenkelen, 
to sprinkle), to scatter over: besprin'kling, imp.: be- 
sprrn'kled, pp. -kid. 

best, a. best (AS. besta: Dut. best: Icel. bestr), superl. 
of good; good in the highest degree: ad. in the high- 
est degree ; beyond all others : n. the utmost ; the 
highest endeavour, as to do one's best : the best, the 
highest perfection: do the best, use the utmost 
power: make the best, improve or do to the utmost. 

bestial, a. best'yal (L. bestia, a beast), like a beast; 
beastly; brutal; filthy: bestiality, n. bgst'yal'Ul, 
the quality of a beast ; an unnatural crime : bestially, 
ad. -ll. 

bestir, v. be-ster' (AS. be and stir), to rouse into 
vigorous action: bestir'ring, imp.: bestirred, pp. 

bestow, v. bS-sto' (AS. be, and stow, a place), to 
give; to confer; to apply; to impart: bestowing, 
imp.: bestowed, pp. bc-stod' .- bestow'al, n. the ait 
of bestowing: bestow'ment, n. the act of giving or 
conferring : bestow'er, n. one who. 

bestrew, v. b&strd' {be and strew), to scatter or 
sprinkle over— see strew. 

bestride, v. M-strld' {be and stride), to stand with 
the legs open ; to extend the legs across : bestri'ding, 
imp. : bestrid, bi-strld', or bestrod, be-strOd", pt. : be- 
stridden, pp. bgstrld'n. 

bestud, v. bS-stud' {be and stud), to adorn with studs 
or shining points: bestud'ding, imp. : bestud', pp. 

bet, n. bet (AS. bad: Goth, vadi, a pledge), a wager: 
that which is pledged on a contest : v. to lay a wager : 
bet'ting, imp. : bet'ted, pp. : bet'ting, a. in the habit 
of making bets : n. the proposing or laying of a wager : 
bet'tor, n. one who bets. 

beta, n. be'td (Gr. ), second letter of the Greek alpha- 
bet ; systematic name for an order of plants (Celt, bett, 
red, in allusion to the red colour of the roots) of which 
the beet-root is the type. 

betake, v. bS-takf (AS. betcccan), to take one's self 
to ; to have recourse to ; to apply : betak'ing, imp. : 
betook, pt. M-tuok' : betaken, pp. bS-ta'kn. 

betel, n. bet'l (F. betel: Sp. betle: Sans, patra), a 
sort of pepper-plant, the fruit of the Areca Catechu ; 
a compound whose principal ingredients are the fruit 
of the Areca Catechu, the leaf of the betel pepper, a 
little chunam, and lime— in universal use for chew- 
ing in all central and tropical Asia, affording the 
same sort of enjoyment as chewing tobacco in other 

bethink, v. bS-thlnk' {be and think), to bring or call 
to mind by reflection : bethink'ing, imp, : bethought, 
pp. bS-thawt'. 

betide, v. bg-tul' (AS. be; tidan, to happen), to hap- 
pen ; to come to ; to come to pass ; to befall : betided, 
pp. U-tl'-did. 

betimes, ad. bS-tlmz', orbetime' (AS. be and time), 
before it is too late ; seasonably. 

mate, mat, fur, law; mete, mgt, hvr ; pine, pin; note, ndt, mOve; 




betoken, v. bc-to'kn (be and token), to show by 
marks or signs ; to point out something future by a 
thing known ; to indicate ; to foreshow : betokening, 
imp. be-tok'n'mg, showing by a sign : betokened, pp. 

betony, n. bet'6-nl, or betonica, be-ton'l-kd (orig- 
inally vetonica, said to be from the Vettones, a people 
of Spain, who discovered it), a genus of plants, of vari- 
ous species, esteemed for their medicinal properties. 

betook, v.— see betake. 

betray, v. be-tra' (AS. be; and L. trado, I give up or 
surrender : F. trahir, to betray), to give into the hands 
of an enemy by treachery ; to be unfaithful to a friend ; 
to violate trust or confidence ; to mislead ; to entrap ; 
betraying, imp.: betrayed, pp. be-trdd' : betrayal, 
n. act of betraying ; breach of trust : betray'er, n. one 
who betrays. 

betroth, v. be-troth' (be and troth or truth), to 
pledge or promise in order to marriage ; to contract 
with the view to marriage : betrothing, imp. : be- 
trothed, pp. betrotht' : betrothal, n. be-troth'dl, and 
betroth'ment, n. a contract or agreement with a view- 
to marriage. 

better, a bet'ter, eomp. of good (AS. betera: Dut. 
baet, better, more), good in a higher degree ; more ad- 
vanced : ad. with greater excellence ; more correctly : 
v. to improve ; to raise higher in the good qualities 
of: betters, n. plu. bet'terz, superiors in social rank: 
bet'tering, imp. : bettered, pp. bSt'terd. 

between, prep, be-tiven' (AS. betweoh, in the mid- 
dle of two — from be, by, and tweoh, two), in the middle ; 
from one to another ; noting difference or distinction 
of one from another : between' decks, among seamen, 
the space contained between two decks: betwixt, 
prep, be- tivixt', between; in the midst of two. 

bevel, n. bev'61 (F. beveau, a square rule), an instru- 
ment for drawing angles, consisting of two legs moving 
on a pivot; any slope or inclination: adj. angular; 
crooked: v. to slant to any angle less than a right- 
angle: bevelling, imp. bev-el-ling: adj. curving or 
bending from a straight line — said of timber: n. in 
shijybuilding, the winding of a timber, &c, agreeably 
to directions given from the mould loft : bevelled, pp. 
biv'-eld ■. bev'elment, n. a name used for certain edges 
or faces formed in mineral bodies: bev'el-gear, -ger, in 
mech., a species of wheelwork where the axis or shaft 
of the leader or driver forms an angle with the axis or 
shaft of the follower or wheel driven : bevel-wheel, a 
wheel having teeth to work at an angle either greater 
or less than half a right angle. 

beverage, n. bev'er-aj (It. bevere, to drink: L. bi- 
bere, to drink: F. beuvrage, a beverage), a liquor for 
drinking; an agreeable drink. 

bevy, n. biv'l (It. beva, a bevy: F. bevee, a flock or 
brood), a flock of birds; a company; a number of 
young women. 

bewail, v. bexodl' (AS. be : Icel. rcila, to lament), 
to lament ; to express grief or sorrow for : bewailing, 
imp.: bewailed, pp. be-icald': bewail'ingly, ad. -II: 
bewailable, a. be-wdl'-d-bl, that may be sorrowed 
for: bewail'ing and bewail'ment, n. lamentation ; the 
act of mourning for : bewail'er, n. one who. 

beware, v. be-war' (AS. beicarian: Dan. bevare), 
to take care of ; to regard with caution ; to avoid. 

bewilder, v. be-uW-der (Ger. verwildern, to grow 
wild or unruly), to perplex ; to puzzle ; to lead astray : 
bewil'dering, imp.: bewil'dered, pp. -derd: bewil- 
deredly, ad. be-ivll'-derd-li : bewil'derment, n. con- 

bewitch, v. be-wlch' (AS. be; wicce, a witch), to 
gain power over by charms or incantations ; to please 
in the highest degree ; to fascinate— used generally in 
a bad sense: bewitch ing, imp.: adj. having power 
to charm or fascinate: bewitched, pp. be-wicht' .- 
bewitch'er, n. one who: bewitch'ery, n. -er-l, ir- 
resistible power possessed by any person or thing 
over a creature ; fascination : bewitch'ingly, ad. -ll .- 
bewitch'ment, n. irresistless power over ; fascination. 

bewray, v. be-roV (AS. be; vregan, to accuse, to 
discover), to point out ; to show ; to discover ; to be- 
tray: bewraying, imp.: bewrayed, pp. be-rad'. 

bey, n. bd (Turk, beg, a prince or chief), governor of 
a Turkish province ; a prince. 

beyond, ad., prep, be-yond' (AS. begeond— from 
geond, thither, yonder), at a distance ; at the further 
side ; out of reach ; above : to go beyond, to surpass. 

beyrichia, n. bd-rik'i-d (after M. Beyrich), a genus 
of minute fossil crustaceans, bivalved, and found at- 
tached to other crustaceans as parasites. 

bezel, n. bez'el (Sp. bisel, the basil edge of a plate of 
looking-glass: F. biseau, aslant), the ledse which sur- 
rounds and retains a jewel or other object in the cavity 
in which it is set. 

bezoar-stones, bez'or-stonz (Pers. pa, against; za- 
har, poison), stony concretions found in the intestines 
of certain land-animals, and formerly used as medi- 
cines or antidotes for poisons ; in geol., stony concre- 
tions usually composed of several crusts one within 
the other, and closely cohering: bezoardic, a. be'zo- 
dr'dlk, of or like bezoar. 

bi, bl or bi, also bis, bis (L. twice), a common prefix, 
meaning tioo, tivice, double, in two. Note.— When 
compounds beginning with bi are not found, mark the 
meaning of bi, and turn to the principal word. 

bia, n. bl'-d, a Siamese name for the small shells 
called cowries throughout the East Indies. 

biangular, a. bl-dng'-gu-lar (L. bis; angulus, a cor- 
ner), having two angles or corners. 

bias, n. bl'-ds (F. Mais, a slope: It. sbiescio, slant, 
on one side), a disposition or leaning of the mind; 
inclination; prepossession: v. to incline to; to preju- 
dice in favour of: bi'assing, imp.: biassed, pp. blklst, 
inclined in favour of. 

bib.v. bib(L. bibo, I drink : Dut. biberen, to drink to 
excess: F. biberon, a tippler), to sip: bib'bing, imp.: 
bibbed, pp. blbd: bibber, n. bib'ber, one who sips or 

bib, n. bib, a species of codfish, growing to a foot in 
length, of a pale-olive colour, sides tinged with gold, 
belly white: bibbs, n. plu. bibz, in shipbuilding, 
pieces of timber bolted to certain parts of a mast to 
support the trestle-trees. 

bib, n. Mb (F. bavon, a bib; baver, to slaver— from 
bave, spittle : Fris. babbe, the mouth), a piece of cloth 
put on the breasts of children for cleanliness when 
feeding them. 

bibacions, a. U-ba'shus (L. bibo, I drink— see bib), 
given to drinking: bibacity, n. bi-bds'l-tl, love for 
drinking: bibulous, a. blb'-fi-liis, drinking in; spongy: 
bibio, n. bW-l-6, the wine-fly. 

bibasic, a. bi-bd'slk (L. bis, two ; basis, a base), hav- 
ing two bases— applied to acids which combine with 
two equivalents of a base. 

Bible, n. bl'bl (Gr. biblion, a book), the book; the 
Holy Scriptures : Biblical, a. blb'li-kdl, relatingto the 
Bible: Biblically, ad. -II: Biblicist, n. blb'U-i-ist, 
also Bib'list, n. one skilled in the knowledge of the 

bibliography, n. btb'H-dg'-rd-fl, (Gr. biblion, a 
book; grapho, I write), knowledge and history of 
books: bibliographer, n. blb'llog'rd-ftr one who is 
skilled in the knowledge of books: bib'liograph'ic, 
a. -grdf-ik, also bibliographical, a, -l-kdl, pert, to 
the history of books : bibliolatry, n. blb'll-ol'd-tri, 
book-worship, especially applied to an extreme rever- 
ence for the Bible : bibliomancy, n. blb-ll-6-mdn'sl, 
(Gr. biblion, a book; manteia, prophecy), divination 
by the Bible : bibliology, n. bib'llol'6-jl (Gr. biblion, 
a book ; logos, discourse), a treatise on books ; Biblical 
literature or theology: bibliolog'ical, a. -Idj'i-kai, 
pert, to: bibliomania, n. blb'-li-o-ma'-nl-d (Gr. bib- 
lion, a book ; mania, madness), a rage for the posses- 
sion of rare and curious books : bibliomaniac n. 
-nl-dk, one who has a rage for books : bibliopolist, 
n. blb'll-op'6-llst, and bibliopole, n. -pol' (Gr. biblion, 
a book; poleo, I sell), a bookseller: bibliotheca, n. 
blb'li-6-the'kd (Gr. biblion, a book ; theka, a case or 
box), a repository for books ; a library : biblioth'ecal, 
a. -oth'e-kdl, pert. to. 

bicapsular, a. bl-kdp'su-ldr (L. bis, twice, and cap- 
sular), in bot., having two seed-capsules to each flower. 

bicarbonate, n. bl-kdr'-bo-ndt (L. bis, twice; and 
carbonate), a salt having two equivalents of carbonic 
acid to one equivalent of a base : bisulphate, n. bi-siil- 
fat, constituted as preceding— and many other similar 
formations in bi. 

bice, n. bis (old F. bis; bes, in composition, being 
often employed to signify perversion or inferiority), a 
pale-blue or green colour. 

biceps, n. bl's62)s (L. bis, twice; caput, the head), 
double-headed; in anat., applied to certain muscles 
that divide into two portions; bicipital, a. li-sij.'i- 
tdl, and bicipitous, a. bi-sip'l-tus, having two heads; 
also bicephalous, a. bl-sef-d-lus(L. bis, twice : Gr.keph- 
ale, the head), double-headed. 

bicker, n. bik'-er (Scot.: Dut. bickeler, a stone- 
picker— from jnrker), in Scot., a fight between two 
parties of boys by throwing stones and using sticks ; 

cdiv, boy, J "Jot ; pure, bild; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




a bowl or dish made of wood: v. to quarrel ; 1o fight 
without a set battle ; to contend in words : bickering, 
imp. : bickered, pp. blk'-erd. 

biconjugate, a. hlkon'jdb-gat (L. his, twice; con, 
together; jungo, I join), in lot., in pairs— applied to a 
leaf in which the common petiole divides into two 
branches, each of which bears two leaflets. 

bicorn, a. bl'korn, or bicornous, a. bi-kdr'niis (L. 
bis, twice; cornu, a horn), two-homed; in hot., ap- 
plied to any pails of plants that have the likeness of 
two horns. 

bicuspid, a. hhkus'phl (L. his, twice; cuspis, the 
point of a spear), in anut., applied to teeth that have 
two fangs or points, as the first two molars on each 
side; in bot., leaves that end in two points; two- 
fanged ; two-pronged. 

bid, v. bid (AS. beodan; Ger. bieten, to offer: Dut, 
biederi), to tell to do ; to request ; to offer a price ; to 
wish: bade, pt. bad: bidden or bid, pp. bld'-n: bid- 
ding, imp. bld'dlng: n. an invitation; an order: 
bid der, n. one who offers a price : bid, n. bid, an 
otter at an auction. 

bide, v. bid (AS. bidan, to wait, to remain), to 
suffer ; to endure ; to live ; to remain in a place ; to 
continue in a state: biding, imp. bi'ding, dwelling; 

bidental, a. bl-den'tdl (L. bis, twice ; dens, a tooth- 
gen, dentis), having two teeth : bideatate, a. bl-den- 
id*, in bot., applied to leaves that have their marginal 
incisions or teeth edged by smaller teeth. 

bidet, n. bld'-et (F. bidet: It. bidetto), a small 
horse; an article of bedroom furniture. 

biennial, a. bl-cn'-nl-al (L. bis, twice ; annus, a year), 
continuing or lasting throughout two years — applied 
to plants that do not bear "flowers and seed till the 
second year, and then die : n. a plant that stands two 
years : bien'nial'ly, ad. -li. 

bier, n. ber (AS. baer: F. biere: Ger. b&ra), a frame 
of wood, or a carriage, on which the dead are borne to 
the grave. 

biesting3, n. plu. bcst'ingz (see beestings), the 
first milk given by a cow after calving. 

bifacial, a. bifd'sltl-dl (L. bis, twice; fades, the 
face), having two like faces. 

biferous, a. blf'-er-us (L. bis, twice ; fero, I carry), 
bearing fruit twice a-year. 

biffin, n. biffin (supposed corruption of beefln, from 
its resemblance to raw beef), an apple so called, dried 
in an oven and flattened for keeping. 

bifid, a. bifid (L. bis, twice ; .fidi. I cleft or split), 
cleft in two ; opening with a cleft, but not deeply di- 
vided: also bifidate, a. blfi-dat. 

bifold, a. bi'/old (L. bis and fold), double; of two 
kinds : bi'form, a. -faTvrtn (L. forma, shape), having 
two forms. 

bifurcated, a. bl-fer'ka-ted, or bifur'cous, a. -kus 
(L. bis, twice ; furca, a fork), forked; separated into 
two heads or branches : bi'furca'tion, n. -ka'shun, a 
dividing into two, as the division of the trunk of ves- 
sels, or of the stem of a plant. 

big, a. big (original spelling bug: Icel. bolgn, a swell- 
ing: Dan. bug, belly), large ; great in size or bulk; full 
of pride; distended; ready to burst: bigly, ad. -li: 
big'ness, n. 

b'g, v. big, or bigg (Dan. byg), winter barley. 

bigamy, n. blg'a-ml (L. bis, twice; Gr. gameo, I 
marry), the crime of marrying a second wife or hus- 
band while a first is still alive : big'amist, n. -mist, one 
who has two wives or husbands at one time. 

biggin, n. big' gin (F. begwine, an order of nuns who 
do not take vows), a cap of a certain shape worn by the 
beguins ; a child's cap ; a small wooden vessel. 

bight, n. bit (Icel. bugt, a bend or curve : AS. bugan : 
Ger. biegen, to bend), a sudden bend inwards of the 
sea into the land ; a small bay ; the double part or coil 
of a rope. 

bigot, n. blg'ot (It. bigotto, a bigot; bizzoco, a hypo- 
crite— from bigio, grey — applied to certain secular 
aspirants to superior holiness of life in thirteenth cen- 
tury), one who is obstinately and blindly attached to 
a particular religious belief, to a party, or to an opin- 
ion; a blind zealot: big'oted, a. unreasonably attached 
to : big'otedly, ad.: bigotry, n. big'ot-ri, blind zeal in 
favour of something. 

bijou, n. be-zlUi' (F.— plu. bijoux), a jewel, a trinket : 
bijouterie, n. be-zhot'rl, jewellery; the making or 
dealing in trinkets or jewellery. 

bijugate, a. bl'-jw-gdt' (L. bis, twice ; jugum., a yoke), 
in bot., having two pairs of leaflets on a pinnate leaf. 

bilabiate, a. hhld'hl-at (L. bis, twice ; labium, a lip), 
in bot., having the mouth of any tubular organ divided 
into two principal portions, termed lips. 

bilateral, a. blldt'er-al (L. bis, twice ; latus, a side), 
in bot., arranged on or towards opposite sides: bilat- 
eral symmetry, that construction in vertebrate ani- 
mals where the organs of the body are arranged more 
or less distinctly in pairs. 

bilberry, n. bil'-bir-ri (AS. bleo, blue : Dan. blaa-baer, 
blue berry), name of a small wild fruit of a dark-blue 
colour, called in Scotland blaeberry; whortle-berry. 

bilboes, n. plu. bil'boz (Bilboa; L. boioc, a shackle: 
Dut, boeye), among mariners, a sort of stocks or wood- 
en shackles for the feet, used for offenders. 

bile, n. Ml (L. bilis, bile: F. bile), a thick, yellow, 
bitter liquor separated in the liver, and collected in 
the gall-bladder ; gall ; ill humour: bilious, a. bil'y&s, 
having excess of bile: bil'iousness, n. : bil'iary, a. 
■yir-i, of or relating to bile: bile-duct, n. a vessel or 
canal to convey bile. 

bile, n. bli (AS. byl, a blotch), more frequently boil 
—a soft tumour upon the flesh. 

bilge, n. bilj (Gael, bulg, a belly: Icel. bulki, a 
hump: Dan. bulk, a lump— a different spelling of 
bulge), the swelled out or bellied part of a cask ; the 
breadth of a ship's bottom on which she rests when 
aground: also called bilage, bU'ttj: v. to have a 
fracture in a ship's bottom : to spring a leak : bilge- 
water, n. water lying on a ship's bottom or bilge : 
bilged, pp. blljd: bil'ging, imp.: bilge-pump, the 
pump employed to draw off the bilge-water. 

bilingsgate, n. bil'-lngz-gat (the great fish-market 
in London), rough or foul ianguage, such as is spoken 
at Bilingsgate. 

bilingual, a. bi-ling'gicdl (L. bis, twice; lingua, a 
tongue), in two languages : bilin'guous, a. -gwus, 
speaking two languages. 

biliteral, a. bUU'er-ai (L. bis, twice ; litera, a letter), 
of two letters. 

bilk, v. bilk (Sw. balka, to partition off— another 
spelling of balk), to defraud ; to cheat ; to leave in the 
lurch : bilk'ing, imp. : bilked, pp. bllkt. 

bill, n. bll (AS. bil; Ger. beil, an axe: Dut. bille, a 
stone-mason's pick), an instrument for hewing ; an 

anc. military weapon ; a hooked instrument for cutting 
hedges, pruning, &c; the beak of a fowl or bird: billed, 
a. blld, furnished with a bill. 

bill, n. bil (mid. L. bidla, a seal : Dut, biljet, a note), 
an account for goods ; a printed advertisement ; in 
law, a declaration in writing of some fault or wrong ; 
a written promise to pay money in a certain time ; a 
form or draft of a proposed law before parliament ; a 
written list of particulars in law, in commerce, or in 
other social usages : bill of exchange, a written order 
on a person in a distant place requesting him to pay 
money to another— the person who draws the bill is 
called the drawer, the person requested to pay the 
money the drawee, the person to whom the money is 
payable is called the payee : bill of fare, in a hotel, a 
list of articles ready for'food : bill of entry, in coin., a 
written account of goods entered at the custom-house : 
bill of lading, a written account of goods shipped by 
a person on board an outward-bound vessel, and signed 
by the master or captain: bill of health, a certificate 
of the health of a ship's crew: bill of mortality, an 
official return of deaths in any place : bill of rights, a 
summary or list of the rights and privileges claimed 
by a people: bill of sale, a written inventory or list 
given by the seller of personal property to the pur- 
chaser: bill of exceptions, a written statement of 
errors in law tendered to the presiding judge before 
a verdict is given : bill in chancery, a written state- 
ment put in or filed in the Court of Chancery : true 
bill, an attested written statement by a grand jury of 
sufficient evidence against a prisoner to warrant a 
trial: bill chamber, in Scot, a particular department 
of the Court of Session for dealing with certain written 
documents: bill of suspension, in Scot., a written 
application or appeal from a lower to a higher court, 
to prevent execution of a sentence in a criminal trial : 
bill of divorce, in the Jewish law, a certain form of 
writing given by a husband to a wife by which his 
marriage with her was dissolved : bill-sticker, one 
who posts placards, &c. 

bill, v. bil (from bill, a beak), to caress as doves 
Joining bills; to be fond: billing, imp.: billed, pp. 

billet, n. bll'lSt (F. billet, ticket, diminutive of bill), 
a small letter; a ticket directing soldiers where to 

mate, mat, far, law; mete, met, her; 2>1ne,p\n; note, not, m6ve; 




lodge: v. to quarter soldiers: billeting, imp.: billeted, 

billet, n. bil'let (F. billot, a stick or log of wood cut 
for firewood), a small log of wood for firewood. 

billet-doux, n. bU'-la-do' (F. billet, a letter; doux, 
sweet), a short love-letter. 

billiards, n. plu. bil'-yardz (F. billard— from F. bille ; 
L. pilum, a ball), a same played on a long table cov- 
ered with cloth, with ivory balls and a cue or mace : 
billiard, a. pert. to. 

billion, n. bU'yun (L. bis, twice, and million), a 
million of millions. 

billow, n. bil'lo (Dan. bolge ; Sw. bolja; Dut. 
bolghe, a wave of the sea), a very large wave or surge 
of the sea: v. to swell or rise into large waves; to 
surge: billowing, imp.: billowed, pp. -lod: billowy, 
a. -lo-i, full of billows ; swelling into great waves. 

bilobate, a. bi-lu'-bdt (L. bis, twice; Gr. lobos, the 
ear-lap or lower part of the ear), having two lobes. 

bilocular, a. bl-lok'u-ldr (L. bis, twice; loculus, a 
little place), iribot., containing two cavities or cells. 

bimanous, a. blma'nus (L. bis, twice ; manus, 
the hand), having two hands ; two-handed : bimana, 
11. -md'-nd, the order of mammalia of which man is 
the sole representative — the apes and monkeys being 
quadrumanous, or four-handed. 

bimensal, a. bl-mSn-sal (L. bis; mensis, a month), 
occurring once in two months. 

bin, n. M«,(AS. bin, a manger, a hutch: Sw. binge, 
a heap), a wooden box or chest used for holding com 
or flour, &c. ; a compartment in a wine-cellar. 

bin (L. bini, two by two), a prefix meaning double ; 
by twos ; of two ; another form of bis, twice. 

binary, a. bl'ner-l (L. bini, two by two: F. binaire). 
consisting of two, or two parts : dual ; in astron., ap- 
plied to double stars ; in chem., applied to compounds 
consisting of two elements: n. constitution of two: 
binate, a. bl'nat, growing in pairs ; double. 

bind, v. bind (AS. or Goth, bindan, to bind or tie: 
Icel. binda, to bind or knot— see bunch), to tie toge- 
ther ; to fasten ; to confine or restrain ; to oblige by a 
promise, an oath, or an agreement ; to form or sew on 
a border ; to render costive or hard : binding, imp. : 
n. the cover of a book, &c: adj. obligatory: bound, 
pt. and pp. bmvnd: bind'er, n. a person or thing that 
binds : bindery, n. bind'er-l, a binder's workshop. 

bind, n. bind, or bine, ton (Ger. bund, a bunch, a 
truss), a miner's term for tough, argillaceous, or clayey 

bind, n.'bind (Icel. binda, to bind: Lith. pinnu, 
to wreathe, to plait : L. vinea, a vine), the winding or 
climbing stem of a climbing plant,— thus, hop-bine, 
the shoots of hops: woodbine, the honeysuckle: 
bindwood or binwood, in Scot., the ivy: bindweed, a 
wild plant with twining stems ; a convolvulus. 

bing, n. bing (Sw. binge, a heap : Icel. bunga, to 
swell— same as bin), a heap ; a miner's term for a heap 
of ore or other mineral of a certain size. 

binnacle or binacle, n. bin'd-kl (formerly written 
bittacle, n. blt'ti-kl: F. habitacle), a turret-shaped box 
placed on board a ship near the helm in which the 
compass is kept. 

binocle, n. bln'6-kl (L. tonus, double ; oculus, an 
eye), a telescope fitted with two tubes for both eyes: 
binocular, a. to-nok'u-lAr, having two eyes; employ- 
ing both eyes at once— as binocular visio7i. 

binomial, n. bi-n6'mhdl (L. bis, twice; nomen, a 
name), in alg., a quantity consisting of two terms con- 
nected by the sign plus (+), or minus (-): adj. pert. 
to: binominous, a. bl-nom'i-nus .- binomial system, 
in zool., the system according to which every animal 
receives two names, the one indicating the genus to 
which it belongs, the other being its own specific 
name— as canisfamiliaris, the domestic dog. 

binous, a. to'nus (L. bini, two by two), double ; in a 
pair, as leaves. 

binoxalate, n. bln-dks'dl-at (L. bis, twice; Gr. ora- 
lis, a kind of sorrel — from Gr. oxus, acid), a combina- 
tion of oxalic acid with a base in which the former is 
in excess: binoxlde, n. -oks'id (L. bis, twice, and 
oxygen), the second degree of oxidation of a metal 
or other substance. 

biography, n. bi-og'ra-fi (Gr. bios, life; grapho, I 
write), the written history of the life and character 
of a particular person : bi'ograph'ic, a. -6-grdf'ik, also 
biographical, a. -i-kdl, pert, to the written life of 
any one: bi'ograph'ically, ad. -i-kdl'i: biographer, 
n. bi-6g'-rd-fer, a writer of lives. 

biology, n. bl-6l'0-ji (Gr. bios, life ; logos, a discourse). 

the science which investigates the phenomena of life, 
whether vegetable or animal: biologic, a. bi'-o-ldj'ik, 
also bi'ologlcal, a. -6 loj'-t-kul, relating to the science 
of life : biol'ogist, n. -ol'-o-jlst, one who treats of the 
phenomena of life. 

biparous, a. blp'dr-ns (L. bis, twice; pario, I bring 
forth), having two at a birth : bipartite, a. -tit (L. bis, 
twice ; partitus, divided), divided into two parts, as a 
leaf; having two corresponding parts: bip'artition, 
n. -tish'un, the act of dividing or making into two 
corresponding parts : bip'artile, a. -til, that may be 
divided into two parts. 

biped, n. bi'-ped (L. bis, twice ; pes, afoot— gen. pedis), 
an animal having two feet : bipedal, a. bip'-e-dal or 
bhpe'ddl, having two feet. 

tipennate,a. bi-pen'nat, and bipen'nated, a. (L. bis, 
twice ; penna, a feather), having two wings or wing- 
like organs. 

bipetalous, a. bl-pZV-d-lus (L. bis, twice ; Q,x.pctalon, 
a leaf), having two llower-leaves or petals. 

biplicate, a. bip'-li-kat (L. bis, twice; plico, I fold), 
in bot., doubly folded in a transverse manner, as in 
the section of some cotyledons or seed-lobes. 

bipinnate, a. bi-pln'ndt (L. bis, twice; pinna or 
penna, a feather), in bot., having the leaflets on the 
secondary petioles of a doubly compound leaf ar- 
ranged in a pinnate manner. 

biquadrate, (L. bis, twice; quadratics, 
squared), the fourth power of a number, or the square 
of the square: biquadratic, n. or a. -rdt'ik, relating 
to the fourth power. 

birch, n. birch (AS. birce: Sw. bjork), name of a 
tree; a bundle of twigs used as a rod of correction: 
birch or birch'en, a. -en, made of birch. 

bird, n. bird (AS. brid, the young of birds : Ger. 
brut, a brood of young), a feathered animal ; a chick- 
en ; a young fowl: v. to catch birds: bird-bolt, a 
small arrow: bird's-eye, seen at a glance; seen from 
a great height, as by a bird ; a plant ; a variety of cut 
tobacco : bird-cage, an enclosure of wire or wicker 
work for ihe confinement of birds : bird-catcher, one 
whose employment it is to snare birds : bird-like, 
resembling a bird: bird-lime, any glutinous or sticky 
substance spread upon twigs for catching birds: bird- 
limed, spread to ensnare : bird-willed, flighty; incap- 
able of sustained attention : bird's-eye limestone, a 
member of the lower Silurian of N. Amer., so named 
from the dark circular markings studding many por- 
tions of its mass : bird-tongues, a familiar term for 
fossil shark's teeth : bird's-eye maple, curled maple, 
a species of wood used in cabinet-work. 

birostrate, a. bi-ros'trat (L. bis, twice; rostrum, a 
beak), having two beaks. 

birr, v. bir (Scot.), to make a whirring rattling- 
noise: burling, imp. : birred, pp. bird: birl, birling, 
birled, birhl, are used in the same sense. 

birth, n. birth (AS. beorth; Sw. bord, a birth— 
from AS. beran, to bring forth), the act of coming into 
life; beingborn; descent; family; condition in which 
one is born ; origin ; beginning ; the thing produced : 
birthplace, n. place where born : birthright, a right 
or privilege which any one is entitled to by birth: 
birthday, n. the day on which a person is born ; the 
anniversary of it. 

biscuit, n. bls'kif (F. biscuit— from L. bis, twice, and 
F. cuit, done or baked— from L. coctus, cooked or 
dressed), bread baked hard for keeping; articles of 
pottery before they are glazed and ornamented. 

bisect, v. bl-sekf (L. bis, twice; sectus, cut), to cut 
or divide into two equal parts : bisec'ting, imp. : bi- 
sec'ted, pp. : bisec'tion, n. -sek'shun, the act of cutting 
into two equal parts : biseglnent, n. the exact half of 
a line. 

biserial, a. blse'ri-dl (L. bis, twice; series, an order 
or row), arranged in a double series or two courses. 

biserrate, a. bi-scr'ntt (L. bis, twice; serra, a saw), 
being doubly marked or notched like the teeth of a 
saw, as in certain leaves. 

bisexual, a. bl-seks'u-dl (L. bis, twice; sexus, male 
or female), of both sexes ; hermaphrodite. 

bishop, n. tosh'op (AS. bisceop .- L. episcopus ; Gr. 
episcopos, an overseer), a clergyman of high rank who 
has the oversight of the clergy within a district called 
a diocese : bish'opric, n. -rlk, a diocese ; the office and 
jurisdiction of a bishop. 

bisk, n. bisk (F. bisque, rich soup), soup made by 
boiling together several sorts of flesh. 

bismuth, n. blz'-muth (Ger. wiszmuth — from ivisz, 
white, and muth, lively: F. bismuth), a hard brit- 

co~t', bdy,/o~bt; p&re, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, tiling, trtere, zeal. 




tie reddish -white metal, used in making pewter, 
printers' types, &c, non-malleable, but easily fusible: 
bis'muthine, a. -In, sulphuret of bismuth of a greyish- 
tin colour: bis'muthite, n. -it, orbis'mutite, -mu-tlt, 
a yellowish-grey ore of bismuth, or of a white or dull 
mountain-green : bis'muthal, a. -dl, and bis'muthic, 
a. -Ik, of or from bismuth : bismuth-blende, -blend, a 
mixture of silicate of iron and bismuth with phos- 
phate of alumina. 

bison, n. bl'zdn(L. or Gr.), a kind of wild ox, with 
short black rounded horns, and a large fleshy hunch 
on the shoulders. 

bissextile, n. bls-s&ks'tU (L. bissexfilis— from Ms, 
and sextus, sixth), every fourth year— so called by 
the anc. Romans, because in that year the sixth day 
of the calends of March (Feb. 24) was reckoned twice ; 
leap year: adj. pert, to leap year. 

bistort, n. bls'tort (L. bis, twice; tortus, twisted), a 
plant so called from the twisted or contorted appear- 
ance of its root ; snakeweed. 

bistoury, n. bis'-toor-l(F. bistouri, an incision-knife 
—from Pistoria, now Pistoja, in Tuscany, once cele- 
brated for their manufacture), a small knife or scalpel 
for surgical purposes. 

bistre, n. bls'ter (F. prepared soot), a brown paint 
made from wood-soot. 

bisulcous, a. bt-sul'-kus (L. bis, twice ; sulcus, a fur- 
row), cloven-footed, as swine or oxen. 

bisulphate, n. bl-sul'fdt (L. bis, twice; sulphur, 
sulphur), a sulphate containing two equivalents of 
sulphuric acid to one of the base. 

bit, n. bit (AS. bitol: Icel. bitill), the iron mouth- 
piece of a bridle ; a small piece of anything ; a tool : 
v. to put the bit in a horse's mouth; to restrain: 
bit'ting, imp. : bit'ted.pp. 

bitch, n. blch (AS. bicce: Icel. bikkia, alittle dog, a 
bitch : Ger. betze, a bitch), the female of the dog-kind ; 
opprobrious term. 

bite, v. bit (Goth, beitan: Icel. bita), to tear; to 
pierce ; to break or crush with the teeth ; to pinch 
with cold ; to reproach by stinging words ; to pain or 
wound: n. the seizure of anything by the teeth; 
wound made by the teeth; a morsel; a mouthful: 
biting, imp. bl'tlng: adj. severe; sharp; sarcastic: 
bit, pt. bit: bitten, pp. blt'n: adj. in bot., applied 
to a leaf, root, or corolla terminating abruptly, as if 
bitten off short : biter, n. bi'ter: bi'tingly, ad. -It. 

biternate, a. bl-ter'ndt (L. bis, twice; terni, three 
by three), in bot., applied to compound leaves which 
form three leaflets on each secondary petiole or leaf- 

bittacle, n. blt'td-kl—see binnacle. 

bitter, a. blt'-tir (Icel. beitr; Goth, baitrs; Ger. 
bitter, biting, stinging), sharp; biting to the taste; 
severe ; reproachful ; painful to the feelings or mind ; 
distressing: n. a plant: bit'terness, n. sharpness: 
bit'terly, ad. -II: bitters, n. plu. blt'terz, a liquor, 
generally spirits, in which bitter herbs or roots have 
been steeped : bit'terish, a. slightly bitter : bit'terish - 
ness, n. : bitter-spar, n. the largely crystalline and 
easily-cleavable kinds of dolomite or magnesian lime- 
stone : bitter-sweet, woody nightshade : bitterwort, 
the plant gentian : bittern, n. blt'tern, the bitter liquor 
remaining after the salt in the salt-works is concreted, 
used in the preparation of Epsom salts. 

bittern, n. blt'tern (It. bittore), a bird of the heron 
tribe, of retiring habits, frequenting marshes. 

bitts, n. plu. bits (Icel. biti, a beam in a house or 
ship : F. bites : Sp. bitas), two strong pieces of timber 
in the fore part of a ship on which the cables are fast- 
ened when she lies at anchor : v. to bitt, to put round 
the bitts. 

bitumen, n. bltil'mSn (L. bitumen— from Gr.pitus, 
the pine or pitch tree), mineral pitch or tar ; one of the 
family of mineral resins or hydro-carbons, highly in- 
flammable, and burning with much smoke and name 
—in its purest and most fluid state it is called naphtha 
— of the consistence of oil, petroleum— as slaggy 
mineral pitch, maltha— a,* elastic mineral pitch or 
caoutchouc, elaterite—ns a black, hard, brittle, and 
glossy mineral, asphalt: bitu'minate, v. -ml-ndt, to 
impregnate with bitumen: bitu'mina'ting.imp.: bitu'- 
mina'ted, pp.: bitu'miniferous, a. -If'-er-us (L. fero, 
I produce), producing bitumen: bitu'minise, v. 
-ml-nlz, to prepare or coat with bitumen : bitu'mini- 
sing, imp. : bitu'minised, pp. -nlzd: bituininisa'tion, 
n. -nl-zd'shun, the natural process of being converted 
into bituminous matter: bitu'minous, a. -7nlnus, full 
of or containing bitumen. 

mdte, m&t, far, law; mete, milt, 

bivalve, n. bl'vdlv (L. bis, twice; VCllvee, folding 
doors), a shell consisting of two parts which shut 
and open, as the mussel or oyster; in bot, a seed case 
or vessel of like kind: adj., also bival vular, -vu-ldr, 
and bival'vous, -vus, having two shells, as the oyster 
or mussel. 

bivouac, n. blv'ob-dk (F. : Ger. bei-wachc, an addi- 
tional watch: Sp. vivac, town-guard), the encamp- 
ment of an army for the night in the open air : v. to 
take rest or refreshment in the open air, as an army 
on march, or travellers on a journey: biyouac'ing, 
imp. : biv'ouaced, pp. dkt. 

bizarre, a. bl-zar" (F.) odd; fantastical: bizar'ro, 
-z&r'ro (It.), in music, strange and fantastical, as ap- 
plied to the style of movement. 

blab, v. blab (Dan. blabbre, to babble: Ger. plappern, 
to speak confusedly or thoughtlessly: Gael, blabaran, 
a stammerer: Dut. labben, to tell tales), to tattle; to 
tell tales ; to tell secrets in a thoughtless manner : n. 
a tell-tale; one who reveals things which ought not 
to be told: blab'ber, n. -ber, a tell-tale: blabbing, 
imp. : blabbed, pp. -bldbd. 

black, a. bldk (Ger. bleich, and Dut. Meek, pale, 
or bleak, which seems to be the original meaning of 
black: Icel. Uackr, bluish-grey or pale), the opposite 
of white ; dark ; cloudy ; dismal ; sullen ; very wicked : 
n. name of the darkest of colours ; a negro : v. to 
make black; to dirty or soil : blacking, imp.: n. a 
substance used in polishing boots and shoes; that 
which makes black : blacked, pp. bldkt : black'ish, a. a 
little black: blackly, ad. -Hi black'ness.n.: black-act, 
a law which makes it felony to appear armed with the 
face blackened : black-amber, n. the name given by 
Prussian amber-diggers to jet : black-art, magic or 
conjuration : black-ball, v. in a society, to reject a pro- 
posed member by putting black balls in the voting or 
ballot box : -balling, imp. : -balled, pp. : black-band, 
a Scotch miner's term for the ironstones of the coal- 
measures which contain coaly matter sufficient for 
calcining the ore without the addition of coal : black- 
berry, the fruit of the bramble : blackbird, a species of 
singing-bird : black-board, a board painted black, used 
in schools for teaching purposes : black-book, an old 
book said to have been composed in 1175, containing 
a description of the Court of Exchequer, its officers, 
privileges, &c. ; a book compiled under the authority 
of Henry VIII. in regard to monasteries; a book 
treating on necromancy : blackcap, a bird, so called I 
from its black crown; an apple roasted till black: I 
black- cattle, a general term for bulls, oxen, and i 
cows: black-chalk, a soft black or bluish-black clay j 
or shale found in subordinate layers in several forma- \ 
tions, also called Italian chalk, German chalk, &c. : 
black-cock, the heath-cock or black grouse: black- 
friar, one of an order of monks, also called Domini- 
cans: black-flux, n. a mixture of carbonate of pot- 
ash and charcoal, used in chemical operations: 
black-hole, a place of confinement for soldiers : black- 
jack, a miner's term for sulphuret of zinc or blende : ( 
black-lead, a familiar name for graphite, from its ; 
resemblance to the metal lead, called also plumbago, i 
used in making lead pencils: black-legs, a dis- 
ease among calves and sheep: black-leg, a common • 
gambler ; a cheat : black-letter, n. the old English 
alphabetic character : black-mail, a tax in money or 
kind paid in olden times to robbers for protection; 
any tax unjustly or unfairly exacted: black-pudding, 
a pudding made of blood thickened with meal : black- 
sheep, n. an outcast ; a person ill-behaved and of low . 
habits : black-strakes, a range of planks immediately 
above the wales in a ship's side covered with tar and ' 
lamp-black : black-thorn, a tree very branchy, armed 
with strong sharp spines, and bearing small round 
black fruit like plums or cherries— also called the 
sloe: black- vomit, one of the fatal symptoms of yellow 
fever: black-wad, an earthy ore of manganese, usu- 
ally called wad, which see: blackamoor, n. bldk'-d- 
m6r, a negro; a black man : black-browed, a. applied 
to a person with black eyebrows ; gloomy ; threaten- 
ing; dismal. 

blacken, v. bldk'n (from black), to make black; to 
soil; to defame: blackening, imp. bldk'-nlng: black- 
ened, pp. -end: black'ener, n. one who. 

blackguard, n. bldg'-giird (a name originally given 
in derision to the lowest class of menials or hangers- 
on about a court or great household), a mean low fel- 
low; one who uses foul language; any dirty useless 
man or boy ; a scoundrel : v. to defame ; to employ 
foul or abusive language in speaking of any one: 

Mr; pine, pin; nvte, n6t, mCve; 




black'guarding, imp.: blackguarded, pp.: black' 

rdism, n. 


izm, the conduct or language of a black- 

black-rod, n. bldk'rod, a high officer of the queen's 
household, and of the order of the garter, so called 
from the black staff which he carries as a badge of 

blacksmith, n. bldk'smlth, one who manufactures 
articles from iron. 

bladder, n. blad'der (AS. bladre: Icel. bladra, a 
bubble, a blister: Ger. blatter, a pustule), a thin sack 
or bag in animals for containing particular fluids, such 
as the urine, and the qall .- blad'dered, a. -derd, swelled 
like a bladder: blad'dery, a. -der-i, like a bladder. 

blade, n. Mad (Icel. Mad, leaf of a tree, blade of a 
sword: Ger. Matt; Dut. blad, a leaf, a plate), the long 
leaf or spire of grass, or of a like plant ; the cutting 
part of a knife ; the broad part of an oar ; the part of 
a tool that is broad or thin ; a brisk, gay, bold fellow : 
v. to furnish with a blade: bla'ding, imp.: bla'ded, 
pp. : adj. applied to crystals composed of long and 
narrow plates, like the blade of a knife ; laminated : 
blade -bone, the upper flat bone of the shoulder: 
blades, n. plu. blddz, the principal rafters or breaks 
of a roof. 

blain, n. bldn (AS. blcgen; Dut. or Dan. blegne; 
Icel. blina, a boil or pimple), a sore ; a blister. 

blame, v. Mam (F. bldnier, to blame: Norm. F. 
blasmer ; L. blasphemare, to revile, to defame: Gr. 
blasphemein, to speak impiously: It biasimare, to 
blame), to find fault with; to censure: n. censure; 
crime ; expression of disapprobation ; reproach : bla'- 
ming, imp. : blamed, pp. bldmd : blameworthy, a. : 
blameworthiness, n. : blameful, a. -fool: blame'- 
fully, ad. -fuol-l: blamefulness, n. : bla'mer, n. one 
who: blamable, a. bla'md-M, deserving of censure; 
faulty; culpable: bla'mably, ad. -Ml: bla'mableness, 
n. -bl-nes: blameless, a. bldm'-les, without fault; inno- 
cent; free from blame; guiltless: blamelessly, ad. 
II: blamelessness, n. 

blanch, v. bldnsh (F. blanchir, to whiten— from 
blanc, white: Dan. blank, shining, polished), to make 
white; to take out the colour: blanch'ing, imp. : adj. 
whitening: n. the operation of brightening pieces of 
silver, or of making white like silver other metals ; 
the operation of whitening vegetables by covering 
them from the light: blanched, pp. bldnsht: blanch- 
er, n. one who. 

blancmange, n. blong-mongzh' , or blancman'ger, n. 
-zhd (F. white food or jelly), a confected white jelly. 

bland, a. bland (L. blandus, gentle: Dan. lind, soft), 
mild; soft; gentle: blandly, ad. -II: bland'ness, n.: 
blandation, n. Man-dd'sfuhi, gross flattery: blandilo- 
quence, n. bldn-dll'-O-kivSns (L. loquor, I speak), fair, 
mild, flattering speech: blandish, v. Mdn'-dish, to ca- 
ress ; to soothe ; to soften : blan disher, n. one who : 
blan' dishing, imp.: blan' dished, pp. -dlsht: blan'- 
dishment, n., and blandishing, n. soft words tending 
to win the heart; caresses. 

blank, a. MdngkCF. blanc, white: Dan. blank, shining: 
Ger. blinken, to shine), denoting an unwritten ticket, 
or one not obtaining a prize ; empty ; void ; confused ; 
confounded; inverse, without rhyme: n. avoid; any 
empty space ; paper unwritten on or without marks ; 
a ticket without value : v. to make void or empty; to 
confuse ; to efface or rub off: blanking, imp. : blanked, 
pp. bldngkt: blankly, ad. -It: blank'ness, n.: point- 
blank, the shot of a gun levelled horizontally, the 
shot proceeding in a straight line without curving: 
blank verse, verse without, or void of rhyme. 

blanket, n. Mdngk'-etCF. blanchet—fromblancwhite), 
a woollen cover for a bed : v. to toss in or cover with 
a blanket: blanketing, imp.: n. cloth for blankets: 
blanketed, pp. 

blare, n. Mar (Dut. blaeren, to bubble, to blister: 
Gael. More, a loud noise), a roar ; a bellowing noise : 
v. to bellow ; to roar : bla'ring, imp. : blared, pp. 

blarney, n. bldr'-ni (from a legend connected with 
Blarney Castle, Ireland), smooth deceitful talk; flat- 
tering words meant neither to be honest nor true. 

blaspheme, v. Mds-fem' (see blame), to speak of God 
with irreverence ; to speak in impious terms of anyof 
God's names and attributes; to curse or swear: blas- 
pheming, imp. : blasphemed', pp. -femd': blasphe'mer, 
n. one who : blas'phemous, a. -fe-mus, impious ; con- 
taining blasphemy: blas'phemously, ad. -us'll: blas'- 
phemy, n. -i, irreverence in speaking of God; profane 

blast, n. bldst (AS. Mcesen, to blow ; blast, a blast), 
a violent rush of wind ; the sound of a wind-instru- 
ment; any destructive influence; an explosion of 
gunpowder; the air introduced into a furnace: v. to 
cause to wither; to blight; to affect with a sudden 
calamity ; to destroy ; to confound ; to split rocks by 
gunpowder: blasting, imp.: n. the act of separating 
stones or rocks from their beds by blowing them up 
with gunpowder: blast'ed, pp.: blast-pipe, the waste- 
steam pipe in locomotive engines, of prime importance 
in causing a greater draught in the fire-tubes and 
through the fire-grate: blast-furnace, a furnace for 
smelting iron ore, &c, whose heat is vastly increased 
by air, generally heated, being forced into it by ma- 
chinery—the air so introduced is called the blast. 

blastema, n. blds-te'md (Gr. blastema, I germinate), 
in surg., a subtransparent glairy matter, containing a 
multitude of minute corpuscles forming the basis of 
part of an animal, as the blastema of bone; in bot., 
the whole of the embryo after the cotyledons have been 
abstracted: blaste'mal, &.-mdl, pert, to ; rudimentary. 

blastoderm, n. blds'-td-dirm (Gr. Mastos, a bud; 
derma, a skin), the germinal disc or spot which forms 
on the egg in the early stage of incubation. 

blatant, a. Md'-tdnt (Dut. blaet, a boaster: Gael. 
More, a loud noise : L. blatero, I talk idly or prate), 
bellowing as a beast : blatter, v. bldt'ter, to make a 
senseless noise ; to prate. 

blaze, n. bldz (AS. blase or blozse, a torch or lamp: 
Icel. blossi, a flame: Dan. Mus, a torch), the strong 
flame of any burning body ; the full light of day. 

blaze, n. bldz (Dut. blesse, a white streak on the 
forehead: Ger. Masse: Dan. Mis), the white mark on 
the face of an animal ; a white mark on a tree when a 
part of the bark is stript off. 

blaze, v. bldz (AS. blozsan; Dut. blaesen, to blow), 
to blow abroad ; to spread news ; to publish : blazing, 
imp. : blazed, pp. Mdzd: bla'zingly, ad. -It. 

blazon, v. bld'-zn (AS. blase, aflame, splendour: F. 
blason, a coat of arms), to portray armorial bearings 
in their proper colours; to deck; to embellish; to 
adorn ; to make known far and wide : n. show ; pomp- 
ous display: bla'zoning, imp.: blazoned, pp. Md'-znd: 
bla'zonment, n.: bla'zoner, n. one who: blazonry, n. 
Md'zn-ri, that branch of heraldry which describes or 
explains coats of arms in proper terms; the art of 
delineating the figures and devices of a coat of arms 
in their proper colours or metals. 

bleach, v. Mich (AS. Mcecan— from blaze, pale: Dut. 
Make7i—see black), to make white ; to take out colour ; 
to grow white in any way : bleaching, imp. : n. the art 
of making anything white, especially cloth : bleached, 
pp. Mecht: bleach'er, n. one who: bleach'ery, n. -er-l, 
a place for bleaching: bleaching-powder, a salt of 
lime— the chloride. 

bleak, a. Mek (AS. blaze, black: Ger. bleich; Dut. 
bleek, pale), cold ; open; exposed; cheerless ; solitary : 
bleak ish, a. cheerless and open in a certain degree: 
bleak'y, a. -I : bleakly, ad. -II: bleakness, n. 

blear, a. Mer (Dan. blare, a blister: low Ger. blarren, 
to cry or weep— hence, blair-oge, a red watery eye), 
sore, watery, and tender in the eye : v. to make sore and 
tender : blear'ing, imp. : bleared, pp. blerd .- blear'ed- 
ness, n. state of one whose eyes are blear : blear-eyed, 
having sore eyes: blear ness, n. soreness of the eyes. 

bleat, n. Met (an imitative word: Ger. Moken, to 
bleat as a sheep), the cry of a sheep : v. to cry as a, 
sheep : bleating, imp. : bleat'ed, pp. ; bla'tant, a. 
making a noise like a calf or sheep. 

bleed, v. bled (AS. bledan— see blood), to lose blood 
by any means ; to draw blood ; to run sap from a tree : 
bleed'ing, imp. : n. a flow of blood ; operation of let- 
ting blood; haemorrhage: adj. flowing with blood or 
juice: bled, pp. bled: bleed'er, n. one who. 

blemish, n. blem'lsh (old F. blesmir, to soil or spot, 
to make livid with blows— from blesme, pale, wan: 
Icel. Mami, the livid colour of a bruise), any defect ; 
any mark or scar that lessens the beauty and propor- 
tion ; deformity ; imperfection in character : v. to im- 
pair or injure ; to tarnish : blemishing, imp. : blem'- 
lshed, pp. -isht: blemlshable, a. -d-bl: blem'ishless, 
a.: blemlsher, n. one who. 

blench, v. blensh (same as blink, and probably 
flinch), to shrink ; to start back ; to give way. 

blend, v. blend (AS. blendan : Dut. blanssen, to dab- 
ble in water: Icel. blanda, to mix), to mingle together 
so as not to be able to separate ; to confound : blend- 
ing, imp.; n. in painting, so laying on different tints 
as to render it impossible to tell where one colour 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shuji, thing, there, zeal. 



begins and another ends ; blended, pp. : blend 'er, one 

blende, n. blind (Oer. blenden, to dazzle), a term 
applied to several minerals having a peculiar lustre 
or glimmer, variously coloured, as hornblende, zinc- 
blende, &c, now generally restricted to the sulphuret 
of zinc ; the blackjack or mock ore of English miners : 
blendous, a. b en'diis, relating to blende. 

blennorrhea, n. blSn'-or-red (Gr. blenna, mucus; 
rh-o, I How), an excessive flow or secretion from mu- 
cous glands in any situation. 

blenny, n. blen'-nl (Gr. blenna, mucus, slime), name 
of a fish of several species, so called from the mucous 
matter covering the body. 

bless, v. bids (AS. bletsian, to bless— from blithe, 
merry, joyful : Bohem. blaze, happily), to make happy ; 
to prosper; to praise; to give thanks to; to glorify or 
praise for benefits received: bles'sing, imp. : n. a wish 
of happiness to another ; gift ; benefit or advantage ; 
divine favour: blessed or blest, pp. blest: blessed, 
a. bles'sid, happy and prosperous ; enjoying spiritual 
happiness: bles'sedly, ad. -li: blessedness, n.: bles- 
ser, n. one who. 
blew, v. bio— see blow. 

blight, n. bllt (AS. blccc, pale: low Ger. blekkcn, to 
shine: old H. Ger. blich-fiur, blight-fire or lightning— 
from the idea of being blasted with lightning), a disease 
common to plants, by which tliey are withered either 
wholly or partially ; anything nipping or blasting: v. 
to retard growth or prevent fertility; to blast; to 
frustrate: blighting, imp.: blight'e'd, pp. : blight - 
ingly, ad. -II. 

blind, a. blind (AS. blind: Goth, blinds : Icel. blindr 
—connected with blink), deprived of sight ; wanting 
discernment; heedless; inconsiderate; morally de- 
praved : v. to deprive of sight ; to darken ; to deceive : 
n. something that darkens or obscures ; a cover or 
screen: blinding, imp.: blind'ed, pp.: blindly, ad. -II: 
blind'ness, n. want of sight ; intellectual darkness : 
blind'fold, a. having the eyes covered: v. to hinder 
from seeing: blindfolding, imp.: blindfold'ed, pp.: 
blindman's-buff (Ger. blinzel-maus), a play or game, in 
which one having his eyes covered tries to catch any 
other of the players : blindman's-ball, a common fun- 
gus : blind coal, a miner's term for those coals which, 
deficient in bitumen, burn away without flame: 
blinds, bllndz, in mil., a temporary defence in pres- 
ence of an enemy made of branches interwoven : 
blind side, a familiar term for a weakness or foible: 
blind-worm, a small reptile covered with scales, and 
having a forked tongue, but harmless— called also 

blink, n. bllngk (AS. blican, to dazzle: Ger. blicken, 
to shine, or blinken, to twinkle), a wink ; a glance ; a 
look ; a moment : v. to wink ; to twinkle with the eye ; 
to see dimly or obscurely ; to evade : blinking, imp. : 
blinked, pp. bllngkt: blinkers, n. plu. bllngk'-erz, 
coverings for the eyes of a horse to keep it from seeing 
on either side : to blink the question, to shut one's 
eyes to it; to make one's self wilfully blind to it: 
b'link'y, a. liable to wink by overstraining the eyes: 
snow or ice blink, the peculiar reflection from snow 
or ice in arctic regions. 

bliss, n. bits (AS. blis, joy— see bless), happiness in 
a very high degree ; felicity ; iovs of heaven : bliss'ful, 
a. -fool, full of bliss: bliss'fully, ad. -li: bliss'fulness, 
li.: bliss'less, a. 

blister, n. blls'ter (AS. blccsan, to blow : L. 2)ustida, 
a bubble, a pimple: Dut. bluyster), a thin white 
swelling on the skin, generally filled with watery 
fluid; the scales on iron or steel : v. to raise blisters; 
to rise in blisters : blis'tering, imp. : blis'tered, pp. 
.fad: blis'tery, a. -ter-l, full of blisters. 

blite, n. bllt (Gr. bliton: L. blitum), a kind of 
amaranth; a genus of plants called straw) terry blite, 
from the appearance of the fruit which succeeds the 

blithe, a. bllfh (AS. blithe, merry, joyful: Goth. 
bleiths, mild: Dut. blijde, cheerful), gay; merry; joy- 
ous ; sprightly : also in same sense blitheful, a. 
-tool, and blithe'some, a, -sum, mirthful : blithely, 
ad. -II: blithe'ness, n. : blithe'someness, n. : blithe- 
somely, ad. -sum-ll. 

bloat, v. blot (Icel. blautr, soft: Dan. blod; Sw. 
blot, soft), to swell ; to puff up ; to make vain ; to grow 
turgid: bloating, imp.: bloated, pp: bloat'ed- 
ness, n.: bloater, n. small fish partially dried, 
generally applied to half-cured herrings. 
block, n. bldk (F. bloc, a log or mass : Gael, bloc. 

round: Dut. hlok: Ger. block), a heavy piece of timber 
or stone ; any mass of matter ; the lump of wood on 
which persons were beheaded; any hindrance or ob- 
struction ; the piece of wood in which the wheels of a 
pulley run ; a row of houses : v. to shut up; to stop ; to 
obstruct: blocking, imp. : blocked, pp. Mold: block- 
head, n. blok'hed, a stupid fellow; a dull: blockish, 
a. dull; stupid: blocklshly, ad. -li: blocklshness, 
n. : blocklike, a. : block-tin, n. pure tin in stamped 
bars or blocks : adj. noting a vessel made of double 
or triple plates of tinned iron : blockliouse, n. a kind 
of fort chiefly constructed of hewn timber. 

blockade, n. blokkdd' (It, bloccare, to block up: Sp. 
bloquear, to blockade— from block), the surrounding 
or shutting up any place with a sufficient number of 
soldiers or ships, in order to prevent any intercourse 
with its inhabitants : v. to shut up a town or a fortress 
with an army or with ships, to compel it to surrender : 
blockading, imp. : blockaded, pp. : to raise a block- 
ade, to force or drive away the troops or ships from 
their positions. 

blonde, n. blond (F. blond, light yellow, flaxen: 
Pol. blacht, pale), a fair woman, opposed to brunette; 
a kind of silk lace: blond, a. fail-; having a fair com- 

blood, n. bind (AS. blod: Dut. bloed: Ger. blut), the 
fluid which circulates through the veins and arteries 
of animals, essential to life ; kindred ; honourable 
birth or extraction : v. to stain with blood ; to give a 
taste of blood, or to provoke the desire for it; to heat 
or exasperate : blooding, imp. : blood'ed, pp. : blood- 
stained, a. stained with blood; guilty of murder: 
blood'thirsty, a. cruel: bloodshot, a. red; inflamed: 
blood'shed, n. waste of life: blood'shedder, n. one 
who : blood'shedding, n. act of shedding blood : 
blood'sucker, n. any animal that sucks blood, as a 
leech; a cruel man: blood-bought, a. purchased by 
shedding blood : blood-guiltiness, n. crime of shedding 
blood : blood-horse, one of a full or high breed: blood- 
vessel, a vein or artery: bloodstone, a variety of 
chalcedony of a dark green colour, sprinkled with deep 
red spots— also called heliotrope: bloodhot, of the 
same heat as blood : blood-hound, a hound for track- 
ing human beings by scent ; a hunter after human 
blood : blood-money, money obtained as the reward 
for supporting a capital charge: bloody-flux, the 
disease called dysentery, in which the discharges 
Irom the bowels have a mixture of blood: blood- 
spavin, a distemper in horses, consisting of a soft 
swelling growing through the hoof, and usually full 
of blood: bloody-sweat, a sweat accompanied with 
a discharge of blood ; a disease called the sweating 
sickness : flesh and blood, human nature ; mortal 
man : cold blood, free from excitement or passion : 
cold-blooded, a. cool and calculating, used in a bad 
sense ; not having warm blood : hot blood, in a state 
of excitement and blind fury : hot-blooded, a. very 
impulsive; fiery: prince of the blood, one of royal 
descent : bloodless, a. -les, without blood ; lifeless ; 
inactive: bloodlessly, ad. -II: blood'y, a. -I, stained 
with blood; cruel; murderous: bloodily, ad. -idl: 
bloodiness, n. : bloodletter, one who lets blood : 
bloodletting, n. act of one who lets blood. 

bloom, n. bldm (Icel. blomi ; Dut. bloeme; Ger. 
blume, a flower— see blow), blossom; the flower of 
any plant; the beginning of youth or manhood ; life; 
vigour; beauty; bright or blue colour on fruit, as 
on the peach or grape; a clouded appearance which 
varnish sometimes assumes upon the surface of a pic- 
ture ; a whitish waxy secretion produced on the sur- 
face of some leaves and fruits : v. to yield blossoms ; 
to flower; to be in a state of vigour; to have the 
freshness and beauty of early life : blooming, imp. : 
adj., healthful; fresh-coloured: bloomed, pp. bldmd: 
bloomlngly, ad. -li: bloom'ingness, n. : bloom'y, 
a. -i, full of bloom. 

bloom, n. blom (AS. bloma, a mass, a lump), the 
rough mass of iron from the puddling furnace after 
undergoing the first hammering: bloom'ery or -ary, 
n. -'>■!, the furnace in which cast is converted into 
malleable iron: blooming, n. the process of convert- 
ing cast into malleable iron. 

blossom, n. blos'-sum (AS. blosm ; Dan. blusse, to 
blaze: Dut. blosem, a blossom), the flower of any 
plant, especially when it precedes fruit: v. to put 
forth blossoms before the fruit begins to grow : blos- 
soming, imp. : n. the flowering of plants : blos'somed, 
pp. -siund: blos'somy.a. -sum-l, full of blossoms: blos'- 
somless, a. 

nic'ifc, mat, far, late; mCte, met, her; pine, pin; r.Ole, not, move: 




blot, v. blot (Dan. plot, a stain : Fris. blat, bare : Scot. 
blad, a lump of anything soft), to spot or stain with 
ink or any other colouring matter; to destroy; to 
efface ; to defame : n. a spot or stain ; a blemish : 
blot'ting, imp.: blot 'ted, pp.: blot'ter, n. one who, 
or that which : blotting-paper, a soft unsized paper, 
used for drying freshly-written paper by imbibing a 
portion of the ink: blot'ty, a. blot'tl, full of blots. 

blotch, n. block (Ger. plotz, a blow or the sound of 
it— see blot), a scab or eruption on the skin : v. to 
blacken or spot : blotch ing, imp. : blotched, pp. 
bldcht: adj. irregularly disposed in broad patches: 
blotch'y, a. -I. full of blotches. 

blote, v. blot (Sw. biota, to soak, to steep— see 
bloat), to dry by smoke as fish : bio ting, imp. : 
blo'ted, pp. : blo'ter, n. a smoked or dried herring, 
now usually spelt bloater. 

blouse, n. bldfvs (F.), a loose overcoat made of a 
light material ; a smock-frock. 

blow, n. bid (Gr. plege, a stroke : L. plaga, a blow: 
Goth, bliggwan; Dut. bloicen, to strike), a stroke; 
first act of hostility ; a sudden calamity. 

blow, v. bio (AS. blawan, to blow or breathe : Ger. 
blahen, to puff up), to move as air ; to pant or puff ; 
to tlirow or drive a current of air into or upon ; to 
warm by the breath ; to deposit eggs as flies: blow'- 
ing, imp.: blew, pt. bid: blown, pp. blOn: blower, 
n. one who: blowy, a. blo'l, windy: blow-pipe, n. 
•pip, a tube through which a current of air is driven 
on a flame to obtain an increased heat: blow-off- 
pipe, in a steam-engine, the pipe fixed to the bottom 
of a boiler for discharging the sediment : blow'ers, 
n. plu. -erz, in coal-mining, the puffs or jets of car- 
buretted hydrogen given off by fissures in the coal : 
blow-ball, the downy head of the dandelion: blow- 
fly, the carrion-fly: to blow over, to pass away: to 
blow up, to drive up into the air by gunpowder; to 
raise or swell with the breath : to blow out, to extin- 
guish by the wind or by the breath: blowing-house, 
the blast-furnace in which tin-ore is fused : blown 
upon, made stale or disreputable— applied to persons. 

blow, v. bio (AS. blowian, to bloom: Ger. bluhen, 
to bloom or blossom), to come into flower ; to show 
flower : blow'ing, imp. : blown, pp. blon. 

blowze, n. blowz (AS. blysa, a torch : Dut. blose, the 
redness of the cheeks), a girl whose face looks red by 
running much in the open air; a ruddy fat-faced wo- 
man : blowzy, a. blotv'zl, fat and ruddy. 

blubber, n. blub'ber (an imitative word, noting the 
noise made by a mixture of air and water spluttering, 
as the water blubbers up, in the sense of froth), the 
coating of fat of a whale or seal ; the sea-nettle, jelly- 
fish, or medusa : v. to shed tears and slaver ; to weep 
in a noisy manner : blubbering, imp. : adj. slavering 
and childish weeping: blub'bered, pp. -bird: blub - 
berer, n. one who. 

bludgeon, n. bludj'-un (Goth, blyggwan, to strike : 
Gr. plego, I strike : a probable corruption of blood, as 
being able to cause bloodshed), a short heavy stick. 

blue, n. U6 (AS. bleo: old H. Ger. blaiv: F. bleu: 
mid. L. blavus), one of the primary colours ; azure : 
adj. resembling blue ; dejected : v. to make blue : 
bluing, imp.: blued, pp. bl6d: blue'ness, n. : blu- 
ish, a. tinged with blue : blu'ishly, ad. -IX : blu'ish- 
ness, n : biue-pill, n. a pill containing mercury : blue- 
stocking, n. (a literary club chiefly of ladies, so called 
from the leading member, a gentleman, always ap- 
pearing in blue stockings), a woman devoted to "litera- 
ture: blue-stone, n. also called blue-vitriol, sulphate 
of copper, used as a caustic ; blue-shone, an Australian 
miner's term for the basaltic lava through which they 
have sometimes to dig in search of gold : blue-John, 
a miner's term for fluor or Derbyshire spar : blue-bon- 
net (also in Scot, a cap woven of thick blue worsted 
yarn), blue-bell, blue-bottle (also a large fly), names of 
plants : blue-book, a book containing a government 
official return or report, so called from its blue cover: 
blue-breast, a bird : blue-cap, a small bird ; a fish : 
blue-devils, or the blues, bl6z, colloquial name for 
certain appearances presented to the diseased brain 
after a drinking debauch ; lowness of spirits : blue- 
light, a signal-rocket ; blue-peter, a small flag used 
as a signal for sailing : prussian-blue, a colour or dve. 

bluff, n. bliif (Dut. blaf, plain, level, not sloping but 
rising straight up), a high steep bank generally fac- 
ing the sea or a river ; an abrupt manner : adj. 
abruptly rising as a shore; big; vainglorious ; swag- 
gering ; blustering : bluff ly, ad. -II : bluff'ness, n. : 
bluffy, a. Jl, having bold projecting points of land : 

bluff-headed, not pointed ; obtuse— applied to a ship 
that has her stem too straight up : bluff-bowed, ap- 
plied to a vessel having broad and flat bows. 

blunder, n. blun'der (Dan. pludder, earth and 
water mixed together— hence confusion, trouble), a 
gross mistake ; a stupid error : v. to mistake grosslv ; 
to err stupidly ; to act without reflection : blun'der- 
ing, imp.: adj. stupid; floundering: blun'dered, pp. 
■dird: blunderer, n. one who: blunder-head, n. 
-hed, a stupid fellow : blunderingly, ad. -It. 

biun'derbuss, n. -bus (Dut. donder-bus— from bus 
a firearm: Ger. doimer-buchse, thunder-gun), a short, 
wide-mouthed, very noisy hand-gun. 

blunt, a. blunt (Sw. blvtt, naked, bare: Swiss 
bluntsch, the sound of a round heavy body falling into 
the water plump : Ger. plump, rough, heavy, "dull ), 
not sharp; having a thick edge; plain; unceremon- 
ious ; wanting in manners : v. to take away the sharp- 
ness of an edge ; to weaken any appetite or passion ; 
to impair any power or affection of the mind : blunt- 
ing, imp.: blunted, pp.: blunt'ly, ad. -U: blunt - 
ness, n. 

blur, n. blur (Bav. plerren, a blotch on the skin : 
Dut. blaar, a blister), a spot ; a stain : v. to sully or 
stain; to blemish: blur'ring.imp.: blurred, pp. blard. 

blurt, v. blert (Scot, bliit, a burst— as a blirt of 
greeting, i.e., a burst of weeping: Dut. blader, a 
bladder), to throw at random ; to utter words hastily 
and unadvisedly : blurting, imp. : blurt'ed, pp. 

blush, n. blihh (AS. blysa; Icel. blys, a torch: Dan. 
blusse, to blaze : Dut. blosem, a blossom), a glow of red 
on the cheeks or face excited by a sense of modesty, 
shame, or indignation : v. to redden on the cheeks 
or face ; to carry a blooming colour : blushing, imp.: 
adj. showing a blush : blushed, pp. blusfd ■. blush'ingly, 
ad. -II: blushful, a. -fSbl: blush fully, ad. -»: blush'- 
less, a. 

bluster, n. blus'tir (from blast: Bav. blasten, to 
snuff, to be out of temper), noise ; tumult ; irregu- 
lar noise from idle boasting and vainglorious talk ; 
swagger ; fitful gusts of wind : v. to be loud and noisy 
in talking ; to puff ; to bully ; to swagger : blus'tering, 
imp. noisy ; boastful ; windy : blus tered, pp. -terd : 
blus terer, n. one who : blus'teringly, ad. -II. 

boa, n. bo'Ci (It. boa or bora, any filthy mud, a 
venomous serpent that lives in mud : L. boa, from bos 
a cow, because supposed to suck cows), a general 
name for the largest kind of serpents ; a fur cravat 
for the neck: boa-constrictor, n. -kon-strlk'-tor, the 
great boa, a native of Africa, India, &c. 

boar, n. bor (AS. bar: Dut. beer), the male swine ; 
fern., soiv : boar ish, a. like a boar. 

board, n. bord (AS. bord; Dut. berd; Ger. brett, a 
board or plank), a slab, or flat piece of wood sawn 
from a log ; a table ; food or diet ; a council, or meet- 
ing of managers convened for business; the deck of a 
ship : boards, bordz, planks ; the covers of a book ; the 
line over which a ship runs between tack and tack : 
board, v. to cover with flat pieces of wood ; to enter a 
ship by force; to furnish with food and lodging for a 
price : boarding, imp.: boarded, pp. a.: pasteboard, 
layers of paper pasted together to make a board: 
boarder, n. one furnished with food at a price ; one 
who boards a ship in action : board'able, a. -Ct-bl, that 
may be boarded: to fall over-board, to fall over a 
ship's side; the weather-board, the sideofashipwhich 
is to windward : boarding-house, a house in which per- 
sons are provided with lodging and food for a price : 
board-wages, money given to servants when they pro- 
vide food for themselves : boarding-pike, a sword-like 
weapon used by sailors in boarding an enemy's ship : 
to make short boards, to tack frequently : starboard, 
right-hand side : boarding-school, a school where the 
pupils are lodged, educated, and provided with food 
for a price. 

boast, v. bost (Ger. pausten, to swell the cheeks : 
Fris. poesten, to blow), to speak in high praise of self; 
to speak in exulting language of another; to brag ; to 
vaunt : n. a brag ; self-praise or commendation ; occa- 
sion of exultation; exaggerated or ostentatious ex- 
pression ; boast ing, imp. : adj. ostentatious in words ; 
glorying; vaunting: n. the act of boasting: boast'ed, 
pp. : boast'ingly, ad. -II : boast'er, n. one who : 
boast'ful, a. -fo'ol, given to boasting: boast'fully, 
ad. -II: boast 'fulness, n. : boast ing, n. the paring or 
stones by stone-cutters with the broad chisel ; among 
carvers, the rougli cutting round the ornaments, to 
reduce the whole to their proper contour or outlines. 

toat.n. oof (AS. bat: Dut. boot: Icel.bafr-.-F, bateau), 

cole, boy, foot; pure, bv.d; chair, game, jog, shun, iking, (here, zeal. 



a small open vessel : v. to sail in a boat : boating, 
imp. : n. sailing or rowing in a boat: boated, pp. : 
boat-hook, n. a long pole hooked with iron to pull or 
push a boat : boat-shaped, a. in appearance like a 
boat: boatfly, an insect, so called from swimming 
in water on its back: boatswain, n. bo's7i (AS. but- 
swan), a ship's officer who has charge of the boats, 
sails, &c, and calls the crew to duty. 

bob, n. bob ( Gael, babag, a tassel), any small thing 
playing loosely at the end of a string ; a knot of worms 
on a string used in fishing for eels ; a blow : v. to play 
loosely against anything ; to mock ; to dangle ; to fish 
with a bob: bobTnng, imp.: bobbed, pp. bobd: 
bobbin, n. bob-bin (F. bobine, a pin for silk), a round 
pin with a head on which silk or thread is wound ; a 
little knob hanging by a piece of thread : bobbinet, n. 
bob'bl-nef ', a kind of lace wrought in machines: bob- 
stay, n. bob'-sta, a rope used to confine the bowsprit 
to the stem: bobtail, n. bob'tal, a tail cut short; 
the rabble, in contempt— as rag-tag and bob-tail: 
bob'tailed, a. having the tail cut short : bob'wig, n. 
a short wig. 

bode, v. bod {AS. bodian, to deliver a message; bod, 
a message), to foretell; to foreshadow; to portend; 
to be ominous: boding, imp.: bo'ded, pp.: bo'ding 
or bode'ment, n. an omen ; a portent ; a foreshadow- 
ing: bode'ful, a. ominous. 

bodice, n, bod'ls (formerly bodies — from fitting 
closely to the body), stays ; a quilted waistcoat worn 
by females. 

bodkin, n. bod'kln (Bohem. bod, a prick or stitch ; 
bodak, a prickle or point: probably body and kin, a 
little body), an instrument for boring holes in cloth, 
or for tying up and dressing the hair; a large blunt 
needle for drawing thread or tape through hemmed 

body, n. bod'l (AS. bodig; Gael, bodhag, a body: 
Ger. bottich, a cask), the frame of an animal ; a mass 
of living or dead matter ; an individual or single per- 
son, as no body; a substance, as opposed to spirit; a 
collection of individuals ; quality of a material: v. to 
produce in some form: bodied, a. -Id: bodily, ad. -l-ll: 
adj. containing a body; having a material form: 
bodiless, a. : body politic, a state in its national or 
political capacity ; body-guard, a select body of troops 
who attend on a sovereign for his protection. 

bog, n. bog (It. bogach, a bog or marsh : Gael, bog, 
soft), a deep soft marsh ; a tract of land, consisting of 
decayed vegetable matter, rendered soft by water: 
bog-earth, a soil consisting mainly of decomposed 
vegetable matter : bog-butter, a name given to fatty 
masses occasionally found in peat-mosses : bog-iron- 
ore, a stratum or deposit of iron ore found in the 
bottoms of many bogs and peat-mosses : bog-wood, 
the trunks and larger branches of trees dug up from 
peat-bogs : bogtrotter, one who lives among bogs— 
formerly applied to the Scotch border troopers or 
robbers, now sometimes applied to a certain class of 
Irishmen : bog-rush, a bird the size of a wren, inhabit- 
ing the bogs of Sweden : bog-spavin, a tumour in the 
inside of the hough of a horse : boggy, a. bog'gl, full 
of bogs. 

boggle, v. bog'gl (imitative of a stammer or stutter, 
and represented by the syllables gag or gog, bag or 
bog: Bret, gagoula; Port, gaguejar, to stutter: F. 
bngoider, to gabble), to doubt ; to hesitate ; to waver ; 
to make difficulties over a matter: bog'gling, imp.: 
boggled, pp. bog'gld : bog'gler, n. one who : bog'glish, 
a. doubtful. 

bogle or boggle, n. bo'gl (from bo or boo, the cry 
made by a person with his face covered by his hands 
to frighten children: W. bw : It. bau), a bugbear; 
something that terrifies. 

bogy, n. bo'gl (W. bwg, something to frighten: 
Slav, bog, a god), a nursery name for an evil spirit ; 
some goblin in particular: bug applies to goblins in 

bohea, n. b6-he' (from Bouy or Booy, a mountain in 
China), a common black tea. 

boiar, n. bdy'er, more usually spelt boyar, a Russian 
nobleman; a person of rank; a soldier: boiarin, n. 
bdy'e-rin, a gentleman. 

boil, v. boyl (Icel. bulla, to bubble up; bola, a 
bubble: F. bouillir, to boil: Dut. bol, swelling: Ger. 
beule, a tumour, a boil : L. bulla, a bubble), to swell ; 
to heave ; to bubble as water by heat ; to be agitated 
or moved violently by any cause ; to dress or cook in 
water : n. a tumour upon the flesh ; a sore inflamed 
swelling : boiling, imp. : n. the act of bubbling by 

heat ; dressing by hot water : boiled, pp. boyld : boil'- 
ingly, ad. -II: boiler, n. a vessel in which any liquid 
is boiled ; that part of a steam-engine in which the 
steam is generated : boil'ery, n. -er-i, the boiler-house 
in salt-works : boiling-point, n. the degree of heat at 
which water or any other liquid bubbles up : to boil 
over, to run over the vessel with heat, as a liquid. 

boisterous, a. bdys'ter-us (W. bvyst, wild: low Ger. 
buster, wild or fearful), roaring; stormy; tumultuous; 
noisy ; violent : bois'terously, ad. -M: bois'terousness, 

bolary— see bole. 

bold, a. bold (Ger. bald, quick: Dan. bold, intrepid: 
Icel. balldr, strong), daring; courageous; fearless; 
confident ; rude ; steep : bold'ly, ad. -II: bold'ness, n. 

bole, n. bol (W. bol, the belly: Icel. bolr, the trunk 
of a man's body, or of a tree), the body or trunk of a 

bole, n. bol (Gr. bolos, a clod or lump of earth), in 
geol., a term applied to friable clayey earths, usually 
highly coloured by peroxide of iron ; hydrous silicates 
of alumina and iron peroxide ; when the boles become 
soapy in feel, they are known by the name mountain 
soa2> : bolary, a. bo'-lar-l, pert, to bole or clay. 

bolero, n. bo-lar'o (Sp.), a Spanish dance. 

boletus, n. bo-le'tus (L.), a species of fungus: bo- 
letic, n. bo-let'ik, of or from. 

boll, n. bol (Dut. bolle, a head: W. bul, the husk 
that encloses the seed of flax), a measure of two 
bushels; in bot., the pod or capsule of a plant: v. to 
form into a pericarp or seed-vessel : boiling, imp. : 
boiled, pp. bold: boilings, n. plu. bol'llngz, pollard 
trees topped and stript. 

bollards, n. plu. bol'-ldrdz (Icel. bolr, the trunk of a 
tree), large posts set in the ground, at each side of the 
docks, to lash and secure hawsers for docking ships. 

Bolognese-stone, bol'6-nez— Bolo'gnian, bo-16'nl-an, 
of or from Bologna — a ponderous spar, native sul- 
phate of barytes, found in rounded masses near Bo- 

bolster, n. bOl'stcr (AS. bolster: Dut. bult, a hump: 
Sp. bulto, a swelling), a long pillow or cushion for lay- 
ing the head on in bed ; a pad for support ; a quilt ; a 
tool for punching holes and making bolts : v. to sup- 
port ; to hold up : bol'stering, imp. : bol'stered, pp. 
-sterd: bolsterer, n. one who. 

bolt, n. bolt (Ger. bolzen, a cross-bow bolt : Swiss, 
bolz, an upright beam on another: F. boulon, a big- 
headed peg of wood : Dut. bult, a nob or hump), an 
arrow; a dart; a small round bar of wood or metal; 
a stream of lightning ; a meteoric stone : v. to fasten 
with a bolt ; to make secure ; to utter or throw out 
precipitately: bolt'sprit, same as bowsprit, which 
see: bolt-upright, perpendicular; perfectly upright. 

Dolt, v. bolt (Dut. buydel, a small bag: Ger. beuteln, 
to bolt meal— from beutel, a bag: F. bluter, to bolt 
meal), to separate the bran from the flour by shaking 
the mass backwards and forwards in a cloth of loose 
texture : bolting, imp. : bolted, pp. : bolter, n. one 
who: bolt-head, a matrass or receiver; a sifting ap- 
paratus: bolt'ing-hutch, n. -hutch, the bin or tub for 
the bolted meal : bolt'ing-tub, a tub to sift meal in. 

bolus, n. bo'lus (L. bolus, a mass : Gr. bolos, a lump), 
a soft mass of medicine to be swallowed at once like 
a pill, but larger. 

bomb, n. bom (L. bombus, a humming or buzz : F. 
bombe : It. bomba— from an imitation of the noise of 
the explosion), a hollow iron ball filled with gun- 
powder and fitted with a fuse, and fired from a mor- 
tar; a stroke on a bell: bombard, v. bom-bdrd' (F. 
bom barde— from bo7nbe), to throw bomb-shells, &c, 
into a town or fortified place in order to destroy it : 
bombarding, imp. : bombard'ed.pp.: bombard'ment, 
n. : bom'bardier', n. -bdr-der', n. the soldier who at- 
tends the firingof bombs : bomb-ketch or bomb-vessel, 
a strong ship from which bombs can be thrown into a 
town or fortress from sea: bomb-proof, a. a building 
sufficiently strong to resist the explosive force and 
weight of falling bombs. 

bombasine or bombasin, n. bum'-bd-zen' (F. bom- 
basin, a cotton stuff: L. bombycinus, silken : Gr. bom- 
bur, the silk-worm), a twilled cloth of silk, or silk 
and cotton. 

bombast, n. bilm'-bfist (It. bambagia, cotton: Gr. 
bombux, raw silk: Ger. baumbast—irom baum, tree, 
and bast, bark), a soft loose stuff used to swell out gar- 
ments ; an inflated swelling style in speaking or 
writing: bombas'tic, a. -b&s'ilk, high-sounding; big 
and puffing without much meaning : bombas'tical'ly, 

mCtte, mdt.ftir, laTv; mite, mSt, Mr; pine, pin; note, n6t, m6ve; 



ad. -kul'-i: bombic, a. bdm'blk, relating to the silk- 
worm : bombyc'enous, a. -bis'-l-nus, silken ; of or like 
the silk-worm. 

bona-fide, a. bo'nd-fl'de (L. with good faith), with- 
out fraud or deception ; real. 

bonasus, n. bo-nds'us (L. bonasus), an animal of 
the ox kind, having a mane like a horse, found in 
Central Europe ; the bison or aurochs. 

bonbon, n. bong'-bong' (F.), a sweetmeat; a sugar- 

bond, n. bond (AS. bindan, to bind : Ger. band, a 
string: old Dut. bond, a tie), anything that binds, as a 
rope, a chain, &c. ; union ; an obligation ; a vow or 
promise; a written agreement; a government store 
for goods on which the duty remains unpaid: V. to 
place in government storehouses ; to secure ; to give 
bond for : bond ing, imp. : bond'ed, pp. : adj. applied 
to goods left in bond-stores : bonds, plu. bondz, chains ; 
imprisonment; in carp., all the timbers disposed in 
the wall of a house : bond-stores, -storz, n. plu., places 
where goods are stored on which the duty has not been 
paid: bond, a. in a state of servitude or slavery; 
bound— as bondman, bondmaid, bond-servant, bond- 
service, bond-slave: bondage, n. bon'daj, slavery; 
imprisonment: bondsman, n. bondz'-mdn, a slave; 
a surety. 

bone, n. b6n (AS. ban; Ger. bein, the bone of the 
leg: Dut. been; W. bon, a stem or base, the legs being 
the stems or supports of the body), the firm hard sub- 
stance that composes the framework or skeleton of ver- 
tebrate animals ; any part of the skeleton : adj. made 
of bone: v. to stiffen with whalebone; to take out 
bones: boning, imp., sometimes spelt boneing: boned, 
bond, pp.: boneless, a. -lis, without bones : bon'y, a. -I, 
full of bones; stout; strong; consisting of bone; hard 
and brittle : bone-black, n. chaired bones : bone-brown 
or ivory-brown, bone and ivory roasted till they be- 
come of a brown colour throughout: bone-dust, 
ground bones: bone -earth, the earthy or mineral 
part of bones, consisting chiefly of phosphate of lime : 
bone-ache, pain in the bones: bone-bed, thin strata 
or layers found in several places in the earth's crust, 
so called from their containing innumerable frag- 
ments of fossil bones, scales, teeth, coprolites, &c. : 
bone-breccia, an admixture of fragments of limestone 
and bones cemented together into a hard rock by a 
reddish calcareous concretion : bone-lace, flaxen lace : 
bone-spavin, a hard swelling on the inside of the 
hock of a horse's leg: body and bones, altogether ; 
wholly : bone-setter, one who is skilled in the sotting 
of broken bones : bone -setting, n. the restoration of 
a broken bone to its proper place. 

bonfire, n. bon'-fir (Dan. baun, a beacon, andfire), a 
large Are made in the open air as a sign of rejoicing, 
or for display. 

bonito, n. bo-nl'tO (Sp.), a species of tunny-fish, cele- 
brated on account of its pursuit of the flying-fish. 

bon-mot, n. bong'-mO (F. bon, good; mot, a word), a 
jest ; a witty saying or reply. 

bonnet, n. bon'net (F. bonnet: Gael, boineid, a head- 
dress: Ir. boinead, a cap— from beann, the top; eide, 
dress), a covering for the head worn by women ; in 
Scot., a round worsted cap, of a dark -blue colour, 
formerly much worn by men : bon'neted, a. wearing a 
bonnet; in navi., an additional piece of canvass made 
to lace on to the foot of a sail in order to make more 
way in calm weather: bonnette, bon'-nU (F.), in fort., 
a small work with two faces, having only a parapet 
with two rows of palisades: bon'net-a-pre'tre,-cfc-p/u^>- 
(F., priest's cap), a field-work, having at the head 
three salient and two re-entering angles, so called 
from its resemblance to a bishop's mitre: bonnets, 
the cast-iron plates which cover the openings in the 
valve-chambers of a pump. 

bonny, a. bon'-ni (F. bon or bonne, good— from L. 
tonus, good), handsome; beautiful; merry: n. a dis- 
tinct bed of ore which has no communication with a 

bon-ton, n. bong'tong (¥.), the height of fashion. 

bonus, n. bohiiis (L. good), a premium for a loan ; a 
consideration for some service done; an extra divi- 
dend to shareholders ; a division of the profits of an 
assurance office to its policy-holders. 

bonze, n. 60712, plu. bonzes, bon'-zes, a name given by 
Europeans to the heathen priests of Japan, China, &c. 

booby, n. bo'bl (Sp. bobo, foolish: It. babbeo, a sim- 
pleton : F. badaud, a dolt), a dunce; a stupid fellow; 
a pupil at the foot of a form or class ; a water-bird of 
the pelican tribe. 

Boodhism, n. bod'lzm, also spelt Buddhism, n. 
bud'izm, the religion of some Eastern nations who 
worship Boodh, bod, or Buddha, bud'-dd: BoodTiistor 
Buddhist, n. a worshipper of Buddha : adj. pert. to. 

book, n. book (AS. boc: Goth, boka, writing; bokos, 
the Scriptures : Russ. bukva, the alphabet : Ger. buck), 
printed sheets of paper stitched and bound together ; 
a volume or part of a volume ; a division : v. to enter 
or write in a book: booking, imp. registering in a 
book: adj. applied to the office at a railway station 
where the tickets are sold to travellers : booked, pp. 
bobkt, entered in a book as a passenger by rail, coach, or 
steamer : bookless, a. without a book : bookbinder, n. 
one whose trade it is to cover the sewed leaves of a 
book with boards and leather : bookbinding, the art 
or process of covering books with boards, or with 
boards and leather: book-debt, n. money due to a 
tradesman or dealer for work done, or for goods: 
book-keeper, n. an accountant : book-keeping, n. the 
method of entering sales of goods, and all kinds of 
transactions in business, in books in a regular manner : 
book-learning, n. that obtained from books only: 
bookcase, n. a case for holding books : bookseller, n. 
one who deals in books : bookstand or bookstall, n. a 
stand in an open place, or on the street, on which are 
placed books for sale: bookworm, n. an insect de- 
structive to books; one too much given to books: 
book-learned, a. well read in books: without book, 
by memory: bookish, a. -ish, given to reading; ac- 
quainted only with books : book'ishly, ad. -It : book'- 
ishness, n.: book land, n. (AS. bocland), charter land, 
held by deed under certain rents and services. 

boom, n. bom (Dut. boom, a tree or pole : Ger. baum, 
a beam), a long pole or spar used in a ship to stretch 
out any particular sail at the bottom ; a chain, a rope, 
spars, or some other obstacle placed across a river or 
harbour to prevent the entry or approach of hostile 
ships: booms, bdmz, in nav., space in a ship's waist 
set apart for the boats and spare spars. 

boom, v. b6m (Dut. bornmen, to sound like an empty 
barrel when beaten upon), to sound loud and dull 
like a gun; to roll and roar; to rush quickly, as a 
ship through the water : n. a hollow roar, as shot rush- 
ing through the air: booming, imp.: boomed, pp. 

boomerang, n. bdm'er-dng, a curved wooden war- 
club thrown by the natives of Australia with wonder- 
ful precision. 

boon, n. bdn (AS. ben, petition, prayer: Icel. beidne, 
a petition), request ; answer to a prayer or petition ; a 
favour granted ; a free gift. 

boon, n. bon, the woody heart of dried flax. 

boon, a. b6n (L. bonus; F. bon, good), gay; merry, 
as boon companion. 

boor, n. bor (AS. gebure, a peasant: Dut. boer: Ger. 
bauer), a countryman ; a rustic ; a clown ; an ill-man- 
nered, coarse, and ignorant man: boorish, a. rustic; 
awkward and rude in manners: boorishly, ad. -li: 
boorlshness, n. coarseness of manners. 

boose or bouse, v. b6z (see bouse), to drink much 
with others: boosy, a. boz'-l, fuddled; merry: boos'- 
ing, imp.: boosed, pp. b6zd. 

boot, v. bot (AS. botan, to pay the price of: Dut. 
boete, tine, forfeit), to profit ; to do good ; to enrich : n. 
profit ; gain ; advantage : to boot, ad. into the bargain : 
booty, n. -I, plunder; pillage: bootless, a. without 
advantage; not contributing to further the end in 
view: bootlessly, ad. II: boot'lessness, n. 

boot, n. b6t (F. botte, a boot: Dut. bote— same as 
Irish brogue: Sp. bota; It. botta, a hollow skin), a 
covering for the foot and ankle, and sometimes part 
of the leg ; a box for luggage in the fore part of a 
coach: v. to put on boots; to make ready for rid- 
ing: booting, imp.: booted, pp.: boot'jack, n. an 
article for taking off boots: boot-tree, n. a boot- 
last; a block on which boots are stretched : bootee, 
n. b6t-e", a short or half boot: boots, n. plu. bdts, 
an under- servant in a hotel or inn, whose duty it 
is to clean the boots of travellers ; a familiar term 
for the youngest officer at a regimental mess : boot- 
topping, scraping off the adhering matter from a ship's 
bottom, and then daubing it with tallow: boot and 
saddle, the trumpet call which precedes the march of 

bootes, n. bo-o'tez (Gr. or L. bootes, a ploughman), 
the constellation following the Great Bear. 

booth, n. b6th- (Gael, both or bothan, a cottage or 
hut: Icel. bud, a hut: Dut. boed), a house or shed 
built of light materials, as wood or boughs of trees ; a 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




etall at a fair: boothy or bothy, n. both'l, in many 
parts of Scotland, a hut built of whatever materials 
is nearest at hand— wood, turf, or stone— for the ac- 
commodation of unmarried farm-servants. 

booty, n. b6'tl (Sw. byte— from byta, to exchange or 
divide: F. butin ; It. bottino, plunder: Ger. beute, 
booty), spoil gained from the enemy ; plunder ; pillage. 

bo-peep, n. bo'pep (see bogle), children in piny look- 
ing from a place of concealment and drawing back 

borachio, n. b6-rak'kl-6 (Sp. borracha, a bottle, 
usually of a pig's skin, with the hair inside, dressed 
with resin and pitch, to keep wine or liquor sweet), a 
bottle or cask ; a drunkard. 

boracic, a. bo-rds'lk (see borax), of or from borax: 
boracic acid, a compound of boron and oxygen : bor- 
acite.n. bor'd-slt, an anhydrous compound of magnesia 
and boracic acid: borate, n. bO'rdt, a salt of boracic 

borage, n. bo'ruj (new L. borago, a corruption of 
corago— from L. cor, the heart, and ago, I bring), a 
plant used in the belief that it strengthened or ex- 
hilarated the heart. 

borax, n. bo'rdks (Ar. baurac, a species of nitre : 
F. borax: Sp. borrax), a salt in appearance like crys- 
tals of alum, found in Japan, Italy, and Peru, used 
in soldering metals— a compound of boracic acid and 

borborygmus, n. bSr'bdr-ig'mus (Gr. borborudzo, I 
produce a rumbling in the bowels), the gurgling noise 
produced by the movement of wind in the intestines. 

borcer, n. bor'ser (from bore), an instrument for bor- 
ing holes in large rocks in order to blow them up. 

bord, n. bord, a miner's term for the face of coal 
parallel to the natural fissures. 

Borda's circle, bor'ddz-ser'-kl, a repeating 1 reflecting 
circle, invented by J. C. Borda, an eminent French sur- 
veyor, who died 1799. 

border, n. bawr'dir (F. bordure, border, welt : AS. 
and Icel. bord), the outer edge or part of anything ; the 
surrounding line or limits of a large or small tract 
of land : v. to be near to ; to reach to ; to adjoin ; to 
adorn with a border ; to ornament ; to limit : bor'der- 
ing, imp.: bor'dered, pp. -derd: bor'derer, n. one who 
dwells at or near the boundary of a country. 

bore, v. bor (Ger. bohren; Icel. bora; L. for are, to 
bore: Fin. purra, to bite), to make ahole inahardbody 
with some tool ; to perforate ; to pierce ; to annoy by 
repeated applications : n. the hole made by piercing or 
boring with a tool ; the cavity or hollow in anything, 
as in a gun-barrel ; a person or thing that annoys : 
bo'ring, imp.: n. the operation of piercing holes; a 
perforation: bored, pp. bord: bo'rer, n. one who, or 
that which : boredom, n. bor'-dwn, realm or domain 
of bores. 

bore, n. bor (a word imitative of the sound produced : 
F. bar re: Icel. bara; Norm, baara, a wave or swell: 
variously expressed in Eng. by aigre, eagre, or hygre), 
the advancing front of the tidal wave as it ascends 
certain rivers or estuaries, especially at a spring tide. 

boreal, a. bo're-dl (L. boreal, the north wind : Russ. 
borei), northern ; pert, to the north, or to the north 

borecole, n. bdr'kol, or curled colewort, a hardy 
species of kale. 

boree, n. bo'-ri, an Irish dance. 

born, pp. bawrn— see bear, to bring forth: born 
again, having received spiritual life. 

borne, pp. born— see bear, to cany. 

boron, n. bo'ron (from the root bor in borax), in 
chem., one of the elementary substances, the base of 
boracic acid: boruret, n. bor'-oor-et' , a combination of 
boron with a simple body. 

borough, n. bur'o (AS. burg, a city: Icel. borg ; It. 
borgo; F. bourg, a town— from Goth, bairgan; AS. 
beorgan, to protect), a corporate town ; a town which 
sends a burgess to Parliament: borough- English, a 
customary descent of lands to the youngest son : bor- 
oughmonger, one who traffics in the patronage of 
parliamentary boroughs. 

borrow, v. bor'rO (AS. borg or borh, a surety, a loan 
— from AS. beorgan, to protect), to solicit from another 
on loan ; to receive on credit for a time ; to imitate ; 
to copy: bor'rowing, imp.: borrowed, pp. -rod: bor- 
rower, n. -er, one who. 

bort, n. bOrt, or boort, n. bSbrt, a kind of impure 
diamond imported from Brazil, used for polishing 
other stones. 

boscage, n. bos'kaj (oldF. boscage; It. bosco, a wood), 

underwood ; a thicket ; a landscape in which thickets 
are painted: bosket or bosquet, n. bos'ket, a grove; 
a bower : bos'ky, a. -ki, wooded ; shady. 

bosh, n. bosh (Turk, bosh, empty, vain: Scot, boss, 
hollow, empty), silly nonsense. 

bosom, n. bubz'um (AS. bosum, bosom: Ger. busen), 
the breast of a human being and the parts adjacent ; 
the clothes about the breast; the seat of t lie passions ; 
embrace; retreat; asylum: adj. intimate: dear; con- 
fidential: v. to conceal; to cherish; to preserve with 
care: bos'oming, imp.: bos'omed, pp. -umd. 

Bosporus, n. b6s'2>0-rus, also spelt Bosphorus (L. 
—from Gr. bosporos, the heifer's ford : from Gr. bous, 
heifer, and poros, a ford), a narrow sea; a strait: 
Bospo'rian, a. -rl-iln, pert. to. 

boss, ii. bos (F. bosse, a bunch: Dut. busse, knob of 
a buckler: Ger. bausch, a projection: Scot, boss, hol- 
low), something raised from the surface ; a protuber- 
ance ; a stud or knob ; in geol., a rounded mass of rock 
that has resisted denudation, or a sudden protrusion 
of trap or other igneous rock ; a short trough for hold- 
ingmortar when tiling a roof : bossed, a. host, studded: 
in bot., having a rounded surface with a projecting 
point in the centre: bossy, a. bos'sl, raised: bos'ses, 
n. plu. -ez, projecting ornaments used in arch, in vari- 
ous situations. 

botany, n. botklnl (Gr. botane, herbage— from bos- 
kein, to feed, to graze), that branch of natural history 
which treats of plants, their structure, functions, pro- 
perties, and habits, by which they are distinguished 
from each other: botanic, a. bo-tdn'-lk, also botan'- 
ical, a. -l-kal, relating to plants in general: botan'- 
ically, ad. -ll: botanist, n. bot'a-nlst, one skilled in 
the nature and structure of plants : bot'anise , v. -nlz , 
to seek for plants for the purpose of study: botani'- 
sing, imp. a. : bot'anised, pp. -nizd. 

botch, n. boch (It. bozza, a swelling: Dut. botse, a 
lump or boil: Gael. boc, a blow, a pimple), a red 
swelling on the skin, particularly the face; a blotch; 
work ill done : v. to mend or patch clumsily : botch'- 
ing, imp.: botched, pp. bocht :botchy, a.boch'l. marked 
with botches: botch'er, n. one who: botch ery, n. 
■er-l , clumsy addition ; patchwork. 

bot-fly— see bots. 

both, adj. conj. both (AS. butu or batwa: Icel. 
badir: Sans, ubhau: Ger. beide), the one and the 
other; the two; as well. 

bother, n. bofh'er (Gael, both, perturbation), fuss ; 
bustle ; confusion : v. to annoy ; to tease ; to perplex : 
both'ering, imp. : both'ered, pp. -erd: both/era tion, 
n. -d'shun. 

bothrodendron, n. both'ro-dhi'-dron (Gr. bothros, a 
pit or cavity; dendron, a tree), in geol., a genus of 
coal-measure stems with dotted surfaces, and with 
opposite rows of deep oval concavities. 

bothy— see booth. 

bo-tree, n. bo'tre, in India, the sacred tree of the 
Buddhists, planted close to every temple. 

botryoidal, a. bot'rl-oy'ddU (Gr. botrus, a bunch of 
grapes; eidos, shape), resembling a cluster of grapes. 

bots, n. or botts, bots (Gael, boiteag, a maggot; 
bouds, maggots in barley), a disease of horses caused 
by small worms hatched in their intestines from the 
larvae of the bot-fly : bott, n. bot, a belly- worm, espe- 
cially in horses. 

bottel, n. bdt'l (F. bofel, diminutive of botte, a 
bunch or bundle: Gael, boiteal), a bundle of hay. 

bottle, n. bot'l (F. bouteille, a bottle, a bubble— from 
botte, a bunch : It. bottiglia), a vessel with a narrow 
neck for holding liquids': v. to shut up into a bottle: 
bot'tling, imp. -tttng: bot'tled.pp. -tld: bottle-head, 
a sort of whale: bottle-nosed, with a nose full and 
swollen at the end : bottle-holder, one who adminis- 
ters refreshment to a combatant; a backer; a second 
—usually in a prize-fight. 

bottom, n. bot' torn (AS. botm; Dut. bodem ; Ger. 
boden; Icel. botn, the lowest part), the lowest part of 
anything; the foundation or base; that on which 
anything rests; the deepest part of a subject; the 
lowest part of a declivity ; the end ; natural strength ; 
a ship : v. to found or build upon ; to rest upon as a 
support: bot'toming, imp.: bottomed, pp. -tffmd: 
bot'tomless, a. without a bottom ; very deep : at bot- 
tom, in reality: on one's own bottom, independent 
or independently : bot'tomry, n. -rl, money borrowed 
on the security of the bottom of a ship— that is, of the 
ship itself: bot'toms, n. plu. the deepest working 
parts of a mine. 

bottom, n. bot'tom (W. botwm, a button— from 

mdtc, mdt, far, law; mete, met, Mr; pine, pin; note, n6t, mCve; 




bof, a round body), a ball of thread wound up; a 

bouch, v. bobsh (F. boriche, mouth, entrance), to drill 
a new vent in a gun which has been spiked : n. the 
piece sloped out of the upper part of a shield of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to allow the lance 
free motion : bouch'ing, imp: bouched, pp. buosht. 

boudoir, n. bood'wor (F.), a private apartment ; a 
lady's dressing-room. 

bough, n. bdio (AS. bog— from bugan, to bend), a 
branch or arm of a tree. 

bought, baTct, pt. of buy, which see. 

bougie, n. bo'zhe (F.), a long slender instrument, 
made of elastic gum, wax, or metal, for removing ob- 
structions in the bladder ; a wax-taper. 

bouilli, n. bdl-ye, (F.— from bouillir, to boil), meat 
boiled or stewed with vegetables : bouillon, n. 667' 
yong, soup ; broth ; a disease in horses, consisting of a 
fleshy excrescence on the heel. 

boulders, n. plu. bol'dirz (Dut. bolle, a globe or 
sphere: F. boule, a ball or sphere of wood, metal, 
&c. : Icel. loir, the round trunk of a tree: L. bulla, 
any small round body), in geol., the rounded or 
water-worn blocks of stone found imbedded in the 
clays and gravels of the drift formation ; the rounded 
stones found on the surface of the earth, or on the sea- 
shore : boulder-clay, in geol., the clays of the glacial 
or drift epoch, distinguished by the numerous boul- 
ders and pebbles found among them. 

boult, v.— see bolt. 

bounce, n. bdivns (Dut. bonzen, to knock— from 
b07is, a blow), the rebound of a heavy blow or thump ; 
a sudden fall ; a loud sound ; an untruthful boast : v. to 
leap, rush, or spring out suddenly ; to boast boldly ; 
to lie; to bully: bouncing, imp.: adj. large; heavy; 
stout and active: bounced, pp. bciicnst: boun'cer, n. 
■sir, a bully ; a bold boaster ; a liar : boun'cingly, ad. 

bound, bdivnd, pt. and pp. of bind, which see; 
confined or restrained — as wind-bound, ice-bound; 
obliged by moral ties. 

bound, a. bdtcnd (Icel. buinn, prepared, ready— from 
bua, to prepare, to set out), destined ; going, or ready- 
to go to. 

bound, n. bdwnd (F. borne, a limit: mid. L. bodina, 
a limit or march), a limit ; a boundary : v. to limit ; 
to restrain or confine: bounding, imp. : bound'ed, 
pp. : boundless, a. without limits : bound lessly, ad. 
-li: boundlessness, n. : boundary, n. bo7cu'dir-i, the 
bounds, or what marks the bounds ; a limit. 

bound, v. bownd (F. bondir, to spring or leap), to 
spring or leap ; to move forward by leaps or jumps : 
n. a leap ; a spring ; a rebound : bound ing, imp. : 
bound'ed, pp. 

bounden, a. bdtcn'den (from bind), morally impera- 
tive; obligatory. 

bounty, n. bdicn'tl (F. bonfe, goodness: L. bonitas 
—from bonus, good : It. bonitate), liberality in giving ; 
kind favours ; anything given over and above what 
is due; a premium: boun'teous, a. bdicn'tl-us, liberal 
and generous ; very kind in bestowing favours : boun- 
teously, ad. -II: boun teousness, n. : bountiful, a. 
bdivri-ti-foiA, liberal in bestowing gifts and favours: 
bountifully, ad. -It: boun'tifulness, n. 

bouquet, n. bo'-kd (F.), a bunch of flowers; a nose- 
bourdon, n. bdr'dong (F. : It. bordone, a staff, a 
prop), the tall walking-staff used by pilgrims in the 
middle ages. 

bourgeois, n. bfir-jdys' (F.), a kind of printing-type 
in size between longp rimer and brevier: b&rzh-wa', 
in France, the middle order of inhabitants in towns, 
as distinguished from the nobility and gentry. 

bourgeon, v. bdbr'jon, (F. bourgeon, the young bud 
or sprout of a vine: Norm. F. bourgeonner, to bud), to 
sprout ; to put forth buds ; to shoot into branches : 
bourgeoning, imp. : bour'geoned, pp. -jond. 

bourn, n. bom (F. borne, a limit), bounds ; limits ; 

bournonite, n. bobr'-nd-nlt (after Count Bournon), a 
mineral of a steel-grey colour— known also as endel- 

bourrans, n. boor'-dnz (Russ. borei, the N. wind), the 
name given to the fierce snow-storms that blow from 
the north-east over the steppes of Russia. 

bouse, v. boz (Dut. buysen, to drink largely— from 
buyse, a large two-handed flagon), to drink intoxicants 
deeply ; to guzzle : bousing, imp. : boused, pp. : 
bous'y, a. -J— see boose. 

bourse, n. bors (F.), place where merchants meet; 
the exchangein towns, particularly in Paris. 

bout, n. bcavt (Dan. bugt, a bend, a turn), as much 
as can be done at one turn ; an attempt ; a drinking - 
niatch ; a debauch. 

bovine, a. bo'-vln (L. bos, an ox— gen. Sorts), pert, to 
animals of the ox kind: boviform, bov'-ifawrm (L. 
forma, shape), resembling the ox. 

bow, v. bole (AS. beogan; Icel. buga; Goth, biugan, 
to bend), to bend; to bend the body in token of re- 
spect; to crush; to depress; to stoop: n. an act of 
respect by bending the body, or by inclining the head : 
bowing, imp. : bowed, pp. bdk-d. 

bow, n. bo (Ger. bogen, a curve* Dan. bug, belly, 
bow of a ship : W. bog. a swell, a rising up), an instru- 
ment for shooting arrows with ; a name given to vari- 
ous instruments ; the curved doubling of a ribbon or 
string in a slip-knot : adj. anything curved or arched, 
as a bow-window, bow or bows, boiv or bcncz, the 
rounding fore part of a ship : bow-compass, 60- a 
beam of wood or brass, with three long screws, that 
bend a lath of wood or steel to any arch : bow-shot, 
n. bo- the space over which an arrow may pass when 
shot from a bow ; a place not far distant : bow- 
sprit, n. bo'-sprit, or boltsprit {bow, and Dut. spriet, 
properly a piece of cleft wood, the yard of a sail), a pole 
or spar that projects outwards from the stem or head 
of a ship : bow-window, n. bo- a bay-window, which 
see: bowstring, n. string of a bow; a string or cord 
vised by the Turks in putting criminals to "death by 
strangling them : bow-grace, n. bow'grOs, a frame of 
old rope or junk placed round the bows and sides of a 
vessel to prevent injury from ice: bowline, n. bdtc'lin, 
also spelt bowling or bolin, in nav., a rope fastened 
near the middle or perpendicular side of a square sail 
leading towards the bow, to enable the ship to keepnear 
the wind : bow'net, n. bote- an engine made of wicker- 
work for catching lobsters, crawfish, &c. : bow leg- 
ged, a. 66- having crooked legs: bowman, n. bote- 
man, the man who rows the foremost oar in a boat : 
bo'-mdn. an archer: bow-saw, b6-sdu),& flexible saw 
for cutting curves. 

bowels, n. plu. bow'elz (It. budello; old F. boel ; 
mid L. botellus, a gut, one of the intestines: Bret. 
bouda, to hum, to murmur), entrails ; intestines ; ten- 
derness; pity; compassion — among surgeons, used often 
in the singular, bowel : bow'el, v. to take out the en- 
trails : bow'elling, imp. : bow'elled, pp. -eld, hav- 
ing bowels or a belly; bow'elless, a. without tender- 
ness or pity. 

bower, n. bdTcr (Icel. bur, a separate apartment : 
AS. bur, a chamber : W. bwr, an inclosure), in a gar- 
den, a place covered with trees bent and entwined ; a 
shady retreat ; a cottage covered with creeping plan ts : 
bowery, a. bciic-ri, shady; containing bowers: bow- 
er-anchor (Dut. boeganker— from boeg, a bow), the 
second anchor in size in a ship: bow'ered, a. -erd, 
supplied with bowers. 

bowie-knife, n. bo'l-nif, a long knife or short sword 
used in North America by hunters and others. 

bowl, n. bol (F. boule, a wooden ball, a drink- 
ing vessel: Icel. bolla, a bubble; bolli, a tea-cup), a 
circular hollow vessel ; a basin ; a fountain ; a wooden 
ball or large marble, used for play on a level plat of 
ground or in the room of a house: v. to mil as a 
bowl; to play at bowls : bowling, imp.: bowled, pp. 
bold: bowler, n. one who: bowling-green n. or 
bow ling-alley, n. a place for playing at bowls. 

bows, u. plu. bdicz (from bow, anything bent or 
rounded ; Ger. bogen, a curve), the two sides of the 
fore part of a ship : bowse, v. bdivz, among seamen, to 
pull or haul hard : bowsing, imp. : bowsed, pp. 
boivzd: bowse away, to pull altogether. 

box, n. boks (AS. box; Gr. puxis; Ger. buchse, a 
box: Gr.puxos; L. buxus, a box-tree), a case or hol- 
low vessel of any size and shape, and made of any 
material ; a seat separated from others ; a shrub hav- 
ing a fine close-grained wood: v. to enclose: boxen, 
a. bok'-sn, made of boxwood : boxing the compass, re- 
peating the points of the compass in any order: in 
the wrong box, mistaken: box of a coach (Ger. bock, 
a buck or he goat, then a trestle or support upon 
which anything rests), the driver's seat on a carriage. 

box, v. boks (Dan. 6osA\ a sounding blow ; baske, to 
slap), to fight with the fists or with clenched hands ; 
to strike: n. a blow with the fists or clenched hands : 
boxing, imp. : n. the act of fighting with the fists : 
boxed, pp. bokst: box'er, n. one who. 

boy, n. boy (Ger. bube; Swiss, bub; L. pupus; It. 

cow, bo~j,f%jt; pure, lud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, ikere, zeal. 




putto, a boy: It. puppa, a child's baby), a male child; 
a young lid; a familiar name for a man; applied 
to a man in contempt to Indicate some defect: boy- 
hood, n. -hdbd: boy ish, a. -ish, tike a boy: boyishly, 
ad. -/!.• boyishness, n. manners or appearance of a 
boy: boy's play, amusement of a boy, as opposed to 
th>' earnest business of a man. 

boyar, n. botf^r, a Russian nobleman. 

boyau, bin/'o, pin. boyaux (F.). in fort, a ditch 
covered with a parapet, serving as a communication 
between two trenches. 

brace, n. bras, (containing the idea of straining, com- 
pressing, or confining: F. bras, the arm, strength : it. 
hraca, a rope resisting a strain : so brake), that which 
holds anything tight or supports anything; a couple 
or pair; a crooked mark in printing; browsers' sup- 
porter: v. to hind; to support; to strengthen: bra- 
cing, imp. : adj. giving strength or tone: braced, pp. 

bracelet, n. brds'lft (F. brasselef, a bracelet: Sp. 
braeil, armour for the arm— from F. bras, the arm), 
an ornamental band for the wrist. 

brachial, a. brd'ki-dl (L. brachium, the arm: Gr. 
brachion: It. braccio), of or pert, to the arm: bra - 
chiate, a. -kl-dt, in bat., having opposite pairs of 
branches placed at right angles to each other: brach- 
iolites, n. plu. brdk'-ho llts (Gr. lithos, a stone), a fossil 
zoophyte presenting a puckered or folded fungiform 
appearance, and furnished with lateral processes: 
brach'iop oda, n. plu. -op'-o-dd, also brach'iopods, 
-pods (Gr. pons, a foot — gen. podos), an order of mol- 
luscs with one shell on the back and another in front, 
and having two long spiral ciliated arms developed 
from the sides of the mouth. 

brachy, a. brdk'-HGr. braehus, short), a word fre- 
quently made use of in scientific compounds as a 
prefix, and signifying short: brachypterous, a. 
brd-kip'-ttr-iis (Gr. ptcron, awing): brachycephalic, 
a. brdk'l-sS-fdl'lk (Gr. kephale, the head), short- 
headed— applied to the form of the head in animals : 
brachyphyllum, n. brdk'l-fll'lum (Gr. phullon, a 
leaf), a coniferous-looking fossil plant occurring in 
terminal twigs and branches, and having short, ovate, 
ribless, and scale-like leaves: brachyuros, a. brdk'- 
l-6'ros (Gr. oura, a tail), short-tailed : brachygraphy, 
ri. brdklg'rd/l (Gr. grapho, I write), art or practice of 
writing in a short compass : brachyg'rapher, n. one 
who: brachylogy, n. brdkll'djl (Gr. logos, a word or 
term), conciseness of expression. 

bracken, n. or a. brak'Sn (W. bruk, heath: Icel. 
brok, sedge— see brake), ferns. 

bracket, n. brdk'-dt (F. brague, a mortise for holding 
things together: Piedm. braga, an iron for binding 
anything together— see brace), a piece of wood or 
metal placed for supporting anything, generally 
against a wall ; crooked lines used in printing— thus, 
[] — to mark off or isolate a part of the text of a 
book: v. to place within brackets: brack'eting, 
bracketed, pp. 

brackish, a, brdk'ish (It. braco, a puddle : old F. 
brae, mud : Dut. brack, refuse, damaged), not quite 
fresh ; salt in a small degree : brack'ishness, n. 

bracts, n. plu. brdkts (L. bractea, a thin leaf of 
metal), in bot., the leaves, more or less modified in 
form, which are seated on the peduncles: bracteate, 
a. brnk'-tt-at, having bracts: bracteole, n. -thol, or 
bracktlet, n. brdkt'-Ut, a small bract seated on the 

brad, n. brdd (Dan. braad, a goad ; bred, an edge : 
Sw. bradd, an edge), a nail with little or no head. 

brag, n. brdg (F. braguer, to flaunt: Icel. braka; 
Dan. brag, a crack, a crash: Gael, bragh, a burst or 
explosion), aboast ; proud expressions ; thing boasted : 
V. to boast ; to speak highly of one's self in regard to 
anything: bragging, imp.: bragged, pp. brdgd .- 
brag'ger.n. one who: braggart, a. brda'-adrt, boastful ; 
n. a vain boasting person: brag'ga'rtism, n. -fizm, 
boastfulness : braggadocio, n. brdg'-qd-d6'-s>il-6 (It.), a 
puffing boasting fellow ; a swaggerer. 

bragget, n. brdg'-gft (W. brag, malt— from bragio, 
to sprout), sweet- wort; a liquor made from ale-wort 
and mead. 

Brahma, n. bra-md (Indian Brahman), the Creator, 
the chief person of the Hindoo Trinity : Brahmanic, 
a. brd-mdn'tk, relating to the Brahmans: Brahmin, 
n. bra'-min, an Indian of the highest or priestly caste: 
Brahm'inism, n. -Izm, the religion of the Brahmins: 
Brahmin'ical, a. -l-kdl, relating to the office or char- 
acter of a Bralunin. 

mate, mat, far, law; mite, mSt, 

braid, n. brdd (AS. bredan, to weave: Icel. breada, 
to weave nets), flat cord; trimming; a band of hair 
formed by plaiting three or more folds together: v. to 
weave or plait: braiding, imp. : braided, pp.: adj. 
edged with plaits or knots. 

brails, n. plu. bra!: (F. braies, breeches, drawers: 
F. braiUer—trom desbraUier, to tie up), in a ship, 
small ropes used to truss up sails. 

brain, n. bran (AS. braegen: Dut. brsghe), a soft 
whitish mass inclosed in the skull of man or animals, 
in which the spinal marrow and all the nerves termi- 
nate; the understanding; imagination: v. to kill by 
dashing out the brains: brain ing, imp. : brained, pp. 
brand: brain-pan, the skull containing the brains: 
brain-sick, a disease in the understanding; giddy; 
addle-headed: brainless, a. without understanding: 
brain ish, a. hot-headed : no brains, no understanding ; 

braird, n. brard (AS. brord, a prick or point, the 
first blade or spire of grass or corn), in agi-i., the first 
appearance of a crop after the seed has been sown. 

brait, n. brat (prov. F. braed, to rub or grind down), 
a rough diamond. 

brake, n. brOk (Gael, brae; L. brachium, the arm, as 
the type of exertion and strength : Icel. braka, to sub- 
due: It. braca, a horse's twitch: AS. bracan, to pound 
or knead: Dan. brage, to break flax), a skeleton car- 
riage for training horses ; a large heavy harrow for 
breaking clods ; a kneading-trough ; an instrument for 
checking the motion of a wheel— also spelt break; 
an inclosure for cattle ; a bit for horses ; a wooden 
frame for confining the feet of vicious horses in shoe- 
ing : brake-man, n. one who manages a brake of a car- 
riage : brake-van, n. in railway trains, a carriage fur- 
nished with powerful brakes. 

brake, n. brdk (Dut. b7-oeck, a fen or marsh: Ger. 
bruch, a wood in a marshy place: old F. broil, copse- 
wood, cover for game), broken ground covered with 
a tangled growth of bushes: brak'y, a. -I, rough; 
thorny; prickly. 

brake, n. brdk, or bracken, n. brdk'S?i (connected 
with last as the natural growth of waste places: W. 
bruk, heath: Icel. brok, sedge: Dan. bregne, bracken 
or fern), fern. 

bramble, n. brdm'bl (AS. bremel or brembel; Dut. 
braeme, bramble: Swiss, brom, a bud: It. bromboli, 
cabbage-sprouts), a creeping shrub, very rough and 
prickly, producing a black berry like the raspberry: 
bram'bled, a. -bid: bram'bly.a. -bli, full of brambles. 

bran, n. bran (Bret, brenn; W. bran; It. brenna; 
F. bran— from F. bren, excrement, ordure), the husks 
or shells from ground wheat ; the husks of any grain : 
branny, a. -nl. 

bran-new (a corruption of brand-new), bright as a 
firebrand, or fresh like a trade-mark. 

branch, n. bransh (Bret, brank; It. branco; F.branche, 
the branch of a tree : It. branca, the fang or claw of a 
beast), the shoot of a tree or plant ; an arm : any part 
of a body or system ; a descendant from a common 
parent: v. to divide into parts; to spread out: 
branching, imp.: branched, pp. bransht; branch '- 
less, a. : branchy, a. -!, full of branches : branch iness, 
n. : branch'let, n. a little branch: root and branch, 
wholly; totally. 

branchiae, n. plu. brdng'kl-6 (Gr. brangchia, the 
gills of a fish), the gills or breathing organs of animals 
living entirely in water : bran'chial, a. -kl-dl, relating 
to the gills of fishes: bran'chiopods, n. plu. -kid- 
podz (Gr.;>o»*-a-foot— gen. podos), crustacean animals 
having gills attached to the feet : bran'chiop'odous. a. 
-dp'-d-dus, gill-footed : bran'chios'tegal, a. -kl-os'td-gdl, 
also brang chios'tegous, a. -te-giis (Gr. stego, I cover), 
gill covering— applied to certain bones or bent rays 
which support the membrane covering and protecting 
the gills of fishes. 

brand, n. brand (Icel. brandr ; Ger. brand, a fire- 
brand: It. brandojw, a large piece of anything: F. 
brandon, a stake), a burning piece of wood ; a sword ; 
a mark made by pressing a hot iron mould, as on a 
barrel; a trade-mark; a mark of infamy; a stigma: 
v. to burn or mark anything with an iron mould red- 
hot ; to fix a mark of 'infamy on any one ; to stigma- 
tise : brand ing, imp. : branded, pp. : brand'-iron or 
branding-iron, n. an iron mould to brand with : brand- 
new— see bran: brandling, n. brdnd'lUig, a red worm 
used by anglers ; a fish : branlin, n. brdn'lln, a fish of 
the salmon kind. 

brandish, v. brdn'dlsh (F. brand ir, to make a thing 
shake by the force it is cast with : Manx, brans, dash : 

Tier; pine, pin; ?iOte, ndt, m6ve; 



old F. bransler, to shake), to move up and down ; to 
shake as a spear or stick; to wave or nourish: bran- 
dishing, imp.: brandished, pp. brdn'-dlsht: bran- 
disher, n. one who. 

brandy, n. brdn'dl (formerly brandy-xoine : Ger. 
brannticein, burnt -wine: Dut. brandwijn), spirit 
distilled from wine; any strong spirit from other sub- 
stances: bran'died, a. -did, strengthened with brand}'. 

brangle, n. brdng'gl (F. braider, to shake: It. 
branla, a French brawl), a squabble ; a wrangle ; con- 
fusion : v. to wrangle : bran'gling, imp. : bran'gled, 
pp. -gld. 

brank, n. brdngk (L. brance, a Gallic name for a 
certain bread-corn), buckwheat. 

branny, a. brdn'nl— see bran. 

brash, n. brash (from brush : Sp. broza, chips : 
Gael, bruis, splinters: F. brosse, bushy ground), a 
name, in many parts of England, applied to a mass of 
broken and angular fragments derived from the sub- 
jacent rocks; broken fragments; refuse; boughs of 
trees ; a rush or eruption : water-brash— see water. 

brasier, n. brd'zl-ir (F- braise, embers — see brazil- 
wood), pan for holding burning coals ; one who works 
in brass— better spelt brazier : brasil, n. brd'-zll, a 

brass, n. brds (AS. braes, from being used in solder- 
ing: Icel. bras, solder: It. bronze, burning coals; 
bronzo, brass), a compound of copper and zinc of a 
yellow colour ; impudence: brasses, n. plu. -s6z, slabs 
or plates of brass on tombstones or monuments having 
engraved or raised figures on them, much used in the 
middle ages : brassing, a. coating with brass : brassy, 
a. -si, made of brass ; like brass: bras'siness, a. -sl-nes: 
brass-band, an instrumental band. 

brat, n. brdt (AS. brat, a cloak, a clout : W. brat, a 
rag : Gael, brat, a mantle), a name given in reproach 
to a child. 

brattice, n. brdt'tts (Ger. brett; Dut. berd, a plank 
or board : Scot, brettys, a fortification : It. bertesca, a 
kind of rampart), a fence or wall of boards in a coal- 
mine, or round dangerous machinery; also spelt 
brettice, bretage. 

braunite, n. brdicn'U (in honour of M. Braun of 
Gotha), an abundant ore of manganese. 

bravado, n. brd-vd'do (Sp. bravada— see brave), a 
boast or brag ; a menacing display meant to frighten. 

brave, a. brav (F. brave, brave, gay : It. bravare; F. 
braver, to swagger, to affront : Sp. bravo, bullying — 
see brag), bold ; daring ; courageous ; gallant : brave- 
ly, ad. II: bravery, n. brd'ver-l, courage; heroism; 
fearlessness of danger : brave, n. a man daring beyond 
discretion ; an Indian warrior: v. to defy; to challenge ; 
to encounter with courage: bra'ving, imp.: braved, 
pp. brdvd. 

bravo, int. brd'vO (It., Sp.) well done: n. an as- 
sassin ; a murderer for hire. 

bravura, n. brd-vo'rd (Sp. courage, brag), a song 
difficult to sing : adj. difficult ; brilliant. 

brawl, u. brawl (F. brailler, to cry often : Dan. bralle, 
to talk much and high: Gael, braodhlach, noise, dis- 
cord), a noisy quarrel ; uproar : v. to quarrel noisily ; 
to make an uproar : brawl'ing, imp.: adj. noisy; quar- 
relsome: brawl'ingly, ad. -ft: brawled, pp. brawld: 
brawler, n. one who. 

brawn, n. brawn (It. brano, a piece of flesh violently 
pulled away from the whole: old H. Ger. brdto; Fris. 
braede, a lump of flesh: old F. braion, muscular parts 
of the body), the flesh of a boar prepared in a particu- 
lar manner ; the muscular part of the body ; the arm : 
brawn y, a. -I, or brawned, a. braivnd, muscular ; 
hard ; bulky : brawn'er, n. a boar killed and dressed 
for the table: brawn iness, n. 

braxy, n. brdk'sl, a disease among sheep— also called 
dysentery or gall-scour; the mutton of animals so 

bray, n. bra (F. braire, to cry like an ass : Gr. bracho, 
to crash, to roar : Icel. brak, crash, noise : Dan. brage, 
to crash), the cry of an ass ; any similar loud 
harsh sound: v. to make a loud harsh noise like an 
ass : braying, imp. : brayed, pp. brad : bray er, n. 
one who. 

bray, v. bra (Sp. bregar, to work up paste or dough : 
T.broyer; Bret, braea, to bray in a mortar: W. breuan, 
a mill), to rub or grind down in a mortar; to pound ; 
to grind small : braying, imp. : brayed, pp. brad. . 

braze, v. braz (F. braser, to solder : AS. braes, 
brass, from being used in solder : Icel. bras, solder- 
see brass), to solder with brass: brazing, imp.: 
brazed, pp. brdzd: brazen, a. bra'zen, made of brass ; 

impudent ; shameless : brazenly, ad. -li: bra'zennes3, 
n.: brazen-faced, a. remarkably impudent : brazen- 
face, n.: brazier, n., also brasier, bra'-zber, a worker 
in brass ; a pan for holding burning coals. 

brazil-wood, n. brd-zel'-, (Port, broza, glowing em- 
bers : old E. brasil, of a bright red : S \v. brusa, to blaze), 
a heavy wood of a red colour, used in dying red, im- 
ported from Brazil: brazilian, a. brd-zll'Van, of or 
from Brazil: braziletto, n. bru-zillet'-to, an inferior 
kind of brazil-wood: brazil-nut, fruit of a palm of 
Brazil. Note.— The modern name of part of S. Amer., 
Brazil, is derived from furnishing the brazil-wood. 

breach, n. brech (AS. brice; F. breche, a breach or 
opening in a wall), a gap or opening ; the act of break- 
ing, or state of being broken; the breaking of a law, or 
the non-fulfilment of an agreement ; a neglect of duty : 
v. to make an opening or gap in anything: breach- 
ing, imp.: breached, pp. brecht: breach less, a. 

bread, n. bred (Icel. brand; Ger. brat; AS. bread, 
bread), food in general ; loaves ; cakes or biscuits pre- 
pared from flour of any kind of grain; sustenance: 
bread less, a. without bread: bread-fruit, the fruit of 
a tree whose pulp resembles bread when baked : 
bread-stuff, com, meal, or flour for bread. 

breadth, n. bredth (Dan. bred, an edge or border: 
Sw. bradd, edge — see broad), a noun formed from the 
adj. broad ; extent of surface in the shortest direction ; 
width : breadth'less, a. having no breadth. 

break, n. brak (Goth, brikan; Ger. brechen; L.fran- 
gere, to break : AS. brecan, to break, to overcome), an 
opening; a rent; a tear; a pause or interruption; a 
stop : v. to separate or divide by force ; to rend ; to 
crush ; to weaken or impair ; to tame or train ; to in- 
terrupt; to lessen the force of; to dissolve or abandon ; 
to explain or open a matter to any one ; to decline in 
health: breaking, imp. : brak: broken, pp. 
bro'-kn : break' er, n. bruk'er, one who, or that which ; 
a wave broken into foam by dashing on a rocky 
shore ; something placed in a river for breaking the 
force of floating ice, or for breaking it up : break- 
age, n. -aj, a breaking; an allowance for articles 
destroyed in the carriage : breaking or breaking- 
in, taming or training horses: breaking, n. bank- 
ruptcy : break-neck, a. -nek, steep ; dangerous : break- 
water, n. -ivaw'ter, armound or wall built in the sea, 
or at the mouth of a harbour, to break the force of 
the waves and protect the shipping: to break ground, 
in mil., to commence a siege by opening trenches: 
to break down, to fail or cause to fail: a break- 
down, a failure ; an accident : to break the heart, 
to injure much or to destroy with grief: to break 
up, to dissolve ; to put a sudden end to : a break-up, 
a failure ; a dissolution : to break upon the wheel, to 
punish a criminal capitally by stretching his body 
upon a wheel and breaking his bones: to break 
forth, to burst out; to exclaim : to break from, to go 
away with some vehemence : to break in, to enter 
unexpectedly: to break into, to enter by force: to 
break loose, to free from restraint ; to escape into 
freedom : to break off, to desist suddenly ; to abandon : 
to break out, to discover itself in sudden effects ; to 
arise or spring up: to break through, to force a pas- 
sage: to break upon, to discover itself suddenly: 
break of day, dawn ; the light preceding the appear- 
ance of the sun above the horizon. 

breakfast, n. brek'fast (break and fast), first meal 
in the day, or the food so taken : v. to take the first 
meal : break'fasting, n. the act of taking breakfast. 

bream, n. brem (F. breme: Dut. braesseni), abroad- 
shaped fresh- water fish of the carp family : v. among 
seamen, to burn off the sea-weed, ooze, &c, from a 
ship's bottom : bream ing, imp. : breamed, pp. bremd. 

breast, n. brest (AS. breast: Goth, brusts: Dut. 
borst, the breast), the forepart of the human body, be- 
tween the neck and the belly ; in quadrupeds, the part 
between the fore feet ; the heart ; the conscience ; the 
affections; in mining, the face of coal -workings ; the 
wooden partition that divides a shaft from bottom to 
top into two compartments: v. to meet in front: 
breast ing, imp. : breast'ed, pp. : breast-deep or 
breast-high, up to the breast: breast-hooks, among 
seamen, pieces of compass or knee timber placed 
withinside a ship to keep the bows together: breast- 
knees, timbers placed in the forward part of a vessel 
across the stem to unite the bows on each side : breast- 
plate, n. armour for the breast : breast-rail, the upper 
rail of the balcony on the quarter-deck : breast- work, 
in fort., a mass of earth hastily thrown up for defence 
as high as the breast ; in nav., a set of framing termi- 

cdxv, bo~j,fdbt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




nating the quarter-deck .ami poop at the foremost ami 
after end of the forecastle; a parapet not high enough 
to require a banquette: breast-bone, t he bone at the 
breast ; the sternum: ornamental pin 
used to fasten a necktie or any similar covering over 
the breast. 

breath, n. brc'li (AS. brceth, an odour, scent), air 
drawn into the lungs of animals and driven out from 
the same— in man and the more highly organised ani- 
mals through the mouth and nostrils; respiration; a 
single drawing in and driving out of air; a gentle 
breeze of air; life; pause; time to breathe; an in- 
stant: breathe, v. brelih, to draw in and give out air; 
to live; to rest; to speak softly to; to express, as 
words: breathing, imp.: n. respiration; utterance; 
an ardent desire or longing alter; secret prayer; 
accent: adj. living; vital: breathed, pp. brcthd: 
breather, n. one who; breathful, a. breth'-j'uul : 
breathless, a. out of breath; breathlessly, ad. -ft: 
breath lessness, n. state of being out of breath : 
breathing -place, n. breth'-lng-, a pause; breathing- 
time, n. pause; relaxation. 

breccia, n. brdk'shi-u (It. a crumb or fragment) 
in geol., any rock composed of an agglutination 
of angular fragments— a conglomerate being compos- 
ed of rounded water-worn pebbles: bree'eiated, a. 
composed of angular fragments cemented together; 
os'seous-breccia, n. a rock composed of fragments of 
bone cemented together. 

bred, pp. of breed, which see. 

breech, n. brlch, more usually in the plu. breeches, 
brlch'-6z (AS. bnvc: L. braccv; Icel. brok; It. brache; 
old F. bragttes, trousers), a close-fitting garment worn 
by men, lads, and boys, covering the lower part of 
the body: breech, v. brick, to put into breeches; 
to whip on the breech : breeching, imp. : n. the part 
of -a harness which passes round the hinder part of a 
horse : plu. the ropes with which cannon are lashed 
or fastened to the ship's side: breeched, pp. brlcht .- 
breech, n. brick, the hinder part of anything, especi- 
ally of a gun ; the part where the body separates into 
two legs: breech-loading, a. in mil., receiving the 
charge at the breech instead of the muzzle: breech- 
loader, u. a firearm that receives its load at the 

breed, v. bred (AS. bredan, to nourish, to cherish : 
Dut. broeden, to hatch as eggs: Ger. briiten, to bring 
eggs or spawn into active life : W. brivd, hot, warm), 
to generate; to hatch; to produce young; to occa- 
sion ; to educate ; to train ; to instruct ; to raise from 
the best kinds: n. a race of men or other animals 
from the same stock; a kind; a caste; offspring; a 
variety; a hatch; a brood: breeding, imp.: n. edu- 
cation; manners: bred, pp. bred: breeder, n. one 

breeze, n. brez (F. brise, a cool wind : It. brezza, dull- 
ness or shivering; imitative of a rustling noise), a soft- 
blowing wind; a gentle gale: v. to blow gently: 
breezy, bre'zl, subject to frequent breezes : breeze'- 
less, a. 

breeze, n. briz (AS. briosa; Ger. bremse, a gad-fly— 
from Ger. brum/iien : Fris. hum), a gad-fly J 
a stinging-fly— also spelt brize, breese. 

breeze, n. brez (F. bris or debris, rubbish : Ger. 
hrosame, a crumb: Gael, bris, to break), dust; rub- 
bish—also spelt briss, brist. 

breithauptita, n. brl'-tJidp-tit (after Professor 
Breithaupt), antimonial nickel of a light copper-red 
with a violet-blue tarnish. 

brent-goose, n. brUnt'-gps (Ger. halbcr cnte. a half- 
duck), a migratory sea-bird ; the smallest species of 

brethren, n. plu. brSth'rSn (plu. of brother, which 
see), members of the same society or profession. 

breve, n. brcv (It breve— from L. brevis, short), a 
figure that marks the longest sound in music. 

brevet, n. briv'et (F. brevet, a commission— from L. 
brevis, short), the commission which confers on an 
officer the next highest rank to the one he holds, but 
does not entitle him to the increased pay: adj. taking 
rank by brevet : brev'etcy, n. -si, the rank or condition 
of a brevet. 

breviary, n. bre'vX-er-l (F. breviaire, a breviary: L. 
breviarium, an abridgment or abstract— from L. bre vis, 
short: It. breviario), an abridgment; the book con- 
taining the daily service of the Koman Catholic and 
Greek Churches. 

brevity, n. brlr'l-tl (F. brih-etc: L. brevitas, short- 
ness— from brevis, short), shortness ; conciseness ; con- 

tained in few words : brevier, n. braver', small print- 

brew, v. br6 (old F. braux; Gael, bmich; W. brag, 
sprouted corn, malt: Icel. brugga, to brew— from as. 
brug, malt: Ger. brauen; Dut. bmuieen, to brew), to 
make beer, ale, &c, by boiling and mixing the mate- 
rials and fermenting them; to contrive; to plot: 
brewing, imp.: n. the act of making beer from malt, 
&c ; the quantity made at one time: brewed, pp. or (W: 
brewer, n. one who: brewery, n. brb'ir-i, the house 
containing the apparatus where brewing is carried on ; 
also brew-house. 

brewsterite, n. brds'tt'r-lt (after Sir David Brew- 
ster), a mineral occurring in short prismatic crystals 
of a greyish-white or yellowish colour, and vitreous 
lustre; brews toline, n. -to-lin, a transparent colour- 
less fluid occurring in the minute cavities of rock- 
crystals, &c, said to be liquid carbonic acid. 

bribe, n. bi-lb (F. bribe, a lump of bread : W. brin-o, 
to break; briic, broken : It. birbtmti, a cheat), a price 
or reward given to induce any one to do a criminal or 
immoral action ; a gift for the purpose of obtaining an 
undue compliance— unless in familiar language, never 
used in a good sense : v. to give or promise a reward 
with the view of perverting the judgment or conduct 
of another ; to hire for a bad purpose : bribing, imp. : 
bribed, pp. bribd '.- bri'ber, n. one who: bribery, n. 
brl'btr-l, the practice of giving cr taking bribes: 
bribeless, a. : bribable, a. -bd-bl, capable of being 

brick, n. brik (F. brique, a brick: AS. brice, a frag- 
ment: It. briccia, a collop or slice), a shaped mass of 
clay burned hard in a kiln, and used for building pur- 
poses ; a small loaf of bread : v. to lay or pave with 
bricks; to imitate brickwork on plastered walls: 
brick'y, a. -I, full of or formed of bricks: brickbat, 
n. a piece of a brick : brick-kiln, n. a furnace in which 
bricks are hardened by fire: bricklayer, n. -Id'ir, the 
man who builds with bricks: brick-clay, the clay 
used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, sc. ; in geol., 
used in contradistinction to boulder-day, and denot- 
ing the finely-laminated clays which overlie the true 
boulder-clay: brick'nog'ging, n. -nog'glng, brickwork 
built up between timber framing : brickmaker, n. one 
who makes bricks : brickmaking, n. 

bride, n. brld (AS. bryd; Ger. braut, a bride: Goth. 
bruths, daughter-in-law : w. priori, married), a woman 
about to be married, or newly married: bridal, a. 
brl'ddl (AS. bryd-eale, bride-ale, the marriage-feast, 
then the marriage itself), pert, to a wedding: n. a 
wedding or marriage: bride or bride's man: bride 
or bride's maid, a female attendant on a bride: bride 
or bride's cake, a wedding-cake: bride 'groom, n. 
(AS. bryd-guma— from bryd, and guma, a man), the 
man about" to be married, or newly married. 

bridewell, n. brid'-icel (from St Bride's Well in Lon- 
don, near which a palace was built, afterwards turned 
into an hospital), a house of correction ; a place where 
criminals are confined. 

bridge, n. br>j (AS. bricge: Ger. briieke), a roadway 
over arches spanning a river, a valley, &c. ; the part 
of a stringed instrument over which the strings are 
stretched: v. to stretch a roadway across, as over a 
river: bridging, imp.: bridged, pp. brljd: bridge'- 
less, a. 

laidle,n.brl-dl(AS.bridd: Icel. bitill: Han.bidsel), 
the bit and reins by which a rider is able to guide and 
restrain a horse; any restraint or check; a curb: v. to 
put on a bridle; to restrain; to govern; to curb; to 
check: bridling, imp. brld'llng: bridled, pp. bri'dld: 
bridler, n. brtd-Urs bridle-way, n. a horse-track. 

brief , a. bre/ (F. bre/— from L. brevis, short: Ger. 
brief, an epistle or letter), short ; concise: n. an 
abridged writing; an epitome ; short written instruc- 
tions to counsel in conducting a case before a court 
of law: briefless, a. : briefly, ad. 41: briefness, n. 

brier or briar, n. bri'Cr (AS. breer: F. bruybre, a 
heath), a prickly plant or shrub, as the sweet brier: 
briery, a. -I, full of briers; thorny. 

brig, n. brig (contr. of brigantinr— see brigantine), 
a ship with two masts, square rigged. 

brigade, n. brl-gad' (F. brigade— from It. brigata, a 
troop), a body of soldiers, whether of infantry or cav- 
alry, consisting of several regiments, but of no fixed 
number: v. to form into brigades: briga'ding, imp. : 
briga'ded, pp.: brigadier, n. brlg'-dder', or briga- 
dier-general, n. the officer who commands a brigade. 

brigand, n. brlg'dnd (obi F. brigand, skirmishers — 
from It. briga, strife: mid L. brigant, a light-armed 

mate, vidt./dr, luv ; mete, met, hir; pine, plu; note, not, mCve; 




f oot-soMier), one of a band of robbers ; a freebooter : 
brig'andage, n. -dn-daj, theft; robbery. 

brigantine, n. brlg-dn-tln (It. brigante, a pirate; 
hrignndare, to play the pirate at sea), a light swift 
vessel formerly used by pirates. 

bright, a. brlt (AS. beorht; Icel. biartr, bright: 
Goth, bairhts, clear, manifest), shining; clear; illus- 
trious; evident; clever: bright'iy, ad. -ll: bright- 
ness, n. : brighten, v. brtt'n, to make clear or shin- 
ing; to increase the lustre of; to cheer; to clear up: 
bright'ening, imp. brlt'-nlng ■. brightened, pp. brlt'nd. 

brill, n. brll, a fish of the turbot kind. 

brilliant, a. brll'ydnt (F. britler, to shine: L. beryl- 
tus, a bright shining precious stone: It. brillare, to 
quaver with the voice), sparkling with lustre ; glit- 
tering ; splendid : n. a diamond cut in such a way as 
to refract the light ami make it more glittering: 
brilliantly, ad. -ll: brill iantness, n. : brilliancy, 
n. -si, great brightness. 

brills, n. plu. brllz (Ger. Irille, spectacles), the hair 
on the eyelids of a horse. 

brim, n. brim (Ger. brame; Lith. bremas, border: 
fceL burmr, the edge: AS. brymme), the edge, rim, or 
border of any vessel : v. to fill or be filled up to the 
edge or rim: brim'ming, imp.: adj. full to the top: 
brimmed, pp.: brimle3s, a. : brimful, a. -foul; brim- 
mer, n. a glass full to the rim. 

brimstone, n. brlm'ston (AS. bryne, a burning, and 
slow), a hard brittle substance of a yellow colour; 
sulphur; reduced to powder by sublimation, it is 
called flowers of brimstone: brim'stony, a. -t, con- 
taining brimstone. 

brinded, brlnUUd, and brindled, a. brln'dld (Icel. 
trondottr, cross-barred in colour: It. brano, a bit: 
F. brin, a morsel), streaked; spotted; coloured in 

brine, n. brln (AS. bryne, saltness: Dut. brijn, 
pickle: Icel. brim, the surge on the seashore), water 
mixed with a large quantity of salt ; water of the 
ocean: v. to steep among salt and water: bri'ning, 
imp. : brined, pp. brind: briny, a. brl'nl, pert, to the 
sea or to brine: bri'nish, a. -nlsh, salt: brinishnesj, 

bring, v. bring (AS. bringan : Dut. brengen), to 
fetch; to bear; to convey; to produce; to cause to 
come: bringing, imp.: brought, pt. pp. braaJut: 
bring'er, n. one who : to bring back, to recall : to 
bring about, to effect or accomplish : to bring forth, 
to produce as fruit: to bring forward, to produce 
to view: to bring out, to expose : to bring in, to im- 
port ; to introduce : to bring on, to cause to begin : 
to bring up, to nurse ; to educate ; to cause to come 
up : to bring to, to check or arrest the progress of a 
ship while sailing: to bring to light, to make clear; 
to discover: to bring to mind, to recall to memory: 
to bring off, to clear; to procure to be acquitted: to 
bring over, to convert ; to draw to a new party : to 
bring to pass, to effect. 

brink, n. brlngk (Dan. and Sw. brink, declivity: 
Icel. bringr, hillock: W. bryn, a hill), the edge or 
margin of a steep place. 

brisk, a. brisk (F. brusque, lively, quick: It. brusco, 
eager: W. brys, haste), active; nimble; full of life 
and spirit; lively; sparkling: briskly, ad. -ll: brisk- 
ness, n. : to brisk up, to enliven; to appear with life 
and spirit : brisking up, imp. : brisked up, pp. briskt. 

brisket, n. bils'kct (F. brichet, the breast of an ani- 
mal: Icel. briosk ; Sw. brusk, gristle: Bohem. brissko, 
a little belly), that part of the breast of an animal that 
lies next the ribs. 

bristle, n. bris'sl (AS. byrst ; Sw. borst; Dut. bor- 
sfel; Scot, birse, a thick elastic hair: Swiss, borzen, 
to stand out), the stiff hair on the backs of swine, par- 
ticularly wild boars ; any stiff hair: v. to stand erect 
as bristles ; to strut about with head erect in anger 
or defiance: brist'ling, imp. -ling: bristled, pp. -sld: 
bristly, a. -ll, thick set with bristles ; rough. 

bristol-board, n. brls'tol-bdrd (from the town of 
Bristol), a kind of fine pasteboard having a smooth 
surface: bristol-stone, n. a quartz crystal of great 

Britannic, a. brl-tdn'-nlk <L. Britannia, Britain), 
pert, to Great Britain ; British : britan'nia metal, n. 
■n l-a, a metallic alloy of block-tin, antimony, bismuth, 
and copper: British, a. n. brlt'lsh (AS. Brittisc), pert, 
to Britain or its people : Brit'on, n. -on, a native of 

brittle, a. brV'tl (AS. brytan; Icel. briota; Dan. 
bryde, to break), easily broken; not tough: brit'tle- 

ness, n. -nes, the quality of being easily broken into 
fragments; want of tenacity. 

britz3ka, n. brls'kd (Buss, britshka), a long open 
carriage that can lie closed at pleasure. 

broach, n. broch (\V. procio, to thrust: Gael, brog, 
to goad: F. bro.cher, to spit), a spit; aspire: v. to 
pierce as with a spit ; to tap, as a cask, in order to draw 
off the liquor; to let out; to utter; to make public: 
broach ing, imp. : broached, pp. brocht '-. broach'er, n. 
a spit ; one who opens or utters : to broach to, among 
seamen, to incline a vessel suddenly to windward so as 
to expose it to the danger of oversetting. 

broad, a. braTcd (AS. brad: Goth, braids: Icel. 
breidr: Ger. breit), wide; not narrow; extensive; 
open; coarse; not delicate; bold: broadly, ad. -ll : 
breadth, n. brSdth: broad'ness, n. : broadcast, n. 
the act of throwing the seed from the hand in sowing: 
adj. thrown from the hand upon the earth as in sow- 
ing; not planted in rows: ad. by scattering or throw- 
ing as from the hand: broadcloth, n. fine woollen 
cloth double the usual width : broad-seal, the great 
seal of England: broad gauge, in railways, the width 
of 6 or 7 feet between the rails, as distinguished from 
the nairow gauge of 4 ft. 8j in. : broadside, n. the 
side of a ship above the water-line; in a war-Ship, 
all the guns on one side discharged at once : broad- 
sword, n. a sword with a broad blade; the claymore 
of the Highlanders: broaden, v. brawd'n, to make or 
grow broad: broadening, imp. -rung: broad' ened, 
pp. -end. 

Brobdingnagian, a. brob'dfng-nd'jl-dn, a gigantic 
person, like an inhabitant of Brobdiiignag in ' Gulli- 
ver's Travels.' 

brocade, n. bro-kad' (It. broccata, a sort of cloth 
wrought with gold or silver: F. brother, to stitch or 
embroider), silk stuff, woven with variegated gold 
and silver threads, and raised flowers: broca'ded, a. 
woven with figures, &c 

brocard, n. brokk'trd (after Burkhard, bishop of 
Worms), an elementary principle or maxim; a pro- 
verbial rule In law, ethics, or metaphysics, 

brocatello, n. brOk'dtcl'-lo (It. : Sp. brocatel), a spe- 
cies of brecciated marble, the component fragments of 
which are of various colours ; a coarse-ligured fabric'. 

broccoli, n. brok'ko-ll (It.), a variety of cauliflower. 

brochure, n. bro-shor' (F.— from brocher, to stitch), 
a pamphlet ; a small book of only a few leaves. 

brock, n. brok (AS. broc), a badger. 

brocket, n. brok'et (F. brocart— from broche, a sharp 
snag), a two-year old red-deer, having a single sharp 
snag to his antler. 

brogan, brO'gdn, or brogue, brog n. (Gael, brog, a 
shoe), a coarse light kind of shoe; a heavy shoe hav- 
ing the sole studded with nails; a dialect or manner 
of pronunciation, as Irish brogue. 

broil, n. bro'yl (F. brouiller, to jumble or mix: It. 
broglio; Gael, broighlich, noise, confusion), a tumult ; 
a jumbled noisy quarrel ; discord. 

broil, v. broyl (contracted from F. brasiller, to roast 
on the braise or glowing coals: Scot, brissl', to parch 
or broil: It. brustolare, to scorch), to agitate by expo- 
sure over the fire ; to dress meat over a fire on a grid- 
iron ; to be subjected to the action of great heat ; to 
be in a great heat : broil'ing, imp. : broiled, pp. 
broyld: broil'er, n. one who. 

broke, v. brok, pt.: broken, pp. bro'ken (from break, 
which see) : bro'ken, a. rent asunder; rugged; un- 
even; infirm: bro"kenly, ad. -ll: bro'kenness, n. 
■ken-n6s, state of being broken: broken-hearted, de- 
pressed or crushed by grief or despair: broken-wind- 
ed, a. having short breath or disordered respiration. 

broker, n. bro'ker (Lith. brokas, a fault, matter of 
blame: Kuss. brakovat, to pick and choose: Dut. 
brack, damaged), one employed by merchants to buy 
and sell for them ; one who deals in second-hand 
goods: exchange-broker, n. one who deals in home 
and foreign money: stock-broker, n. one who buys 
and sells shares for others: pawn-broker, n. one 
who lends money on goods left with him: insurance- 
broker, n. one who secures, at a certain rate per cent, 
that the value of a ship and cargo shall be paid, if lost 
at sea: brokerage, n. -dj, the fee, wages, or commis- 
sion paid to a broker for buying or selling for another : 
broking, imp. doing business as a broker: adj. 
pert. to. 

bromine, n. bro'mhi (L. bromium— from Gr. bromos, 
a bad smell), one of the elements related to chlorine 
and iodine in its chemical qualities: bromal, n. bro'- 
mal, an oily colourless fluid, obtained by the action of 

coiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




bromine on alcohol: bro'mic, a. -mXk, an acid com- 
pounded of bromine and oxygen : bro'mate, n. -mat, a 
compound of bromic acid with a base : bromide, n. 
•mid, a compound of bromine with a metallic base : 
bro'mite, n. -mlt, or bromic silver, an ore of silver 
occurring: in olive-green grains : bromuret, n. brom- 
ii-ret, a basic compound of bromine and another ele- 

bronchia, n. brong'-kl-d, bronTiiae, n. plu. -ki-e (Gr. 
brongchos, the windpipe), the tubes that branch off 
from the windpipe to the lungs : bronchial, a. -ki-iU, 
pert, to the bronchia; ; also brdn'chic, a. -klk: bronchi- 
tis, n. -kl'-tls (itis, denoting inflammation), inflam- 
mation of the air-tubes or bronchire that lead to the 
lungs; bron'chocele, n. -ko-sel (Gr. -kele, a tumour), 
a tumour on the fore part of the neck— also called 
goitre: bronchot'omy, n. -kot'-o-ml (Gr. tome, a cut- 
ting), an incision into the windpipe or larynx between 
the rings— also called tracheotomy or laryngotomy : 
bron'chus, n. -Ms, one of the subdivisions of the 
trachea or windpipe ; plu. bron'chi, -At : bron- 
choph ony, n. -kd/'-o-nl (Gr. phone, voice), the muffled 
and indistinct speech of any one labouring under a 
bronchial affection. 

brontes, n. bron'tez (Gr. brontes, a giant, one of the 
Cyclops), in geol., a genus of Devonian trilobites, 
characterised by a broad, radiating, fan-like tail. 

bronze, n. bronz (It. bronzo; Sp. bronce, pan-metal: 
Icel. braza, to braze or solder), a metallic substance 
made of copper and tin ; a colour to imitate bronze ; 
any ancient figure or medal made of bronze is called a 
bronze: v. to imitate bronze by a colouring matter: 
bronzing, imp. n. the art or act of giving to articles 
the appearance of bronze: bronzed, pp. a. bronzd 
(It. bronze, embers), coloured like bronze; tanned; 
sunburnt: bron'zy, a. -zl, like bronze: bron'zite, n. 
-zlt, a variety of diallage or schiller-spar, so called 
from its metallic lustre and pinchbeck colour : bronze 
powder, a metallic powder used to give to tin and 
iron goods, &c, a bronze-like appearance. 

brooch, n. brock (Sp. broca, a tack or button; 
broche, a clasp), an ornament for the breast ; a jewel : 
v. to adorn with jewels. 

brood, v. brod (AS. brod, a brood: Dut. broeden, to 
sit on eggs ; W. bnvd, hot), to sit over, as a bird over 
her eggs ; to spread over as with wings ; to dwell on 
a subject in anxious thought; to cherish: n. off- 
spring ; progeny ; the number of birds hatched at a 
time: brooding, imp.: brooded, pp.: brood-mare, 
a mare kept for breeding. 

brook, n. brook (AS. broca, a brook: W. bruchen, 
the bubbling or springing up of water: Gael, bruich, 
to simmer: Gr. brncho, I roar), a small stream of 
water less than a river; a streamlet: brooklet, n. 
-lit, a small brook: brook'y, a. -i, abounding in 

brook, v. brook (AS brucan, to use, to enjoy: Goth. 
brukjan; Ger. brauchen, to use), to bear; to endure: 
brook ing, imp. : brooked, pp. bro~bkt. 

broom, n. brom (AS. brom: Dut. brem), a wild 
shrub producing yellow flowers and pods; a besom 
or brush with a long handle, made originally of the 
broom bush: broom'y, a. -i, full of broom: broom- 
stick, n. -stlk, the staff or handle of a broom. 

brose, n. broz (a softened form of broth: low Ger. 
broi, boiling water: old Eng. broicys, pottage), a 
Scotch dish, made by pouring a boiling liquid over 
dry oatmeal or peasemeal, and then stirring it up. 

broth, n. broth (It. brodo; F. brouet, broth: Dut. 
broeye ; Ger. briihe, boiling water: Gael, bruich, to 
boil), a dish consisting of flesh, barley, and vegetables, 
with the water in which they are boiled. 

brothel, n. broth-el (Sp. borda, a hut or cottage: F. 
borde, a little cottage), a house of ill fame. 

brother, n. bruth-'er (Sans, bhratr: Gael, brathair: 
W. braivd : L. /rater), son of the same parents ; one 
that resembles another in appearance or manners; 
a relation or kinsman ; broth'ers, plu. : brethren, plu. 
brSth-'-r&n, members of the same society or profession : 
broth'erless, a. : broth'erlike, a. : broth'erhood, n. 
an association; a fraternity: broth'erly, a. -ll, kind; 
affectionate; pert, to: broth'erliness, n. : brother- 
german or germain, n. -jer'-man (L. germanus, come 
of the same stock), a full brother: brother-uterine, n. 
-u'-ter-in (L. litems, the womb), a brother by the same 
mother only: brother-in-law, n., brothers-in-law, plu. 
a sister's husband; the brother of a husband or wife. 

brougham, n. brd'-dm (after Lord Brougham), a light 
four-wheeled close carriage. 

brought, v. brawt, pt. pp. of bring, which see. 

brow, n. brow (AS. braew; Russ. brov, brow: Dut. 
brauive, an eyelid, margin : Icel. bra, eyelid), the ridge 
over the eye ; the forehead ; the edge or brink of a 
steep place, as of a river or hill : eyebrow, n. I'brolv, 
the hair over the eye: to knit the brows, to frown; 
to scowl : browbeat, v. brolv'-bet, to daunt or depress 
by haughty and stern looks ; to bully into submission 
by arrogant and impudent language : brow'beating, 
imp. n. : browbeaten, pp. -bet'n. 

brown, a. brown (Ger. braun ; Icel. and F. brun ; It. 
bruno, perhaps the colour of things burnt— from Goth. 
brinnan, to burn), of a dark or dusky colour, inclining 
to redness: v. to make dusky or dark: browning, 
imp.: browned, pp. bro'wnd: brownish, a. somewhat 
brown : brown'ness, n. : brown-coal, n. lignite: brown- 
study, n. gloomy or dull thoughtfulness or reverie : 
browning, n. liquid burnt sugar used for colouring 
gravy, &c; the act or operation of giving a brown 
colour to. 

browse, v. browz (F. brouser, to nibble off the sprigs 
and buds; broust, a sprig: Sp. broza, brushwood), to 
eat the tender leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, 
as cattle or sheep : n. the tender branches of trees or 
shrubs : browsing, imp. : browsed, pp. browzd. 

brucine, n. brds'-ln (after Bruce, the traveller), a 
vegetable alkaloid extracted from an African plant. 

brucite, n. brds'-lt (after Dr Bruce of New York), a 
mineral, a native hydrate of magnesia. 

bruin, n. brd'-ln (Dan. bruin; Icel. brun, brown), a 
name for a bear. 

bruise, n. broz (F. briser, to break: old F. bruiser; 
Gael, brisd, to break), an injury on the flesh by its being 
crushed with a heavy or blunt substance ; a contusion : 
v. to crush or hurt by pressure ; to pound or reduce to 
coarse powder, as minerals or grain : bruis'ing, imp. : 
bruised, pp. brozd: bruiser, n. brdz'-er, he who, or that 
which ; a prize-fighter. 

bruit, n. brd'-it (F. : It. bruifo, a muttering), a report; 
fame : v. to report ; to noise abroad : bruiting, imp. : 
bruited, pp. noised or rumoured abroad. 

brumal, a. brd'-mal (F.— from L. bruma, winter), of 
or relating to winter. 

brunette, n. broo-ngf (F.— from brun, brown, dusky), 
a woman with a dark or brownish complexion ; oppo- 
site of blonde. 

brunt, n. briint (Serv. bronza, a cattle-bell, which 
the leading beast of the herd bore on its neck : Gris. 
brunza, the first train of baggage-animals), the first 
shock of an onset ; the greatest fury of the battle ; the 
force of a blow. 

brush, n. brush (Ger. and Sw. borste, a bristle, a 
brush: F. brosse, a bush, a head-brush: It. b)~usca, 
heath for brushes : Icel. bruskr, a tuft of grass), an 
article made of hair, bristle, &c, set in wood, for clean- 
ing, as dust from clothes, or for painting ; a skirmish ; a 
slight encounter ; the tail of a fox : v. to rub or sweep 
as with a brush ; to touch or strike lightly : brush'ing, 
imp. : brushed, pp. brusht : brush'er, n. one who : 
brush'wood, n. a lot of small trees or bushes growing 
closely together ; a coppice or thicket : brush'y, a. -f, 
rough ; shaggy : brushlness, n. shagginess : brush- 
wheels, wheels without teeth, which move others by 

brusque, a. brcTosk (F. : It. brusco, harsh), rude ; 
rough or blunt in manners : brusque'ness, n. a blunt 
rough manner. 

brute, n. brdt (L. brutus ; It. bruto, stupid, irrational : 
F. brut, raw, rough), a beast ; any animal except man ; 
a savage unfeeling man or woman : adj. irrational ; 
rough ; uncivilised : bru'tal, a. -tell, pert, to a brute ; 
cruel; unfeeling: bru'tally, ad. -II: brutality, n. 
-tal'-l-ti, inhumanity; savageness : bru'talise, v. -Hz, 
to make brutal or inhuman ; to become like a beast: 
bru'tali'sing, imp.: bru'talised, pp. -llzd: bru'tify, v. 
■tl-fl, to reduce to the state of a brute : bru'tifylng, 
imp. : bru'tifled, pp. -fid: adj. reduced to the condi- 
tion of a brute: brutish, a. -tlsh, like a brute or 
beast; ferocious: bru'tishly, ad. -II: bru'tishness, n. 

bryony, n. brl'-o-nl, also bryonia, n. brl-6'-nl-(l (L. 
bryonia : Gr. bruon— from bruo, I .abound, from its 
abundance: F. brvone), plants of different genera— the 
roots are powerfully acrid : bryonine, n. brl'o-nin, a 
yellowish - brown bitter substance obtained from the 

bryozoa, n. brl'-o-zo'-d (Gr. bruon, moss ; zoon, an ani- 
mal), the minute mollusca which live united in masses 
in a branched and moss-like manner: bry'ozo'an, a. 
pert. to. 

mate, m&t.fdr, laTv; mite, met, her; x>lne,%>in; note, not, move; 




bubalus, n. bu'-bd-liis (L. a buffalo), in geol., the 
remains of the musk-buffalo. 

bubble, n. bub'-bl (an imitative word;Dut. bobbel: 
It. bubbola, a bubble: Bohem. bublati, to murmur: 
Scot, bub, a blast of wind), a round film or skin of water 
full of air; anything empty ; a false show; something 
not real : v. to rise up in air-bells, as on the top of a 

bubo, n. bu'-bo, plu. buboes, bu'-boz (Gr. boubon, the 
groin: F. bubon), a swelling of the lymphatic glands, 
especially those of the groin and armpit : bubonocele, 
n. bu-bon'-osel (Gr. kele, a tumour), a rupture in which 
the intestines break down into the groin. 

buccal, a. buk'-kal (L. bucca, the cheek), belonging 
to the cheek. 

buccaneers, n. plu. biik'-d-nerz' (from the Carib lan- 
guage, — barbacoa, a kind of grate on which the flesh of 
their prisoners was cooked ; boucan, the place of such 
a feast : F. boucaner, to cook and smoke flesh at the 
same time), persons who, in the W. I. and S. Amer., 
hunted wild animals for their skins, and rudely pre- 
served much of the flesh by drying it after the Indian 
fashion, called bucaning ; pirates or sea-robbers, who 
in former times principally attacked the Spanish 
settlements in Amer. : buccaneering, n. -ner'-lng, 
the practice or profession of a buccaneer. 

bucentaur, n. bu-sen'-tawr (Gr. bous, an ox; kentau- 
ros, a centaur), in myth., a monster, half-man, half-ox: 
(It. bucentoro), the state-barge of Venice used in the 
ceremony of espousing the Adriatic. 

buccinator, n. bilk- sin- a'-tor (L. buccina, a kind of 
trumpet), a muscle forming a large part of the cheek 
—so called from being used in blowing wind-instru- 
ments: buc'cinal, a. -ul, trumpet-like. 

buck, n. buk (AS. bucca; W. bicch; F. bouc— pro- 
bably from the tendency of the animal to but or strike 
with the forehead: Gael, boc, a knock or a blow), male 
of the deer, the goat, the rabbit, &c; a fop ; a dashing 
young fellow : buck ish, a. foppish : buckskin, n. a kind 
of leather. 

buck, n. biik (Gael, bog, moist, to steep or soak : Bret. 
bouk, soft: Dan. bbg-aske, the ashes of beach-wood), 
lye or suds in which clothes are bleached or washed : 
v. to wash or steep clothes in lye : bucking, imp. : n. 
in mining, crushing ore : bucked, pp. biikt. 

bucket, n. btlk'-ket (F. baquet, a pail : Russ. buk, a 
washing-vessel), a domestic vessel of various shapes 
for containing water, rubbish, or ashes ; a pail used by 
sailors : buck etful, a. 

buckle, n. buk'-kl (F. bouclc, a curl or buckle : Pol. 
pukiel, a lock of hair: Ger. bucket, a boss or stud), an 
article consisting of a rim and tongue, used for fasten- 
ing together parts of dress ; a curl : V. to fasten with 
a buckle ; to engage in a matter with zeal : buck'ling, 
imp.: buckled, pp. bilk-kid. 

buckler, n. buk'ler (F. bouclier, a shield with a cen- 
tral 1m iss— from boucle, protuberance), a kind of shield. 

buckra, n. buk'-rd (in Calabar, a demon, a powerful 
being), among the blacks, a white man : adj. white. 

buckram, n. buk'-rdrn (F. bougran: It. bucherame, 
—from buca, a hole), coarse linen cloth stiffened with 
glue: adj. stiff; precise. 

buckwheat, n. buk'-hwet (Dan. bog-hvete— from Ger. 
btiche; Dan. bog, beech-mast), a kind of grain having 
three-cornered seeds resembling beech-nuts: buck- 
thorn, a genus of plants. 

bucolic, n. bu-kol'-ik (L. bucolicus; Gr. bukolikos— 
from Gr. boukolos, a cowherd), a pastoral poem: adj. 
relating to country affairs. 

bud, n. bud (Bohem. bodka, a point ; bodek, a thorn), 
the shoot or sprout on a plant containing the future 
leaf or flower ; a flower not blown or expanded : v. to 
put forth shoots ; to sprout ; to grow as buds : bud- 
ding, imp. : bud'ded, pp. : bud let, n. a bud growing 
from another bud. 

Buddha, n. biid'-da. Buddhism, n. biid'dlzm, &c— see 

buddle, n. bud'dl, among miner.'), a wooden frame 
used for washing ore: v. to wash ore: bud'dling, 
imp. bud-ling: buddled, pp. bud-died. 

budge, v. biij (F. bouger, to move : Bret, boulg, 
movement: Icel. built, frequent motion), to move off; 
to stir: bud'ging, imp.; budged, pp. biijd: bud ger, 
n. one who. 

budge, n. biij (Russ. push', fur-skins ; pushit', to line 
with fur), dressed skin or fur of lambs, formerly used 

as an edging or ornament, especially of scholastic 
habits: adj. solemn, like a doctor in his fur; stern: 
budge-barrel, n. a small barrel with one head, the 
other having a loose leathern cover, used in carrying 
powder in a siege. 

budget, n. bvj'et (F. bougette, a leather bag : It. bol- 
getta, a leathern bucket: — from bulga, a skin), a bag 
with its contents ; a stock or store ; the annual finan- 
cial scheme of the British nation. 

buff, n. bit/ (L. bubalus; Russ. buival; F. buffle, 
the wild ox or buffalo : It. buffalo), a sort of soft 
leather prepared from the skin of the buffalo ; a col- 
our near to yellow; yellow substance on blood in 
inflammations: adj. of the colour of buff-leather, or 
made of it: buffs, a regiment of soldiers, so called from 
their buff-coloured facings : buf fy, a. -fi, pert, to the 
colour on the surface of blood; resembling buff: buf- 
falo, n. -Jd-lo, a kind of wild ox : buffle-headed, a. biif-fl- 
hed'-ed, having a large head like a buffalo; dull; stupid. 

buffer, n. buf-fer (low Ger. buff'en, to strike: It. 
buffetto, a cuff), apparatus at the ends of railway 
carriages, which, when driven in, spring out again, 
and so prevent injury to the carriages coming into 
contact; any cushion-like article to take away the 
force of a blow ; buffer-head, n. in railway carriages, 
the part of the buffer apparatus which receives the 
concussion: buffet, n. buf-fet, a blow with the fist; 
a box ; a slap : v. to strike with the fist or hand ; to 
box or beat; to contend against: buffeting, imp.: 
buffeted, pp. : buf feter, n. one who. 

buffet, n. buffit, (F. buffet, primarily, the tap of a 
tavern, then a sideboard), a cupboard or set of shelves 
for orockerv ; a sideboard. 

buffoon, n. bitJ-fOri (F. bouffon, a jester— from It. 
buffare, to puff, to blow hard), a man who amuses 
others by tricks, antic- gestures, and jokes: v. to make 
ridiculous : buffoon ing, imp. : buffoon ery, n. -er-l, 
the tricks of a buffoon; low jests; drolleries: buf- 
foon ish, a.: buffoon ism, n. -tzm: buffo, n. boof'-JO, 
the comic actor in an opera. 

bufonites, n. plu. bu'-fonlts (L. bufo, a toad), load- 
stones ; serpents' eyes ; fossil palatal teeth of extinct 
shark-like fishes. 

bug, n. bug (W. burai, what produces dread or dis- 
gust: Alb. boube; Russ. buka, a bugbear), a name ap- 
plied to various insects ; an offensive insect common 
in dirty dwelling-houses : buggy, a. -gl, full of bugs: 
bug giness, n. 

bugbear, n. bug'-bar (bug, with bear, as an object of 
dread), anything that scares or frightens, real or ima- 
ginary: v. to alarm or scare by any means: bug- 
bearing, imp.: bug beared, pp. 

buggy, n. bug'-gt, a light one-horse vehicle open at 
top ; a gig. 

bugle, n. bu'-gl (F. buffle; It. buffalo, a wild ox), a 
hunting-horn, formerly spelt buffalo-horn; a musi- 
cal instrument ; agenusof plants ; a long slender glass 
bead, generally black. 

bugloss, n. buglos (L. buglossa— from Gr. bous, an 
ox, and glossa, a tongue), the plant ox-tongue ; aplant 
used in dyeing and colouring. 

buhl, n. bid (after Boule, a French carver in wood), 
unburnished gold, mother-of-pearl, &c, used for in- 
laying in dark wood, &c: buhl-work, inlaying wood, 
&c., with metal or mother-of-pearl. 

buhrston or burrstone, n. ber'-ston (old Eng. bur, a 
whetstone for scythes), a rough silicious stone used in 
making millstones for grinding corn. 

build, v. bllcl (Ger. bilden to form, to fashion : old 
Sw. bylja, to raise a habitation), to construct ; to make 
or raise anything— as a wall, a house, or a ship ; to 
shape into a particular form ; to raise on a foundation ; 
to increase ; to depend on as a foundation : building, 
imp.: n. an edifice; a fixed structure— as a house, a 
church: built, pt. pp. bilt, or builded, pp. bii-ded: 
builder, n. bll'-der, one who erects buildings. 

bukshisha— see backshish. 

bulb, n. biilb (L. bulbus, a globular root, an onion : 
Gr. bolbos), a root consisting of scales or layers, as the 
onion — or solid, as the crocus : bulbed, a. bfdbd, round- 
headed: bulbiferous, a. biil-bif-tr-us (L.Jero, I bear), 
producing bulbs: bulbous, a. bitll'-us. globular; con- 
taining bulbs : bulbil or bulblet, n. biil'-bll, bulb-let, in 
bot., separable buds in the axil of leaves, as in some 
lilies: bulbous-based, in bot., applied to leaves which 
are turned at the base. 

bulbul, n. bobl'bvi (Pers.), the Persian nightingale. 

bulge, n. o?Hj (Gael, bolg, a swell or blister; bulg, a 
ship's bilge or convexity : Icel. bolga, a tumour), the 

cow, bdy,fo~bt; pure, bild; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




broadest part of a cask; a protuberance; a swelling 
out : v. to swell out ; to bilge as a ship : bul'ging, imp. : 
bulged, pp. buljd. 

bulimia, n. bu-ttm'X-a, or bulimy, n. bu'll-mi (Gr. 
bou, a particle which augments the meaning of words, 
and limos, hunger), excessive appetite for food. 

bulk, n. bulk (Dan. bialke, a beam ; another form of 
balk, which see), size ; magnitude ; the main mass or 
body ; the whole cargo of a ship in the hold : to break 
bulk, to begin to unload a ship ; to break open a pack- 
age of goods : in bulk, in the mass ; cargo loose in the 
hold of a ship and not enclosed in boxes or packages : 
bulkliead, n. -hid, a partition across the hold of a ship : 
bul'ky, a. -ki, large; of great size: bul'kiness, n. -lies, 
greatness in bulk or size. 

bull, n. bobl (W. bwla: Icel. bolli: Ger. bulle), the 
male of the cow kind: in Scrip., a fierce and power- 
ful enemy: bul'lish, -ish, bull-headed, bull-like, a. 
pert, to a bull; dogged and self-willed: bull-baiting, 
11. the rendering bulls furious by setting dogs to 
attack them: bull-dog, n. a large -headed, strong- 
jawed, variety of dog : bull-fight, n. an amusement 
among the Spanish and Portuguese, consisting of an 
exhibition of men fighting with wild bulls: bull-fly, 
n. a gadfly: bullock, n. bTol'ok (AS. Indium), a cast- 
rated bull or ox fed for slaughter : bull-calf, a male 
calf; a young stupid fellow. 

bull, n. bool (It. bolla, a seal: L. bulla, a boss or 
ornament), a name at first applied to the seal attached 
to an edict of the Pope, but now applied to the edict 
itself; a blunder; in the Stock Exchange, those who 
try to raise the price of stocks are called bulla, and 
those who try to lower their price, bears: bull's-eye, 
n. boolz-i, amon? seamen, a piece of wood shaped like 
a ring; a dark distant cloud, ruddy in the centre, fore- 
telling a storm ; the centre mark on a target for shoot- 
ing at; a small round window or opening. 

bullate, a. bul'-lat (L. bulla, a bubble), in bot., gar- 
nished with studs like bubbles or blisters. 

bullet, n. bobl'let (F. boulet— from L. bulla, a bubble), 
a round or oblong ball of metal, used for loading pis- 
tols, guns, or rifles. 

bulletin, n. bodl'15-fen (F. a packet : It. bullet tino— 
from bulla, an edict of the Pope), an official report or 
notice; a public announcement. 

bull-finch, n. bool'flnsh (corruption of bud-finch, 
as causing destruction among buds), a song-bird. 

bullion, n. bool'-yiin (F. billon, base coin: Sp. vel- 
lon, an alloy of silver and copper: mod. Gr. boidlono, 
I seal or stamp: formerly the mint where the pre- 
cious metals were alloyed and made into money), 
gold or silver of the standard fineness, in any form 
not money — generally in small bars called ingots; 
gold and silver in the mass ; foreign or uncurrent 

bully, n. bool'-ll (Dut. bulderen, to bluster: Ger. 
pattern, to make a noise: Svv. butter, noise), a quarrel- 
some cowardly fellow ; one who blusters and threatens : 
v. to insult with noise ; to overawe by threats : bully- 
ing, imp. -li-ing: bullied, pp. -lid: bul'lirag, v. -rdg, 
to insult in a bullying manner. 

bulrush, n. bool'rush (bull, meaning large, and 
ru*h), a large strong kind of rush. 

bulse, n. bills (Port, bolsa, a purse), in India, a bag 
or purse in which to carry or measure valuables— as 

bulwark, n. booVwerk (Dut. bolwerck, a fortified 
wall : F. boulevart, the ramparts of a town, a broad 
street at Paris (boulevard) surrounding what was once 
the city: It. baluarte), a rampart; a fortification ; any 
means of defence or protection, originally made of the 
boles or trunks of trees ; the railboards of a ship : v. 
to fortify with a rampart; to protect. 

bum, v. burn (Dut. bommen, to beat a drum: L, 
bombus; Gr. bombos, a humming, buzzing noise), to 
make a whirring noise: bumble-bee, n. biim'bl — or 
humble-bee, hum'-bl—a, large bee, so called from the 
noise it makes— contracted into bumbee. 

bumastos, n. bob-mas' fos (Gr., an immense bunch of 
grapes), in geol. , a genus of silurian trilobites— so called 
from their oblong-oval or grape-like form, and known 
to collectors as the Barr trilobite. 

bumbailiff, n. bum'bal'lf (from the notion of a hum- 
ming or dunning noise), colloquially, an under-bailiff ; 
one employed to dun or arrest for debt. 

bumboat, n. bum'bot (Dut. bum boot, a very wide 
fishing-boat: Fris. bom, ground, a floor : Dut. boom, a 
beam), a boat employed in conveying provisions, &c, 
to outlying vessels. 

bump, n. bump (W. piumpio, to thump, to bang ; 
pivmp, a round mass : F. pompette, a pimple on the 
skin), a swelling ; a thump : v. to make a noise ; to 
strike against ; to thump : bumping, imp. : bumped, 
pp. bvmpt: bumper, n. bum'-per, a cup or glass swelled 
or filled to the brim. 

bumpkin, n. bum'-kln (Ger. baum; Dut. boom, a 
beam, a log), an awkward country fellow ; a rustic : 
bump kinly, ad. -II. 

bun or bunn, n. bun (F. bigne, a knob rising after a 
knock ; bignet, a little round loaf :. It. bugno, a boil or 
blain: Gael, bonnach; Scot, bannock, a little cake), a 
sweet cake. 

bunch, n. bunsh (Icel. banga, to beat ; bunki, a heap : 
Dan. bundt ; Sw. bunt, a bunch), a lump or knot ; a 
cluster ; a protuberance ; a number of things grow- 
ing together or tied together ; a miner's term for an 
irregular lump of ore: v. to swell out in roundness ; 
to form or tie in a lot or bunch: bunch'ing, imp.: 
bunched, pp. bunsht: bunchy, a. bunsh'-i, growing in 
bunches ; having tufts : bunch'iness, n. 

bundle, n. biin'dl (AS. byndel; Dut. bondel, some- 
thing bound up: Dan. bundt; Sw. bunt, a bundle), a 
number of things put together and tied : v. to tie up 
together: bundling, imp.: bundled, pp. bun'-dld: 
bundle-pillar, a column or pier -with others of small 
dimensions attached to it. 

bung, n. bung (old Ger. bunge, a drum : Dut. and F. 
bonde, a bung : W. bwng, a bung-hole), a large round 
cork or wooden stopper for the hole in a cask : v. to 
stop up the opening in a cask with a bung : bunging, 
imp.: bunged, pp. biingd: bung-hole, n. the hole in a 
cask by which it is filled or emptied. 

bungalow, n. bung'-ga-lo (native name, bangla), in 
India, a country-house of one floor or flat only. 

bungle, n. bung'-gl (Icel. bbngun, a rude performance : 
Dan. banke; Icel. banga, to strike, as nailing on a 
patch), anything ill done; a botch; an affair mis- 
managed : v. to do anything clumsily ; to mismanage 
an affair; to botch: bun'glihg, imp.: adj. awkwardly 
done: bungled, pp. bung'-gld: bun'glingly, ad. -li: 
bun'gler, n. -gUr, one who. 

bunion, n. biin'-yun (from bun, which see), a horny 
excrescence on a toe. 

bunker, n. bung'-ker (Sw. bunke, a wooden vessel: 
Icel. bunki, a heap"), a large wooden box for containing 
coals ; a bin : bunk, n. bungk, a large wooden case 
serving for a seat during the day, and for a bed at 

bunkum, n. bung'kum (from Buncombe,. North Ca- 
rolina, U.S.), speech-making for mere show. 

bunt, n. bunt (Dan. bundt; Sw. bunt, a bunch, a 
bundle), the belly or protuberance or bagging part of 
a sail : bunt-lines, n. plu. ropes on the bottoms of 
sails to draw them upwards : bunting, n. bun-ting, a 
thin woollen cloth used for flags, and variously col- 

bunting, n. bun'tlng (Ger. bunt, variegated), a name 
for different kinds of birds, as yellow bunting, corn- 
bunting, snow -bunting : bun'ter, n. -tcr, in geol., the 
upper new red sandstone. 

buoy, n. boy (Dut. boei; F. bouee; Sp. boya; Fris. 
boye, a lump or cluster), an empty cask, or a small 
structure of wood, made for floating on the water, to 
point out shallows or rocks, &c. : life-buoys, articles 
kept in ships to be thrown into the water when any 
person falls overboard to keep him afloat; afloat: v. 
to keep afloat; to bear up ; to support ; to sustain ; to 
place buoys ; to float : buoy'ing, imp. : buoyed, pp. 
bdyd: buoyancy, n. boli'-fin-sl, the quality of floating 
on water or in air ; lightness : buoy'ant, a. floating ; 
light; that cannot sink; buoy'antly, ad. -li: buoy- 
antness, n. 

buprestis, n. bH-pr&st'is (Gr. bouprestis, an insect 
that causes inflammation in oxen— from bous, an ox, 
and pretho, I set on fire), a genus of coleopterous in- 
sects remarkable for their brilliant metallic tints. 

bur or burr, n. bsr (F. bourre, flocks or locks of 
wool : It borra, any kind of stuffing : Gael, borr, to 
swell), a rough prickly covering of the seeds of some 
plants; the seed-vessel of the burdock; the rough 
edge left by a tool in cutting metal ; the guttural pro- 
nunciation of the letter r: burr'stone, certain silicious 
rocks used as millstones. 

burbot, n. bir'-bdt (F. barbote— from barbe, beard), 
a fish like an eel, but thicker and shorter— called also 

burden, n. ber'-dn— sometimes written bur'then (AS. 
byrthen : Ger. biirde— from beran, to bear), something 

mate, m(tt, far, luib; mete, mdt, Ju'r; pine, pin; note, not, mdve; 




carried; a load; something grievous or oppressive; 
the prevailing sentiment in a song; the chorus; a 
ship's capacity for carrying : v. to lay on a load ; to 
oppress : burdening, imp. -dn-ing : burdened, pp. 
-dnd: bur'dener.n. onewho: burdensome, a. -d/t-sum, 
grievous to be borne ; fatiguing ; oppressive : bur'den- 
Eomely, ad. -II: bur'densomehess, n. 

burdock, n. ber'-dok, or bur-weed, n. (see bur), a wild 
plant with a rough prickly head, having heart-shaped 
leaves and purple blossoms. 

bureau, n. bu-ro'(¥. a writing-table: It. buio, dark: 
Pol. bury, dark -grey : old F. bure, reddish-brown— the 
kind of cloth which covered the table), a table or chest 
of drawers with conveniences for writing and keeping 
papers ; an office of an ambassador, state secretary, 
&c, for business: bureaucracy, n.-?-ofc : ?-d-*iS(F. bureau, 
and Gr. krateo, I govern), the system by which the 
public service of a country is carried on in departments, 
each one under the control of a head ; government 
by or under the influence of officials: bureaucratic, 
a. -rO-krat'-ik, relating to or having the form of a 
bureaucracy ; also bu'reaucrat'ical : bu'reaucrat - 
ically, ad. -li: bureaue'ratist, n. -rok'rd-tlst, a,n advo- 
cate for or supporter of. 

burette, n. boo-ret' (F. a cruet, a vase), a graduated 
glass tube with stop -cock for delivering measured 
quantities of liquids. 

burg, burgh, n. berg— in Scot., ber'-H; also borough. 
bur'6, which see (AS. burp) — the same words differ- 
ently spelt; at first a fortified town, now a city or 
town that sends, or unites in sending, a member to 
Parliament; a town with certain privileges: royal 
burgh, a town holding a charter from the crown : 
burgh of barony, one erected by a feudal lord or su- 

burgage, n. bcr'-gdj (old F. burgeois : mid. L. burgen- 
sis), a tenure by which property is held in cities and 
towns: bur'ge3S,n. -jes, a citizen or freeman of a town : 
burgess-ship, n: burgher, n. berg'-e'r, the freeman or 
inhabitant of a burgh ; one of a religious sect in Scot- 
land: burgh'ership, n. : burgeois, n. bOr'zhwti (F.), a 
burgess : burgeois, n. boor -joys', a small printing-type ; 
also spelt bourgeois: burg-mote, n. burg'mot, in AS. 
times, a borough court. 

burglar, n. berg'-ler (Norm. F. bourglaire— from low 
L. burgi-latro, the robber of a dwelling), one who 
breaks into a house at night to steal ; a housebreaker : 
burgla'rious, a. -la'-rl-us, pert, to a theft by house- 
breaking: burgla'riously, ad. -II: burglary, n. Ur-%, 
the breaking into a house by night to steal. 

burgomaster, n. ber'-gomas-ter, or burgh'master 
{burg and master), one employed in the government 
of a city ; chief magistrate in one of the large towns 
in Holland, &c. 

burgout, n. ber'gdbt (W. burym, yeast ; gaivl, gruel), 
thick gruel used by seamen. 

Burgundy, n. ber'-gun-dl, a fine French wine from 
Burgundy : burgundy pitch, a resin colleetedfrom the 
spruce fir. 

burial, n. bSr-l-dl— see under bury. 

burin, n. bu'-rin (F. burin; It. borino, a sharp chisel 
for cutting stone with— probably from Fin. mora, to 
bite), an engraver's tool made of steel: bu'rinist, n. 
an engraver. 

burk, v. berk (name of an Irishman notorious for the 
crime), to murder by suffocation ; to smother : burk'- 
ing, imp. : burked, pp. burkt. 

burl, v. berl (Dut. borrel, a bubble: Sp. borla, a 
tuft), to pick knots and loose threads from cloth when 
foiling it : burl er, n. one who : burling, imp.: burled, 
pp. burld: burl'ing-iron, n. an instrument like large 
tweezers used in burling cloth. 

burlesque, n. ber-lesk' (F.: It. burlare, to make a 
jest of: Gael, burl, mockery), the turning any matter 
into ridicule ; the representation of a subject in mock 
gravity with the view of exciting laughter: adj. tend- 
ing to raise laughter ; droll ; comic : v. to turn a sub- 
ject into ridicule ; to treat a trifling matter with mock 
gravity to excite laughter: burlesquing, imp.: bur- 
lesqued, pp. -leskt': burlesqu'er, n. -lesk'er, one who : 
burlet'ta, n. -lel'-td (It.), a comic opera; a musical 

burly, a. ber'-li (Ir. borram, to grow big and prosper- 
ous: Gael, borr, a swelling;), big and fresh-looking; 
stout and jolly ; big and blustering : burliness, n. 
•ll-nes, the being big and blustering: hurly-burly, n. 
confusion; uproar. 

burn, n. bern (Goth, b rin nan; ; Dut. brevnen ; AS. 
byrnan, to bum), an injury to the flesh by the action 

of fire : v. to injure by fire ; to reduce to ashes by tho 
action of fire; to harden by fire; to scorch, as the 
clothes ; to be on fire ; to shine ; to rage with violence 
or passion ; to feel excess of heat in the body: burn'- 
ing, imp.: adj. very hot; scorching; powerful: n. the 
act of reducing to ashes ; a fire ; the vehemence or 
raging of passion : burned or burnt, pt. and pp. bernd, 
bernt: burn'er, n. the small movable part of a lamp 
or gas lustre, &c, next the flame: burning-glass, n. a 
convex lens of glass for collecting the rays of the sun 
so as to produce heat: burning-mirror, n. a concave 
surface, usually of p. dished metal, for the same purpose. 

burn, n. bern (Goth, brunna; Icel. brunnr ; Ger. 
born, a well, a spring: Gael, burn, water), a brook; a 
small running stream. 

burnish, v. ber'-nlsh (F. brv.nir, to polish : Sw. brijna, 
to sharpen ; brynsten, a whetstone), to polish by fric- 
tion; to make smooth and bright by rubbing; to be- 
come bright by friction : n. lustre ; brightness : bur- 
nishing, imp. : bur'nished, pp. -nlsht, polished: bur'- 
nisher, n. the person or tool that burnishes. 

burnoose, n. ber'nds or -n6z (Ar. burnus, a kind of 
high-crowned cap : Sp. albornoz, a Moorish cloak), nn 
upper garment with a hood worn by the Moors and 

burnt, pt. and pp. of burn, which see. 

burnt-ear, n. bernt'-cr, a disease in corn in which 
the whole ear appears black. 

burnt-offering, n. htrntof'-fer-ing, something burnt 
on an altar, as an offering for sin, called also burnt- 

burr, n. Mr, the lobe of the ear; a roughness in 
sounding the letter r — (see bur). 

burrock, n. ber'-rok(AS. burg, hill, and ork, diminu- 
tive termination), a small dam in a river for catching 

burrow, n. ber'-rd (AS. beorgan, to protect, to shel- 
ter : Dut berghen, to hide, to cover), an underground 
hole or excavation, where small animals such as the 
rabbit live: v. to make holes underground and live 
in them; to live in a concealed place: burrowing, 
imp. : bur rowed, pp. -rod. 

burse, n. bers (F. bourse, a purse, an exchange: low. 
L. bursa), a public building where merchants and 
money-dealers meet on business ; an exchange : n. bur- 
sar, n. ber'-ser, the treasurer of a college or monastery ; 
a student in a Scotch university to whom a sum of 
money is paid out of a fund set aside for that purpose ; 
an exhibitioner: bur'sarship, n. the position or office 
of abursar: bur'sary.n. -J, the treasury of a college or 
monastery ; the sum allowed to a bursar ; an exliibi- 

burst, n. berst (Ger. bersten ; AS. berstan ; Sw. brisfa ; 
F. briser, to break), a sudden breakage ; an explosion ; 
a violent outbreak : v. to break open forcibly or with 
sudden violence; to break away from; to come upon 
unexpectedly ; to break forth, or into, with violence ; 
to rend by force : burst ing, imp. : burst, pp. : burster, 
n. one who. 

burthen, n. ber'-thn : bur'thensome, a. : bur'then- 
someness, n.— see burden. 

burton, n. ber'-tn, in a ship, a small tackle of two 
single blocks, said to be named from the inventor. 

bury, v. bSr'-l (AS. birgan; Dut. berghen, to hide, to 
stowaway: Ger. bergen, to conceal), to put or place 
anything in the earth ; to lay a dead body in the 
grave ; to inter ; to hide or conceal ; to overwhelm : 
burled, pp. -Id: bur'ying, imp. n. -l-ing, the act of 
placing the dead in the earth : burying-place, burial- 
place, n. a graveyard; a cemetery: burial, n. -i-ol 
(AS. byrigels, a sepulchre), the act of laying a dead 
body in the earth, in a tomb, in a vault, or among 
water, as at sea. 

bush, n. boosh (Icel. buskr, a tuft of hair; buski, a 
bunch of twigs : F. bousche, a tuft, a wisp : Dut. 
bos, a bunch), a shrub or small tree ; a collection of 
shrubs of various kinds; a tract of uncultivated 
country covered with trees and shrubs of natural 
growth ; a fox's tail : bush-beater, n. bet'-er, one 
who beats amongst the cover to rouse game : bush- 
fighting, n. -fit'-lng, irregular warfare in a woody 
country : bushet, n. -it, a copse; a wood : bush'man, 
n. one who lives in the back settlements of a new 
country ; bushy, a. boosh'-i, full of bushes ; thick like 
the branches of a bush : bushlness, n. : bushranger, 
a robber, especially an escaped criminal, roaming 
about the woods and outlying parts of a new country. 

bush, n. boosh (Dut. busse : Ger. biichse ; Dan. bosse, 
a box), a round open piece of metal put into sheaves of. 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




blocks to prevent them wearing ; a circlet of metal put 
into anything to lessen friction : v. to line any hole 
or orifice with metal : bushing, imp. : bushed, pp. 
bobsht, lined with metal: bush'el, n. -61, a measure 
for dry goods, containing 8 gall, or 4 pks. ; a large 

business, busied— see busy. 

busk, n. busk (Icel. bukr, the trunk of an animal: 
Sp. buche, stomach, breast: F. busche, a log), a thin 
flat piece of steel, whalebone, or wood, worn by females 
in their stays. 

busk, v. busk (Icel. bua, to prepare, to dress; at 
buast, to bend one's steps), to dress ; to attire one's 
self; to deck: busking, imp. : busked, pp. buskt. 

buskin, n. biis'kln (Sp. bolzequin, buskins: Dut. 
broseken; F. brodequin, buskin), a kind of half boot 
worn by the ancient actors in tragedy : bus'kined, a. 

bus, n. bus, a contraction of omnibus. 

buss, n. bits (Ger. base: Dut. buyse: Sp. bucha), a 
boat for fishing. 

buss, n. bus (Gael. 6ms, a mouth: Sp. buz, a kiss: 
L. basium; It. bacio, a kiss: F. baiser, to kiss), a 
salute with the lips ; a rude or playful kiss : v. to kiss 
in a rude and playful manner: bus'sing, imp. : bussed, 
pp. bust. 

bust, n. biist (F. buste, the body of a man from the 
face to the middle : It. busto, a trunk without a head : 
Icel. butr, the trunk of a tree), the figure of a person 
showing the head, shoulders, and breast. 

bustard, n. bus'terd (F. outard, a great sluggish 
fowl: L. avis tarda, the sluggish bird), a kind of wild 

bustle, n. bus'sl{Icel. bustla, to make a splash in the 
water, to bustle), hurry and noise; great stir; rapid 
motion with noise ; a pad formerly used to expand 
petticoats : v. to be very active ; to stir quickly with 
noise: bustling, imp. -ling: bustled, pp. bils'sld: 
bustler, n. -ler, one who. 

busy, a. blz'-l (AS. biseg, occupation : Dut. besig, 
busy : F. besogne, work), very closely engaged ; con- 
stantly and actively employed ; meddling ; trouble- 
some : v. to employ constantly ; to keep employed ; 
to make busy : bus'ying, imp. -l-inrj : busied, pp. -Id: 
busily, ad. -ill: business, n. btz-nSs, employment ; 
occupation; anything that demands attention; af- 
fairs ; matter under consideration ; something to be 
done: business-like, a. as it ought to be done; 
thorough : busy-body, n. -bod'-l, a meddling person : 
busy-minded, a. having an active mind. 

but, conj. but (AS. butan; Dut. buitan, without), 
something more to supply ; unless : ad. only : prep. 
except : int. expressing surprise or dissent : but and 
ben (AS. butan, without; binnan, within), without the 
house and within; applied to the outer and inner 
rooms of a house of two apartments. 

but-eud, n. but'&nd, the blunt or larger end— see 

butcher, u. bobtch'er (F. boucher— from boc, a goat : 
It. beccaro— from becco, a goat), one who slaughters 
animals for food ; one who cuts up and sells meat or 
flesh; a cruel man; one who delights in blood: v. to 
kill or slaughter animals for food ; to murder with un- 
usual cruelty: butch'ering, imp. : butch'ered, pp. 
-6rd: butch'ery, n. -er-l, great slaughter; murder with 
great barbarity: butch'erly, ad. -ll: butch'erliness, 
n. : butcher-meat, n. the flesh of animals slaughtered 
for the table: butcher's-broom, n. the plant knee- 
holly, the branches of which are used by butchers for 

butler, n. but'ler (F. bouteillier— from bouteille, a 
bottle; rather from butt, a barrel: Sp. boteria, the 
store of barrels), a servant in wealthy families who 
has the charge of the plate, liquors, &c. : butlerage, 
n. -ler-aj, a duty on wine : butlership, n. the office of 

butment — see abutment. 

butt, v. but (Dut. batten, to thrust: It. botto, a 
blow), to strike with the head like a goat or a ram : 
n. a push or thrust given by an animal with its head: 
but'ting, imp. : but'ted, pp. : to come full butt 
against, to come upon suddenly, so as to make a 
sounding blow; butt-end of a thing (Icel. butr, the 
trunk : F. bout, end : W. mot, a stump : Ger. butt, a 
short, thick thing), the striking end ; the thick end, 
as of a plank in a ship : butt, n. a mound of turf in a 
field to support a target for shooting at ; the prick in 
the middle of a target (F. but) : to make a butt of a 
person, to make him a mark for the jests of the com- 

mdte, melt, far, law; mete, mdt, 

pany ; to touch at the end (F. buter) : butts, n. strips 
at the edges-ef-a_plQughed field : but-lands, waste 
ground : butt and butt, joining end to end without 

butt, n. but (F. botte; mod. Gr. boutis, a cask: 
Sp. bota, a wine-skin), a large barrel ; a butt of wine 
contains 126 gallons ; a butt of beer, 108 gallons. 

butte, n. but (F. a small rising ground), in the 
western parts of North America, detached hills and 
ridges which rise abruptly, intermediate in height 
between hills and mountains. 

butter, n. but'ter (Bav. buttern, to shake backwards 
and forwards: L. butyrum; Gr. bouturon, butter), an 
oily or fatty substance got from milk or cream by 
churning or shaking it: v. to cover or spread with 
butter, as bread : but'tering, imp. : but tered, pp. 
-terd: buttermilk, n. the milk left after the butter 
has been separated: but'tery, a. -ter-l, like butter: 
buttercups, bright yellow wild flowers in the form 
of a cup : butterfly (Dut. boterschijte—iiom the resem- 
blance of the excrement of certain species to butter), 
a common insect with large wings, so called from the 
colour of a yellow species : butterman, a vendor of 
butter : butter-tree, a tree whose seeds yield a sub- 
stance closely resembling butter. 

butteris, n. but'ter-ls (F. boutoir— from bouter, to 
thrust), a steel tool for paring the hoofs of horses. 

buttery, n. but'ter-l (Sp. boteria, the store of wine 
in a ship kept in botas or leather bags), a store for 
drinkables ; the room where provisions are laid up. 

buttocks, n. plu. but'toks (Dut. bout, the leg or 
thigh of an animal ; boutje, a little gigot— from butt, 
the thick end), the rump, or protuberant part of the 
body behind ; the convexity of the hinder part of a 

button, n. but'tn (F. bouton, a bud, a button: W. 
both, a boss ; botwm, a button), a small round article 
used for fastening parts of the dress together : v. to 
fasten with a button : buttoning, imp. but'-ning : but- 
toned, pp. but'tnd: button-hole, the slit in which the 
button is caught. 

buttress, n. but'-tre's (F. bouter, to thrust ; boutant, 
a buttress or shore-post), a prop or support for a wall ; 
any prop or support ; constructed of open masonry, it 
is called a flying buttress : v. to support ; to prop : 
buttressing, imp. : but'tressed, pp. -trest. 

butyraceous, a. bii'tl-ra'shus (L. butyrum, butter), 
having the properties of or containing butter: bu- 
tyric, a. -tlr-ik, pert, to or derived from butter— ap- 
plied to an acid found in butter. 

buxeou3, a. buks'e-us (L. buxus, the box-tree), pert, 
to the box-tree. 

buxom, a. biiks'-iim (AS. bocsam, obedient: Fris. 
boegsum, flexible, obedient), gay; lively; brisk and 
healthy— applied to a woman: Dux'omly, ad. -II: bux'- 

buy, v. bl (AS. byegan; Goth, bugjan, to buy, to 
purchase), to obtain a right to anything by giving 
money or value for it ; to purchase ; to bribe or cor- 
rupt : buying, imp. : pp. bawt, purchased: 
buyer, n. bl'er, one who buys. 

buzz, v. buz (an imitative word: It. buzzicare, to 
whisper, to buzz), to make a noise like bees ; to whis- 
per ; to make a hissing or murmuring noise ; to spread 
secretly : n. a hum ; a noise like bees and insects ; a 
hissing or murmuring noise caused by the whispering 
of great numbers: buzzing, imp. : buzzed, pp. buzd: 
buz'zingly, ad. -II: buz'zer, n. one who. 

buzzard, n. buz'zerd (F. busard: It. bozzago), a 
species of hawk; a blockhead or dunce: adj. sense- 
less ; stupid : buzzardet, n. buz'zer-det, a species of 
hawk much like the buzzard. 

by, prep, bl (AS. bi : Ger. bei: Dut. bij: Sans, abhi), 
near ; close ; at hand, &c. : ad. near : by, sometimes 
bye, as a prefix, means concealed ; quiet ; out of the 
direct way ; private, &c. : by-corner, n. a private 
place : by-lane, n. a private lane : by-law, n. a law 
made by a town or society to regulate its affairs : by- 
name, n. nickname: by-past, a. past; gone by: 
by-path, n. or by-road, n. a quiet or private road: 
by'stander, n. one who stands near ; a spectator : by- 
street, n. a street off the main street: by-stroke, a 
sly or secret stroke : by- walk, n. or by-way, a private 
walk: by-word, n. a common saying; a proverb: 
by-gone, n. a past incident or event : let by-gones be 
by-gones, let the past be forgotten : to stand by, to 
stand aside : to stand by one, to stand at his side ; to 
assist: to pass by, to pass at the side of: by-and-by 
or by-and-bye, ad. soon ; shortly : by-the-by, ad. by 

her; pine, pXn; note, not, move; 




the way; introductory to some things not in the 
direct course of conversation. 

byre, n. Mr, in Scotland, a house for sheltering 

byssus, n. bls'sils (L.— from Gr. bussos, fine flax), in 
conch., the fine silky filaments by which the mussel 
and other bivalves attach themselves to the rocks 
and sea-bottom; in bot., the silky tufts of mould or 
fungus -growth springing from damp and decaying 

substances: bys'solite, n. -6-llt (Gr. bussos; lithos, a 
stone), a term applied to fine fibrous varieties of ami- 
anthus, tremolite, &c: bys'sine, a. -sin, of or like silk : 
byssa'ceous, a. -sa'shils, in bot., composed of deli- 
cate filaments resembling cotton or wool : bys'soid, a. 
-sdyd (Gr. eidos, form), in bot., very slender, like a 

Byzantine, a. blz-dn'tln, relating to Byzantium: 
byzantine, n. blz'dn-tin, a large gold coin. 

c, contr. for L. centum, a hundred. 

caaba, n. kcl'd-bd (Ar. ka'bah, a square building), 
a black sacred stone in the temple at Mecca, said to 
have been given by an angel to Abraham ; the temple 

cab, n. kdb (Heb. gabab, to hollow), in Eastern coun- 
tries, a measure for dry goods. 

cab, n. kdb (contraction for cabriolet), a one-horse 
coach: cabman, n.: cabstand, n. 

cabal, n. kd-bdl' (F. cabale, a club, a party: Heb. 
gabbdldh, tradition, mysterious doctrine), a few men 
united secretly for some party purpose; a junto: v. 
to design secretly; to intrigue: caballing, imp.: ca- 
balled, pp. -bdld' : caballer, n. one who. Note.— In 
its modern sense of "political intrigue or plotting," 
cabal was first used in 1671, when, by " a whimsical 
coincidence," it was found to be formed by the initial 
letters of the names of the members of the Cabinet- 
Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauder- 

cabala, n. kdb'd-ld, or caTsal, sometimes cal)alism, 
n. (see above), a secret science or knowledge which the 
Jewish rabbins alleged they possessed, and by which 
they professed to be able to explain all Scripture diffi- 
culties : cab'alist, n. -list, one skilled in the secrets 
of the cabala: cabalistic, a. -tlk, or cabalis'tical, 
a. -tl-kdl, having a secret meaning: cabalis tical ly, 
ad. -II. 

caballine, a, kdb'dl-lln (L. caballus, an inferior riding 
or pack horse: Gr. kaballes : It. cavallo: F. cheval), 
pert, to a horse : n. a coarse variety of aloes used as 
a medicine for horses. 

cabaret, n. kdb'd-rd (F.), a house where liquors are 
retailed; a tavern. 

cabbage, n. kdb'bdj (F. cdbocJie: It. capo; old Sp. 
cabo, a head), a well-known vegetable ; v. (F. cabas ; 
Dut. kabas; Sp. cabacho, a frail or rush basket), to 
retain part of an article ; to pilfer : n. any part of a 
thing retained unjustly: cabbaging, imp. : cab"baged, 
pp. -bdjd : cabbage-tree, n. a species of palm-tree, 
bearing a substance which is eaten like cabbage. 

cabbling, n. kdb'-llng, the breaking up of puddled 
iron into small pieces, which are reheated and then 
wrought into bar-iron. 

cabin, n. kdb'-ln (F. cabane; It. capianna, a shed or 
hovel : W. caban, a booth or hut), a small room or en- 
closure ; a shed ; a small apartment in a ship : v. to 
live or confine in a cabin : cabining, imp. : cabined, 
pp. -Ind : cabin-boy, n. a boy who waits on the passen- 
gers and officers of a ship : cab'inet, n. -nit, a small 
private room or closet ; the secret council of a sover- 
eign ; the executive government of a country, so called 
because originally held in a small room or cabinet ; 
a piece of furniture containing boxes and drawers: 
adj. pert, to : cabinet-council, n. a confidential meet- 
ing of a sovereign's advisers : cabinet-maker, a man 
who makes articles of household furniture. 

cable, n. kd'-bl (F. cable; Sp. cabre— from old F. 
chaable; mid. L. cabulus, an engine of waiv Icel. 
kadal, a rope : Ar. habl, a rope), a rope or chain of 
various degrees of thickness, used in ships : a cable's- 
length, 720 feet : cabled, a. kd'-bld, fastened with a 
strong rope : caTilet, -Met, a small cable : cable- 
mouldings, in arch., wreathed mouldings resembling 
the twisted strands of a rope. 

caboched, a. kd-boshf (F. caboche, head: L. caput, 
head), in her., having the head of a beast with a full- 
faced view, and nothing of the neck seen. 

cabocle, n. kab'6-kl, in Brazil, a compact brick-red 
mineral, resembling jasper. 

caboose, n. kd-bos' (Dut. kabuis; Dan. kabys; Sw. 
kabysa, a cook's room in a ship), the kitchen or cook- 
ing-place of a ship, called a galley in a ship of war. 

cabriolet, n. kdb'-rl-O-ld' (F.— from cabriole, a goat- 

leap, a caper), a one-horse coach with a hood and a 
cover for the legs. 

cacao, n. kd-kd'-o (Mexican, cacauatl), the chocolrte 
tree : cocoa, n. ko'-ko, a substance prepared from the 
cacao nibs or nuts. 

cachalong, n. kdsh'-d-long (found on the banks of 
the river Cach, in Bucharia, whence the name), a milk 
or blue white variety of opal. 

cachalot, n. kdsh'd-lot(Y.: Dut. kazilot: Sw. kaselot), 
the sperm or spermaceti whale. 

cache, n. kdsh (F. a lurking-hole), a secret store or 
deposit of supplies, as of food. 

cachectic, a. kd-kek'-tlk, also cachec'tical, a, -tl-kdl 
(Gr. kakos, bad ; (h)exis, habit), pert, to a vitiated or 
deranged state of the body called cachexia, -kek'-sl-d; 
also cachex'y, n. -si. 

cachinnation, n. kdk'-ln-nd'-shun (L. cachinnare, to 
laugh aloud), loud or immoderate laughter : cachin- 
natory, a. kd-kln'-nd-tor'-l, laughing immoderately. 

cacique, n. kd-sek' (Up.), a petty king, particularly of 
anc. Mexico. 

cack, n. kdk (Dan. kakke ; Dut. kakken ; Ger. kacken ; 
L. cacare, to go to stool), to go to stool ; to ease the 
body by stool : cack'ing, imp. : cacked, pp. kakt. 

cackle, v. kdk'kl (an imitative word: Sw. kakla; F. 
caqueter, to chatter: Dut. kaeckelen; Turk, kakulla, to 
cackle), to make a noise like a hen or other domestic 
fowl ; to make a silly noise : n. the noise of a fowl, as 
a hen ; idle talk : cackling, imp.: n. the noise of a hen 
or goose : cackled, pp. kak'ld : cackler , n. -ler, one 

cacoethes, n. kdk'6-e-thez (Gr. kakos, bad ; ethos, 
custom, habit), bad custom or habit, generally applied 
to scribblers : cacography, n. kd-kog'-rd-fl (Gr. grapho, 
I write), bad spelling: cacology, n. kd-kol'6-jl (Gr. 
logos, a word), bad grammar or speaking: cacoph- 
ony, n. kd-koj'6-nl (Gr. phone, a voice), disagreeable 
or harsh sound of words; discord: cacophonous, a. 
■6-niis, and cac'ophonlc, a. -6-fon'lk, harsh-sounding. 

cactus, n. kdk-tiis (L. a prickly plant), a tribe of 
tropical plants with fleshy prickly stems and leaves ; 
a genus of flowering plants ; the Indian fig tribe. 

cad, n. kdd (a contr. of cadger, which see), an om- 
nibus-guard ; an errand-boy ; a person employed 
under another in job-work. 

cadaverous, a. kdddv'er-us (L. cadaver, a dead 
body), pale; wan; ghastly: cadaverously, ad. -II: 
cadav'erousness, n. 

caddis, n. kdd'-dls, or caddis-worm (corruption of 
cod-bait: Ger. koder, bait), a grub found in a case 
of broken shells, gravel, &c, a favourite bait with 

caddis, n. kdd'-dls (Scot, caddis, lint for dressing a 
wound : Gael, cadas, cotton : F. cadis, a sort of serge), 
a kind of worsted lace or ribbon. 

caddy, n. kdd'-dl (Chin, catty, the weight of the 
small packets in which tea is made up), a small box 
for tea. 

cade, n. kdd (L. cadus, a bottle), a barrel ; a cask. 

cadence, n. kd'dens (L. cadens, a falling: It. ca- 
denza: F. cadence), a fall; a decline ; the modulation 
of the tones of the voice in reading; tone; sound; the 
manner of ending a piece of music : v. to regulate 
by musical measure : ca'denced, pp. -ddnst: cadenza, 
n. kd-den'-zd (It.), modulation of the voice in singing. 

cadet, n. kd-def (F. cadet, the younger son of a 
family: Sp. cabdillo, lord, master: Icel. cad, a new- 
born offspring), a young man in a military school ; a 
youth appointed to the army, but not yet holding a 
commission ; a younger son : cadetship, n. 

cadger, n. kdj'-er (cadge, the round frame of wood on 
which the hawks were carried: W. cod, a bag or 
pouch), one who brings butter, eggs, and poultry to 
the market ; a huxter. 

coiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, (here, zeal. 




cadi, n. kd'di, a Turkish magistrate or judge. 

cadmean, a. kdd-me'dn, relating to Cadmus, who 
is said to have introduced into Greece the sixteen 
simple letters of the alphabet, hence called Cadmean 

cadmium, n. kdd'ml-um (L. cadniia, an ore of zinc), 
a bluish-white metal discovered in 1818 ; an old term 
for zinc ore : cadmium yellow, a pigment of an in- 
tense yellow colour. 

caducean, a. kdd'il-sS'dn (L. caduceum; Gr. keru- 
keion, a herald's staff : It. caduceo : F. caducee), be- 
longing to Mercury's caduceus or wand. 

caducous, a. kd-du'kus (L. caducus, falling— from 
cado, I fall), falling early, as a leaf ; having a tendency 
to fall off. 

caecum, n. se'kiim (L. ccecus, blind), in anat., the 
blind gut, applied to a part of the intestinal canal : 
caecal, a. se'-kdl, pert, to ; having a closed end. 

caespitose, a. sSs'pi-toz, also ces- (L. cccspes, turf), 
in hot., applied to plants which are densely crowded 
in turf-like patches. 

caesura, n. se-zu'rd, also ces- (L. from ccesum, to 
cut), in verse, the resting of the voice on a syllable ; in 
Latin verse, the caesura divides the verse or line into 
two parts : caesu'ral, a. -red, pert. to. 

cafe, n. kdf'-fd (F.— see coffee), a coffee-house : caf- 
fe'ic, a. -fe'lk, of or pert, to coffee : caffeine, n. -in, 
a bitter stimulating principle found in coffee. 

Caffre, n. kdf'fr (Ar. k&fir, infidel), one of a power- 
ful race or tribe in South Africa. 

caftan, n. kdf'tdn (Turk, qua/tan: Russ. kaftan: 
F. cafetan), a Persian or Turkish vest. 

cage, n. kdj (L. cavea, a hollow place, a coop : Sp. 
gavia: It. gabbia: F. cage), a box for birds, generally 
made of wire-work; an enclosure for wild beasts; 
outer work of timber ; the vessel for bringing up coals, 
&c. from pits : v. to shut up or confine : caging, imp. : 
caged, pp. kdjd. 

caiman or cayman, n. kd'mdn (name given by 
natives of Guiana), the American crocodile. 

cainozoic, a. ka'no-zo'lk (Gr. kainos, recent; zoe, 
life), in geol., applied to the upper stratified systems 
holding recent forms of life. 

caique, n. ka-ek' (F. and Sp. : Turk, qaiq, a boat), 
a small Spanish ship of war ; a light skiff used on 
the Bosphorus. 

cairn, n. Jcdrn (Gael, and W. earn, a heap), a heap of 
stones of a conical form and crowned by a fiat stone, 
found in various parts of the country, generally over 
an anc. place of sepulture. 

cairngorm, n. kdrn'gawrm, a brownish - yellow or 
amber-coloured variety of rock-crystal found in the 
Cairngorm mountains. 

caisson, n. kds'son or kds-sobn' (F.), a wooden box 
filled with military stores ; an ammunition-waggon ; 
a wooden frame used in laying foundations in water. 

caitiff, a. kd'tlf (F. chetif, poor, wretched : It. cat- 
tivo, a wretch), base; vile; wicked and mean: n. a 
mean, despicable person. 

cajeput, n. kdj'e-piit (Malay), an oil from the East 

cajole, v. kd-j6l' (F. cajoler, to flatter), to deceive 
by flattery ; to coax : cajo'ling, imp. : cajoled', pp. 
-jold': cajo ler, n. one who : cajolery, n. -ler-i, flat- 

cake, n. kak (Sw. kaka, a cake or loaf: Dan. kage: 
Dut. koeck: Ger. kuchen), a mass of dough baked of 
various shapes ; thin flat pieces of oatmeal dough 
baked; a flattish mass of anything adhering or stick- 
ing together : v. to form into a flattish mass ; to 
harden into a lump: ca'king, imp. : caked, pp. kdkt: 
caking-coal, the kinds of coal which cake or run 
together in the fire. 

calabash, n. kdl'd-bdsh' (Sp. calebaza: F. calebasse— 
from Ar. garah, a kind of gourd ; aibas, dry), a vessel 
or cup made of the shell of a gourd ; a large fruit 
shaped like a pear. 

calamary, n. knl'd-md'rl, (mod. Gr. kahimari, ink- 
stand: L. calamus, a reed-pen), the cuttle-fish. 

calamine, n. kdl'-d-mln (L. calamus, a reed — because 
when smelting it adheres to the furnace in the form 
of reeds), common name for the carbonate of zinc: 
cal'amite, n. -mlt, a soft asparagus-green variety of 
tremoRta: cal'amites, n. plu., in geol., fossil stems 
occurring in the coal-measures— so called from their 
resemblance to gigantic reeds : calamus, n. kdl'd-m its, 
a. rush ; a reed, anciently used as a pen to write with, 
or made into a musical instrument ; in bot, a hollow 
inarticulate stem: calamiferous, a. -mlf'er-us (L. 

calamus, a reed; fero, I bear), in hot., producing 
reeds; reedy. 

calamity, n. kd-ldm'l-tl (F. catamite; L. calamitas, 
adversity), a great misfortune or cause of misery : 
calamitous, a. -tits, producing distress and misery ; 
full of misery: calamitously, ad. -U: calamltous- 
ness, n. 

calash, n. kd-ldsh' (F. caliche: It. calessa: Sp. 
calesa— from Serv. and Pol. kolo, a circle or wheel), a 
light carriage with low wheels ; a hooded carriage ; a 
lady's hood. 

calathiform, a. kd-ldth'4-fawrm (Gr. kalathis, a 
basket; L. forma, shape), in bot., hemispherical or 
concave, like a bowl or cup. 

calcaneum, n. kdl-kd'ne-itm (L. the heel), in anat., 
the great bone of the heel: calca'neal, a. -ne-dl, pert, 

calcar, n. kdl'kdr (L. a spur), in bot., a projecting 
hollow or solid process from the base of an organ ; 
the furnace in which the first calcination of sand and 
potashes for making glass is effected : cal'carate, a. 
-at, having a spur, or like one. 

calcareous, a. kdl-kd'-ri-us (L. calcarius, pert, to lime 
— from calx, lime : F. calcaire: It. calcario), having the 
qualities of lime ; containing lime : calca'reous'ness, 
n. : calcareous tufa, a loose and friable variety of car- 
bonate of lime : cal'carif'erous, a. -kd-rlf'er-us (L. 
fero, I bear), lime-yielding. 

calcedony, n. kdl-sed'6-nl (from Chalcedon in Bithy- 
nia), a mineral of the quartz family, closely allied to 
the opal and agate— also written chalcedony : calced- 
onyx, n. -niks, varieties of agates of an opaque white 
colour, alternating with translucent greyish. 

calceola, n. kdl-se'6-ld (L. calceolus, a small shoe), 
in geol., a fossil brachiopod, having its under or 
central valve flatly conical, or compressed like the 
point of a shoe, and fitted with a lid-like upper 
valve: calceolaria, n. kdl'sl-6-ld'rl-d, slipper-wort; 
a plant producing clusters of beautiful yellow or 
purple flowers. 

calcine, v. kdl'sin (It. calcina, lime— from L. calx, 
lime— gen. calcis : F. calciner, to calcine), to reduce 
to powder by means of heat ; to reduce a substance 
by heat to a calx state: cal'cining, imp.: cal'cined, 
pp. -sind: calcin'able, a. -d-bl: cal'cina'tion, n. -si- 
nd'shun, the act of reducing to powder by heat ; the 
process of reducing any ore or mineral to a calx by 
heat: calcif'erous, a. -sif'-ir-its (L. fero, I produce), 
containing lime: cal'ciform, a. -si-fawrm (L. forma, 
a shape), in the form of calx or lime : cal'cite, n. -sit, 
crystallised varieties of carbonate of lime : cal'cium, 
n. -sl-um, the metallic base of calx or lime. 

calcography, n. kdhkog'-rd-fi (L. calx, lime— gen. 
calcis : Gr. grapho, I write), the art of engraving in 
the style of a chalk-drawing. 

calc- sinter, a. kdlk'sln'ter (L. calx, lime— gen. cal- 
cis : Ger. sintern, to drop), a stalagmitical orstalag- 
titical deposit from calcareous waters : calc-spar or 
calcareous-spar, crystallised carbonate of lime or cal- 
cite : calc-tuff, -titf or calcareous-tufa, -td'-fd, a porous 
carbonate of lime, generally deposited from springs. 

calculate, v. kdl'-ku-ldt (L. calculus, a pebble: F. 
calculer, to calculate), to perform any operation in 
arithmetic or mathematics in order to find a result ; 
to compute ; to estimate anything : cal'cula'ting, 
imp. : cal'cula'ted, pp. : cal'cula'tor, n. one who : 
calculable, a. -Id bl .- cal'cula'tion, n. -Id'shun, com- 
putation ; the result of an operation in arithmetic ; 
an estimate arrived at in the mind by comparing vari- 
ous facts : cal'cula'tive, a. -tlv, tending to calculate. 

calculus, n. kdl'ku-lits (L. a pebble), in surg., the 
stone in the bladder ; a part of the mathematics : cal'- 
cular'y, a. -ler'i, relating to the disease of the stone : 
n. the mass of little stony knots in some fruits : cal'- 
culous, a. -lus, stony ; gritty ; also cal'culose, a. -loz. 

caldron, n. kawl'dron (L. caldarium, a vessel for 
supplying hot water to a bath: F. chaudron: Sp. 
calderon), a large kettle or boiler: caldera, kdl-de'rd, 
a Spanish term for the deep caldron -like cavities 
which occur on the summits of extinct volcanoes. 

Caledonian, a. kttl'e-do'nl-dn (Caledonia, name of 
Scotland), Scotch : n. a Scotchman : caledonite, n. 
kd-led'-d-nit, the cupreous sulphato-carbonate of lead, 
found at the Leadhills in Scotland. 

calefacient, a. kdl'ifd'shl-Snt (L. caleo, I am 
warm ; facio, I make), warming ; giving heat : n. a 
substance which excites heat at the part where ap- 
plied : cal'efac'tion, n. -fdk'-shun, the operation of 
making warm ; state of being warm : cal'efy, v. -fl, 

mate, mdt.fCir, law; mete, mSf, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 


to become hot; to be heated: cal'efying, imp.: cal'- 
efled, pp. -fid. 

calendar, n. k&l'Sn-dir (L. calendarium, an account- 
book: It. calendario,— from L. calendar, the first day 
of the Roman month — from calo, I proclaim), an 
almanac ; a register of the days, weeks, and months 
in the year, &c. : v. to register : calendaring, imp. : 
cal'endared, pp. -clird : calends, n. plu. kdl'endz, first 
day of each month among the Romans : calen'drical, 
a. -dri-kdl, pert. to. 

calender, n. kdl'-en-der (F. calandre: L. cylindrus; 
Gr. kulindros, a cylinder), a press, consisting of heated 
rollers, between which cloths are passed to finish 
them off: v. to press between heated rollers: calen- 
dering, imp.: calendered, pp. -died: calendrer, n. 
-drer, one who calenders cloths. 

calendula, n. kd-len'du-la (L. calendar, the first day 
of the Roman month), a genus of plants including the 
common marigold; a substance obtained from the 
marigold, used in medicine. 

calenture, n. kdl'en-tnr (Sp. calentar, to heat), a 
violent fever, chiefly affecting sailors in hot climates. 

calescence, n. kii-les'-sens (L. caleo, I am warm), a 
growing warm. 

calf, n. kaf; calves, plu. kdvz (AS. cealf: Ger. 
kalb: Dan. kalv), the young of the cow kind; a stupid 
or cowardly person : calve, v. kdv, to bring forth a 
calf, as a cow : calving, imp.: calved, pp. kdvd: calf- 
ish, a. -ish, stupid : calf-skin, the skin of a calf dressed 
or made into leather. 

calf of the leg (Gael, culpa: Icel. kalfi— the primary 
meaning being a lump), the thick Meshy part of the 
leg behind. 

calibre or caliber, n. kdl'lber (Sp. calibre, bore, 
diameter, quality— from Ar. kalib, form, mould : F. 
calibre: It. calibro), the diameter of a body ; the bore 
of a gun ; capacity of the mind ; the extent of mental 
or intellectual qualities possessed by any one: cal'- 
ibered, pp. a. -l-berd, measured with compasses called 

calico, n. kdl-ikd (from Calicut in E. Indies: F. call- 
cot), imprinted cotton cloth: calico-printing, n. the 
art of dyeing cotton cloth, or covering cotton cloth 
with figures of various colours : calico-printer, n. one 

calid, a. kdl'id (L. calidus, warm), hot; burning; 
ardent: calidity, n. kdlld'l-tl. 

caligraphy or calligraphy, n. kd-ltg'rd-fl (Gr. kalos, 
beautiful, fair; graphs), I write), elegant or beautiful 
writing: caligraphist, n. one who writes beautifully: 
caligraphic, a. kal'l-graf'-lk, pert. to. 

calipash, n. JaU'-i-p&sh (F. carapace; Sp. galapago, 
fresh-water tortoise), the part of a turtle belonging to 
the upper shell : cal'ipee, n. -l-pe, the part belonging 
to the under shell. 

calipers, n. plu. kal'l-perz, also spelt callipers (from 
calibre), a kind of compasses for measuring the di- 
ameters of round bodies. 

caliph, n. ka'llf(Ar. khalif, a successor: Sp. calif a), 
the title assumed by the successors of Mahomet ; cal- 
iphate, n. -Ifdt, the office or government of the caliph. 

calisthenics, n. plu. kai'ts-thin'-iks (Gr. kalos, beau- 
tiful ; sthenos, strength), the art of promoting the 
health of the body by exercise : cal'isthen'ic, a. pert. to. 

calk, v. kawk(L. calcare, to press or stuff : F. cauqw, 
a piece of lint placed in the orifice of a wound : Gael. 
calc, to ram, to drive), to close the seams between a 
ship's planking with oakum to prevent them admit- 
ting water; to point or rough the shoe of a horse to 
prevent its slipping on ice: calk'ing, imp.: calked, 
pp. kawkt: caJk'er, n. one who: calkins, n. plu. 
hawk'lns, the prominent parts of a horse's shoes shar- 
pened to prevent its slipping on the ice. 

call, v. kaul (L. calo, I call : Icel. kalla : Dan. kalde), 
to name ; to invite to come ; to summon ; to warn ; to 
exhort ; to visit : n. a summons or invitation ; a com- 
mand; a short visit: calling, imp.: n. business; em- 
ployment: called, pp. kaTchl: caller, n. one who: to 
call down, to invite or bring down : to call back, to 
bring again ; to revoke : to call for, to claim or re- 
quire : to call to mind, to remember : to call out, to 
speak aloud; to summon to service; to call in, to 
withdraw from circulation ; to collect : to call forth, 
to bring out: to call off, to bring away; to divert: 
to call up, to bring before ; to bring to recollection : 
to call over, to read aloud the several items or par- 
ticulars of anything : to call on, to pay a visit to ; to 
pray to or worship : to call at, to visit a place. 

callipers, n. plu.— see calipers. 



callous, a. Ml'liis (L. callus, hard thick skin : Fin. 
kallo, the scalp or skull), hard ; hardened in mind ; 
unfeeling: callously, ad. -U : callousness, n.: callos- 
ity, n. -los'-l-tl, a horny hardness on the skin: callose, 
a. -loz, in bot., having hard spots or callosities. 

callow, a. kdl'id (L. calvus, bare: AS. calo; Dut. 
kael, bald), naked ; destitute of feathers, as a bird. 

calm, a. kdm (F. calme; It. Sp. calma, absence of 
wind, quiet), still; quiet; tranquil; undisturbed: n. 
stillness ; quiet ; repose ; freedom from agitation or 
motion: v. to still; to quiet; to free from agitation; 
to pacify ; to tranquillise : calming, imp. : calmed, 
pp. kCnud: calmer, n. one who: calmly, ad. -li: 
calmness, n. 

calomel, n. kdl'6-mel (Gr. kalos, beautiful; melas, 
black), a preparation of mercury much used in medi- 
cine ; an ore of mercury. 

caloric, n. kdlor'lk (L. calor, heat: F. calor ique: 
It. calore), the cause or matter which produces heat: 
calorific, a. -If -Ik (L. facio, I make), causing heat: 
calor ifica'tion, n. -l-kd'shun : calorifere, n. kdlor- 
>-jCr (F. — from L. calor, heat ; ferre, to bring), an 
apparatus for conveying and distributing heat, par- 
ticularly in conservatories: cal'orime'ter, n. -im'e-ter 
(L. calor, heat; Gr. metron, a measure), an apparatus 
for measuring the heat contained in bodies. 

calotte, n. ka-lotf (F.), a cap worn on the top of the 
head as an ecclesiastical ornament in France. 

calotype, n. kdl'otlp (Gr. kalos, beautiful ; tupos, a 
type or stamp), photographic process. 

caloyer, n. kd-lol/'er (mod. Gr. kalogeros, a monk— 
from Gr. kalos, good; geron, an old man), a Greek 

caltrop or calthrop, n. kdl'trop (AS. coltrccppe, a 
species of thistle), an iron instrument with four spikes, 
placed in ditches or breaches as an obstacle to the 
advance of troops ; a plant whose fruit is armed with 

calumba, n. kd-liim'bd (kalumb, the name given to 
it in Mozambique), the root of a plant used as a tonic : 
cal'umbine, -bin, the bitter extract of calumba root. 

calumet, n. kdl'o'o-met (F.— from L. calamus, a reed), 
a pipe smoked by the American Indians when they 
make peace or a treat}-— hence a symbol of peace. 

calumniate, v. kd-lumhildt (L. calumnia, a mali- 
cious slander: F. calomnie), to accuse falsely and 
maliciously; to slander; to spread evil reports of any 
one maliciously : calum'nia'ting, imp. : calumniated, 
pp. : calum nia tor, n. one who : calum'nia tion, n. 
-d'shun: calumnious, a. -nhus, slanderous; injurious 
to character: calum niously, ad. -ll: calumniatory, 
a. -tor'-l, slanderous: calumny, n. kdl'umnl, slander; 
false accusation ; the making and spreading of reports 
injurious to character. 

Calvary, n. kal'va-rl (L. calvaria, the skull of a 
man or beast: F. cahaire. Calvary), the place where 
Christ was crucified; a small chapel in a Rom. Cath. 
country wherein are represented the scenes of Christ's 
passion and crucifixion. 

calve, v. kdv— see calf. 

Calvinism, n. kai'vin-izm , the doctrines of Calvin, 
the Swiss Protestant reformer : Cal'vinist, n. one who 
holds these : Cal'vinis tic, a. -Is'-tik, also Cal'vinis'- 
tical, a. -ll-kdl. 

calx, n. kdlks, plu. calxes, kdlk'sSs, or calces, kdl- 
sez (L. calx, limestone), lime or chalk; the ashes or 
residuum left after burning a metal or mineral. 

calymene, n. kdl'i-mene (Gr. kalemenai, to call by 
name), in geol., a genus of trilobites having deeply- 
trilobed shells— called also " Dudley locusts." 

calyptra, n. kd-Up'trd (Gr. kahtptra, a covering for 
the head of a woman), in bot., little hoods covering the 
inflorescence of mosses : calyp'trate, a. -trdt, having a 

calyx, n. kd'llks, plu. calyxes, kcl'-Uk-sSs, or calyces, 
kdl'l-ses (L.— from Gr. kalux, the cup of a flower), in 
bot., the envelope or outer covering of a flower: cal- 
ycine, a. kdl'l-sln, or calycinal, a. kd-lis'l-ndl, of or 
relating to a calyx ; of the nature or appearance of a 
calyx : calycle, n. kal'-l-kl, also calyculus, n. kd-llk- 
ii-liis, a row of leaflets at the base of the calyx on the 
outside: calycled, a. kdl'l-kld, also calyculate, a. 
kd-llk'il-ldt. having the appearance as if possessing a 
double calyx. 

cam, n. kdm (W. cam, crooked, bent), in mech., a 
projecting part of a wheel or other moving piece, in- 
tended to produce an alternate or variable motion. 

camaieu, n. kd-md'yu (F.) a stone engraved in relief; 
a painting in a single colour. 

colv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




camber, n. kdm'ber (F. cambrer, to bow, to crook : 
Sp. combar, to bend : Gr. kampto, I bend), a beam of 
wood slightly arched upon the upper surface : cam- 
bering, a. bending— applied to the deck of a ship 
higher in the middle than at the ends: cam'bered, 
a. -bird, arched. 

cambist, n. kdm'blst (F. cambiste; It. and Sp. cam- 
bista, a money-changer), a banker or money-changer ; 
one skilled in the science of exchange : cambistry, n. 
-tri, the science of exchanges, weights, &c: camliial, 
a. -bl-dl, pert. to. 

cambium, n. kdm'bl-um (new L.), in bot., the mucil- 
aginous fluid which lies between the young wood and 
the bark of a tree. 

Cambrian, a. kdm'brl-dn (Cambria, anc. name of 
Wales), in geol., a term used to designate the lowest 
fossiliferous rocks as developed in Wales, and their 
equivalents in other countries ; pert, to Wales : n. a 
native or inhabitant of Wales. 

cambric, n. kdm'brlk (from Cambray, in Flanders), 
a kind of fine white linen : adj. pert, to or made of. 

came, v. kdm, pt. of come, which see. 

camel, n. cdm'61 (L. camelus : Gr. kamelos : At. 
gamal), a large quadruped used in the East for the 
transport of goods, and for riding on. 

camellia, n. kd-mcl'l-d (after Camellus, a Moravian 
Jesuit, and traveller in Asia), a genus of plants admired 
i'or their beautiful flowers and elegant leaves. 

camelopard, n. kdm-Sl'o-perd (L. camelus, a camel, 
and pardalis, the female panther), a wild animal with 
a long slender neck and spotted skin ; a giraffe. 

cameo, n. kdm'6-6 (It. camnieo-. F. camaieu — said to 
be from Pers. camahen, loadstone, as having been first 
employed for signets), a stone on which figures are 
engraved in relief ; shells are now commonly used as 
a substitute for gems. 

camera, n. kdm'er-d (L. camera; Gr. kamara, an 
arched roof, a chamber : It. camera), a chamber or 
compartment for exhibiting, by means of reflection, 
any external thing: camera-lucida, -16'sl-dd (L. a 
light chamber), an instrument for so reflecting distant 
landscapes on paper, &c, as to allow them to be 
sketched: camera-obscura, -ob-sku'rd (L. dark cham- 
ber), a darkened chamber or box, in which, by means 
of lenses, external objects, in their natural colours, are 
exhibited on any white flat surface within it : cam'- 
erated, a. -a'tid, divided into chambers, as certain 
shells; arched. 

Cameronian, n. kdm'Sro'nl-dn, a follower of Rich- 
ard Cameron, in Scotland, who refused to accept the 
indulgence granted by Charles II. to the Presbyterian 

camisade, n. kdm'l-sdd {F.— from F. chemise; Sp. 
camisa, a shirt), an attack made by soldiers in the 
dark— so called from their putting their shirts over 
their dress to distinguish each other by. 

camlet, n. kdm'let (F. camelot), a cloth first made of 
camel's or goat's hair, now of wool or goat's hair, with 
silk : cam'leted, a. wavy like camlet ; veined. 

cammock, n. kdm'mok (AS. cammoc), the plant rest- 
harrow— so called from the length and toughness of 
its roots, by which the harrow is arrested. 

camomile, n. kdm'o-mil (Gr. chamai-melon, earth- 
apple, so called from the smell of its flower), a plant 
whose flowers have a fragrant smell and a bitter aro- 
matic taste, much used in medicine— spelt also cham- 

camp, n. kdmp (L. campus, a plain : It. campo), the 
ground occupied by an army at rest : v. to rest an 
army in the open country (see encamp) : camping, 
imp.: camped, pp. kdmpt: camp-follower, n. one who 
follows an army without serving. 

campaign, n. kdm-pdn' (F. campagne ; It. cam- 
pagna, the plain open field), an extensive tract of 
country not hilly ; the time an army is engaged either 
in marching, fighting, or in camp : v. to serve in a 
campaign : campaigning, imp. : campaigned', pp. 
-pdnd": campaigner, n. one who. 

campanology, n. kdm'pd-nol'6-jl (low L. campana, a 
bell ; Gr. logos, a discourse), the art of ringing bells, 
or a treatise on the art. 

campanula, n. kdm-pdn'u-ld (low j,. campanula, a 
little bell) a genus of plants bearing bell-shaped 
flowers ; the bell-flower : campan'ulate, a. -u-ldt, in 
bot., bell-shaped, as the hare-bell. 

campestral, a. kdm-pes'trdl (L. campestris, pert, to 
a level field), relating to fields or growing in them. 

camphine, n. or camphene, kdm'-fln (a contr. of 
camphogen), rectified oil of turpentine. 

camphor, n. kdm -for (F. ramphre: Ar. knfur-. Hal 
kajihur: Sp. can/or), a whitish substance of an aro- 
matic bitter taste and fragrant smell, much used in 
medicine : cam'phorate, v. -at, to saturate or tincture 
with camphor: adj. pert, to camphor: cam'phora- 
ting, imp. : cam'phora'ted, pp.: adj. impregnated with 
camphor: camphor-tree, n. the tree producing cam- 
phor: camphogen, n. kdm'/Ojen or -jen (new L. cam- 
phora, camphor, and Gr. gniein, to bring forth), the 
product of the distillation of camphor with dry phos- 
phoric acid: cam phoraceous, a. -a'shus, of or like 
camphor : camphoric, a. -for'lk, of or from camphor. 

campulitropous.a. kdm'-2Ju-llt'-ro-pus((iT. kampulos, 
curved; trepo, I turn), in bot., having the ovule and 
its integuments so bent that the apex is brought neajr 
the hilum, the hilum and chalaze being together— also 
cam pulit ropal. 

camwood, n. cdm'-wobd, a red dyewood, principally 
obtained from the vicinity of Sierra Leone, where it is 
called kambi, whence the name. 

can, n. kdn (Icel. kanna, a large drinking-vessel : 
W. cannu, to contain : AS. caune), a cup or other 
vessel made of metal : can'akin, a little can. 

can, v. kdn (AS. cunnan: Icel. kunna) can denotes 
power when joined to another verb, as, I can eat- 
that is, I have the power to eat : could, pt. kood. 

Canadian, a. kd-nd'didn, of or from Canada : n. a 
native or inhabitant of. 

canaille, n. kd-nll' (F. ), the lowest people ; the rabble. 

canal, n. kd-ndl' (L. canalis, a pipe for water— from 
canna, a pipe or reed: It. canale), a water-course 
navigable for boats or ships ; an artificial river ; in 
anat., a duct or tube in the body for the passage of 
fluids: canaliculate, a. kdn'd-Uk'-u-ldt, in bot., chan- 
nelled ; having a longitudinal groove or furrow. 

canary, n. kd-na'-ri, a wine from the Canary Islands ; 
a fine song-bird of yellowish plumage. 

cancel, v. kdn'sil (L. cancellare, to make like lattice- 
work : F. canceller, to erase), to deface writing by cross- 
ing it ; to annul ; to destroy : cancelling, imp. : can- 
celled, pp. -seld ■. cancellated, a. -Id-ted (L. cancelli, a 
gratingof bars, lattice-work), marked with cross lines ; 
cancellate, a. -sel'ldt, in bot., lattice-like; consisting 
of a network of veins : can'cella'tion, n. -Id'shun. 

cancer, n. kdn'ser (L. cancer, a crab, an eating sore : 
AS. cancre : It. cancro : F. chancre), a spreading sore 
on the body or in some internal part, very painful and 
very fatal ; a crab ; one of the signs of the zodiac : can- 
cerate, v. -at, to grow into a cancer : can'cera'ting, 
imp.: can'cera'ted, pp.: can'cera'tion, n. -ra'-shun; 
cancerous, a. -ser-us, like a cancer : can'cerously, ad. 
-II : can'cerousness, n. : cancriform, a. kdng'krl-fdwrm 
(L. forma, shape), cancerous ; having the form of a 
cancer or crab : can'crine, a. -krln, having the quali- 
ties of a crab : can'croid, a. -krrfvd (Gr. eidos, form), 
pert, to a crab ; like cancer : tropic of cancer, that 
parallel in the northern hemisphere whose latitude 
is equal to the sun's greatest declination, about 23° 28'. 

candelabrum, n. kdri-di-ld'-br&m ; candela bra, plu. 
■bra (L.— from candela, a candle: It. candelabro: F. 
candelabre), a large ornamental candlestick with 

candid, a. kdn'dld (L. candidus, white: It. can- 
dido : F. candide), open; sincere; frank; fair; free 
from malice: candidly, ad. -II: can'dour, n. -der, 
openness ; sincerity ; frankness ; freedom from any 
intention to deceive: candidness, n. : candidate, n. 
-dl-ddt (persons in Rome seeking offices having worn 
white gowns), a person who seeks for a vacant office ; 
one who offers himself as a fit person to fill an appoint- 
ment : can'didature, n. -dd-tiir, the position of a can- 
didate for an office; a canvass: can'didateship, n. 
state of being a candidate. 

candied, kdn' did— see candy. 

candle, n. kdn'dl (AS. candel; L. candela, a candle 
—from candeo, I shine), a round body made of tallow 
or any fatty matter, with a wick in the centre, used 
to give light ; a light or luminary : rush-candles, the 
pith of rushes dipped in tallow: can'dlestick, n. the 
stand or stick for a candle: Candlemas, -dl-mds, a 
quarterly term, 2d Feb. ; a feast in the Ch. of Eng. 
and in the R. Cath. Ch. in honour of the purification 
of the Virgin Mary— on which occasion, in the R. H 
Cath. Ch., many candles are used, and those intend- | 
ed for use in the churches for the whole year are 

candock, n. kdn'dok (probably from can and dock), 
a plant that grows in rivers. 

candour, n. kdn'der (L. candor, a dazzling white- 

mate, mdt.fur, law; mSte, mil, her ; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




ness: It. candore), fairness; frankness; openness; 

candy, u. kdn'dl (Turk, cand, sugar), crystallised 
sugar; sugar compounded with anything else: v. to 
boil or dress in sugar ; to cover or incrust with sugar ; 
to form sugar into crystals: can'dying, imp.: n. the 
act of forming into crystals, as sugar : candied, pp. 

cane, n. kdn (L. canna, a reed or cane: It. cannn: 
F. canne), a long, strong reed ; a walking-stick : v. to 
beat or flog with a cane: caning, imp.: n. a flogging 
with a cane: caned, pp. hand: cany, a. kd'-ni, pert, 
to ; abounding in canes. 

canescent, a. kd-nSs'Snt (L. cunescens, becoming 
white), in hot., hoary; approaching to white. 

canine, a. kd-nin' (L. canis, a dog : It. cane), of or 
pert, to a dog ; having the qualities of a dog : canine 
madness, the madness of a dog; hydrophobia: canine 
teeth, two sharp-pointed teeth in each jaw, one on 
each side— often simply termed canines, kd-nlns". 

canister, n. kdn'-is-ter (L. canistrum, a basket woven 
from reeds : It. canestro), a box or case for tea, coffee, 
&c; in mil., a tin canister having a wooden bottom, 
packed with balls, and shot from a cannon— called also 

canker, n. kdng'ker (L. cancer; F. chancre, an eating 
sore — see cancer), a disease in trees which causes the 
bark to rot and fall off; a corroding ulcer: v. to eat ; 
to corrode ; to consume, as a cancer does the body ; to 
grow corrupt ; to waste away by degrees : canTtering, 
imp.: can'kered, pp. -herd: can'kerish, a.: canker- 
like, a. : canker-bit, a. bitten by an animal witli 
ulcerous teeth : canker-fly, n. a fly that lives on fruit : 
canker-worm, n. a worm very destructive to plants 
and the leaves and fruit of trees : can'kerous, a. -us, 
corroding like a canker. 

cannel-coal, n. kan'-nel-kol (a corruption of candle- 
coal, from its giving out much flame: Norm, kynnel, a, 
torch), a hard, black, inflammable coal, known to the 
Scotch miners as parrot-coal — chiefly used for the 
manufacture of gas. 

cannibal, n. kan'nl-bdl (from the Caribs or Cari- 
bales, the original inhabitants of W. India Islands), a 
savage that eats human flesh ; an anthropophagite : 
can'nibally, ad. -II: cannibalism, n. -izm. 

cannon, n. kdn'-non (F. canon, a gun: It. cannone, 
a cannon— from canna, a reed, a tube), a great gun : 
cannon-ball, n. ball for shooting from a cannon : can- 
nonade, n. -ad (F.— from canon), the act of throwing 
balls from cannons : v. to attack with camions ; to 
batter with balls or shot: can'nona'ding, imp.: can'- 
nona'ded, pp. : can'noneer or can'nonier, n. -er', the 
man who manages cannon. 

cannot, v. and ad. kdn'-not (can and not), to be un- 

canny, a. kdn'-nl (Scot.: Icel. henna, to perceive by 
sense), gentle ; cautious and obliging ; harndess ; safe : 
not canny, dangerous ; not safe. 

canoe, n. kd-n6' (of Indian origin : Sp. canoa; Ger. 
kahn, a boat), a boat made by hollowing and shaping 
the trunk of a tree ; a boat made of skin, or the bark 
of trees. 

canon, n. kdn'on (Gr. kanon, a measuring or mark- 
ing pole, a ruler : L. canon, a rule ; canonicus, regu- 
lar), in Church affairs, a rule or law in discipline or 
doctrine ; a rule in general ; a catalogue of saints ; 
the Holy Scriptures, called the sacredcanon; arepeat- 
ing piece of music ; every last step in an equa- 
tion ; a dignitary of the church : bone in the fore 
leg of ahorse: in print., a large size of type: canon 
law, the laws that regulate church government: 
can'oness, n. a woman who enjoys an income attached 
to a church, but who has no duty to perform ; canonic, 
kd-non'-lk, also canonical, a. -l-kdl, according to the 
rules or laws of the church: canonical Scriptures, 
the books of Scripture admitted to be of divine origin ; 
also canonical epistles : canon ically, ad. -ll : canon- 
icals, n. plu. -l-kdls, the full dress of a clergyman while 
officiating in church : canon'icate, n. the office of a 
canon: canonist, n. a man versed in ecclesiastical 
Uw: can'onis'tic, a. pert, to; can'onic'ity, n. -is'l-ti, 
agreement with the canon of Scripture, or comprehen- 
sion within it: canonise, v. kan'on-iz', in the R. Cath. 
Ch., to declare a man or woman a saint, and to inscribe 
his or her name in the catalogue, called a canon : can- 
oni'sing, imp.: can'onised, pp. -izd: can'onisa'tion, 
n. -za'sh-un, the act of declaring any person a saint : 
can'onship, n. the benefice filled by a canon; also 
can'omy, n. -ri . 

canon, n. kdn 'yon (Sp.), in "Western America, a deep 
gorge or ravine between high and steep banks. 

canopy, n. kan'-o-pl (Gr. konopeion, a bed with 
gauze curtains to keep off flies— from konops, a gnat : 
L. conopeum : F. canape), a covering over a throne or 
a bed; a covering over the head; in arch., an orna- 
mental projection over a door, a window, &c. : v. to 
cover with a canopy : can'opying, imp. -pl-lng : can'o- 
pied, pp. -pld. 

canorous, a. kd-no'riis (L. canorvs, melodious— from 
cano, I sing), musical; tuneful: cano'rously, ad. -II: 
cano'rousness, n. 

cant, v. kdnt (Gael, cainnt, speech, language ; can, 
to sing, to name : L. canto, I sing), to speak in a whin- 
ing tone of voice : n. whining affected speech ; hypo- 
critical jargon ; slang: cant'ing, imp. : adj. speaking 
in a whining tone of voice : n. the talk of a would- 
be religious person : cant'ed, pp. : cant'ingly, ad. -It. 

cant, v. kdnt (Ger. kanten, to put a thing upon its 
edge, to tilt: Dan. kant; Sp. canto, edge, angle), to 
pitch forward ; to place upon the edge, as a cask ; to 
jerk; to throw; among carpen., to cut off an angle 
from a square piece of timber : n. an inclination from 
a horizontal line ; a thrust ; a push : cant'ing, imp. : 
adj. turning up on edge ; giving a sudden thrust. 

can't, kant, contracted for cannot. 

Cantab, kdn'-tab, or Cantabridgian, n. -td-brlj'l-dn, 
a member or scholar of Cambridge university. 

Cantabrian, a. kdnta'brldn, pert, to Cantabria, 
on the Bay of Biscay, in Spain. 

cantankerous, a. kdn-tdng'ker-iis, in familiar Ian- 
guage, cross-grained; ill-conditioned in temper: can- 
tan kerousness.n. crossness; ill-humour; petulance. 

cantata, n. cdn-ta'td (It.— from L. canto, I sing), a 
poem set to music. 

canteen, n. kdn-ten' (It. cantina, a wine-cellar), a tin 
vessel for carrying a liquid ; the store and tavern at- 
tached to a barracks. 

canter, n. kdn'-ter (a contr. of Canterbury gallop), a 
moderate gallop : v. to run, as a horse in an easy gal- 
lop : cantering, imp. : cantered, pp. -terd. 

canterbury, n. kdn'-ter -btr '4 (from a city in England), 
a stand or receptacle for music, &c. : canterbury- 
cells, a species of campanula. 

cantharis, n. kdn'-thdr-ls, or canthar'ides, n. plu. 
-1-dez (Gr. kantharis, a kind of beetle), the Spanish fly, 
used in making blistering plasters : canthar'idine, n. 
■i-din, the blistering principle in Spanish flies. 

canthus, n. kdn'-thus (L. canthus; Gr. kanthos, the 
iron ring around a wheel), the angle or corner of the 

canticle, n. kdn'-tlkl (L. canto, I sing), a song : plu. 
the Song of Solomon, or Song of Songs. 

canto, n. kdn'-to (It. canto, a song : L. cantus, sing- 
ing), a part or division of a poem ; in music, the leading 
part; a song: cantillate, v. kdn'-til-lat, to chant; to 
recite musically: can'tilla'ting, imp.: can'tilla'ted, 
pp. : can'tilla'tion, n. -la'-shun, chanting ; reading or 
reciting with musical cadence. 

canton, n. kdn'ton (F. : It. cantone— from canto, a 
corner), a division of a country : v. to divide into dis- 
tricts or cantons; to allot quarters to troops: can- 
toning, imp. : can'toned, pp. -tond: cantonal, a. pert, 
to or divided into cantons : can'tonment, n. the part 
of a town or village ■ assigned to a body of troops ; 
separate quarters for soldiers. Note.— The verb can- 
ton and the words derived from it are now more 
usually, and always among military men, pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllable, thus — canton', 
canto'ning, canton'tnenl, &c. 

canvas, n. kdn'vds (F. canevas, canvas: L. cannabis; 
It. cannevo, hemp), a coarse cloth made of flax or 
hemp, used for tents, sails, painting on, &c. ; in a 
ship, the sails are called the canvas: adj. made of 
canvas: canvass, v. (a metaphorical meaning taken 
from sifting a substance through canvas), to discuss ; 
to examine into ; to solicit votes or interest; to make 
interest in favour of: n. a close inspection into; dis- 
cussion ; debate ; a seeking ; a» solicitation : can'vas- 
sing, imp. : can'vassed, pp. -vast -. canvasser, n. one 

cany, a. kd'-ni (see cane), full of canes; consisting 
of canes. 

canzonet, n. kdn'zdn-St' (It. canzona, a song: L. 
canere, to sing), a little or short song in one, two, or 
three parts. 

caoutchouc, n. koo'-chook (a native Indian word), 
india-rubber ; the dried juice of various tropical 
plants, used in the manufacture of waterproof cloths, 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




overshoes, flexible tubes, &c. : caout'chine, n. -chin, 
or caout'choucine, n. -chub-sin, a volatile liquid dis- 
tilled from india-rubber. 

cap, n. kdp (AS. cccppe, a cap: Sp. capa; It. cappa; 
F. chape, a cover : Gr. skepo, I cover), a cover for the 
head ; a cover in general ; the top or highest part ; a 
mark of some office or dignity : v. to cover the top 
end or orifice ; to uncover as a mark of reverence or 
civility ; to render complete ; to invest with official dis- 
tinction; to admit to professional honours by the act 
of capping: capping, imp. : capped, pp. cdpt: cap-a- 
pie, ad. -d-pe {¥.), from head to foot; all over, as 
armed cap-a-pie: cap-of-maintenance, a cap carried 
before the kings of England at their coronation : to 
set one's cap at, to take measures to gain the affec- 
tions of a man: cap'ful, a small quantity, used by 
sailors when speaking of the wind. 

capable, a. ka'pd-bl (F. capable— from L. capio, I 
take), able to contain or receive ; having the requisite 
mental, moral, or physical ability ; qualified for : 
ca'pableness, n. -bl-nes, the quality of being capable : 
ca'pabil'ity, n. -bll'-l-tl, the quality of being able or 
qualified for: capacious, a. kd-pd'-shiis, roomy; large; 
that will hold or take in much ; extensive : capa- 
ciously, ad. -II : capaciousness, n. : capacitate, v. 
kd-pds'l-tat, to qualify; to enable: capac'ita'ting, 
imp. : capac'ita'ted, pp. : capac ita'tion, n. -ta'shun .- 
capacity, n. -ti, the power of containing ; extent of 
room or space ; the power of receiving instruction ; 
ability ; profession or occupation. 

caparison, n. kd-pdr'i-siin (Sp. caparazon, carcass 
of a fowl, cover of a saddle), an ornamental cover laid 
over the saddle of a horse : v. to cover with au orna- 
mental cloth, as a horse; to deck; to dress out 
superbly : caparisoning, imp. : caparisoned, pp. 

cape, n. kdp (L. caput, the head : It. caj)0 : F. cap>), 
any portion or point uf land stretching into the sea ; a 
headland ; a cover hanging from the neck over the 
back and shoulders ; a short loose cloak. 

caper, v. kd'-per (L. caper, a goat : It. capro, a buck : 
F. capriole, a caper in dancing), to leap, skip, or 
jump ; to prance ; to spring : n. a leap ; a skip, as in 
dancing ; a leap in sport, as a goat or iamb : ca'per- 
ing, imp.: adj. leaping ; skipping : capered, pp. -perd: 
ca'perer, n. one who : to cut capers, to dance iu a 
frolicsome manner ; to play pranks. 

capers, n. kd'-pers (F. capre: L. capparis: Ar. al- 
gabr), the buds of the caper- plant preserved in vinegar. 

capias, n. kd'pi-ds (L. take or seize hold of), a writ 
of arrest before, or execution after, judgment. 

capillaire, n. kdp-i-ldr' (¥.), a syrup prepared with 
an infusion of the maiden-hair fern. 

capillary, a, kdp'll-ler-l (L. capillus, hair: F. capil- 
laire, capillary), resembling hair; tubes or canals, 
extremely fine and minute, through which moisture 
ascends spontaneously, are called capillary tubes: 
capillary attraction, the power that porous bodies 
have of drawing up or sucking in moisture: capil- 
laries, n. plu. -12, in anat., the extremely fine extre- 
mities of the arteries, &c. : capillarity, n. -Idr'l-U, 
the state or condition of: capllla'ceou's, a. -Id'shus, 
very slender, like hair : capillament, n. A-<"< -p ll'-ld- mint, 
a fine fibre or filament : capil'liform, a. -ll-fawrm, 
(L. forma, shape), hair-shaped. 

capital, a. kdp't-tdl (L. capitalis, that by which life 
is endangered, pre-eminent— from caput, the head: 
It. capitate; F. capital), chief; principal; first in im- 
portance ; punishable by loss of life ; great ; large of 
size: n. the ornamental part of a column, pillar, or 
pilaster placed at the top immediately over the shaft, 
but under the entablature ; a chief city or town ; a 
large letter or type; a stock-in-trade, consisting of 
money or goods : capitally, ad. -It .- capitalist, n. -1st, 
one possessed of large means and engaged in business : 
capitalise, v. -iz, to convert into capital, as money or 
stock: capltali'sing, imp.: capitalised, pp. -llzd: 
capitalisation, n. -i-zd'sh/'m, act by which anything 
is converted into capital: cap'ita'tion, n. -ta'shun. so 
much per head or individual ; a poll-tax: capitate, 
a. kdp'i-tat, in but., like a pin-head ; having a rounded 
summit, as some hairs : Capltan-Pacha', a. -tdn- 
pd-shd', the chief admiral of the Turkish fleet : capita- 
tion-tax, n. a tax imposed on each person above a cer- 
tain age : capitation-grant, n. a sum of money paid 
annually for each child attending an elementary school 
by the Committee of Council on Education, on the ful- 
filment of certain conditions. 

capitol, n. kdp'i-tOl (L. capitolium — from caput, the 

head), the temple of Jupiter; a fort or castle in Rome 
where the senate of anc. Rome met ; the building 
occupied by the parliament or Congress of the U.S. 
of Amer. : capitolian, kdp'l-to'li-dn, or capitoline, a. 
cdplt'6-lin, pert, to the Capitol of Rome. 

capitular, n. kd-plt'-u-ler, or capit'ulary, -l(L. capitu- 
lum, a little head, the head or chapter of a pillar— from 
caput, the head), the laws of an ecclesiastical council 
or chapter; the member of a chapter: adj. relating 
to the chapter of a cathedral : capit'ularly, ad. -II : 
capit'ulate, v. -Idt, to surrender, as an army or garri- 
son to an enemy, on certain conditions : capit ula'tion, 
n. -Id'shun, the act of thus surrendering to an enemy ; 
the written conditions or treaty : capit'ula'ting, imp. : 
capit'ula ted, pp. : capit'ula'tor, n. one who : capit'- 
ulum, n. -lum, in bot., a flower-head composed of a 
number of florets arranged without stems ou the sum- 
mit of a single peduncle. 

capivi, n. kd-pe'vi— see copaiba. 

capnomancy, n. kdp'-no-mdn'sl (Gr. kapnos, smoke ; 
manteia, divination), divination by the motion or 
appearance of smoke. 

capnomor, n. kd2)'-no-mor (Gr. kapnos, smoke; 
moira, a part), a colourless oil obtained from the oil 
of tar. 

capoch or capouch, n. kd-pdeh' (Sp. cajntcho— from 
capa, a cover), a monk's hood ; the hood of a cloak. 

capon, n. kd'pon (Sp. capar, to castrate; mod. 
Gr. apokopto, I cut off), a cock-chicken fed for the 
table; a castrated cock: ca'ponise, v. -niz, to cas- 
trate, as a fowl : ca'poni'sing, imp. : ca'ponised, pp. 

caponiere, n. kdp'-o-ner' (F. caponni'ere: Sp. cap>o- 
nera), in mil., a lodgment for soldiers in the dry ditch 
or the glacis ; a kind of way covered by a parapet, and 
palisaded ; a cut in the glacis leading from the cov- 
ered way to the works at the foot of the glacis. 

capot, n. kd-potf (F. capot, a great-coat: Ger. caput, 
ruined), a winning of all the tricks of cards at the game 
of piquet : v. to win at piquet. 

capouch, n. kd-p6ch'— see capoch. 

capping verses, kdp'lng (Icel. kapp, contention), 
in familiar language, contending in the citation of 
verses : to cap, to beat one. 

capric, a. kdp'-rik (L. caper, a he-goat), obtained from 
butter, or the butter and fat of the goat ; applied to 
an acid, as capric acid : cap 'rate, n. -rat, a salt of 
capric acid. 

caprice, n. kd-pres' (F. caprice, whim : It. cappric- 
cio— from L. capra, a goat), a sudden change of opin- 
ion or humour; a whim; a particular fancy : caprici- 
ous, a. -jjrlsh'us, given to change; whimsical; fickle; 
apt to change opinions or intentions suddenly: ca- 
priciously, ad. -II: caprici'ousness, n. 

Capricorn, n. kdp'rl- kaurn(L. caper, a goat; cornu, 
a horn), one of the twelve signs of the zodiac : tropic 
of capricom, the parallel in the S. hemisphere, whose 
latitude is equal to the sun's greatest declination, 
about 23° 28'. 

caprid, a. kdp'-rld (L. caper, a he-goat), relating to 
the goat tribe : cap'rine, a. -rln, pert, to a goat. 

caprification, n. kdp'rl-fl-kd'shun (L. caprificare, 
to ripen figs by the stinging of the gall insect— from 
caper, a he-goat ; ficus, a fig), a process of accelerating 
the ripening of fruit by puncturing, particularly of 
the cultivated rig, practised in the Levant. 

capriolate, a. kdp'rl-6-ldt (L. capreolus, tendril of 
a vine, a wild goat), in bot., having tendrils. 

capriole, n. kap'rl-ol (see caper), a leap which a 
horse makes without advancing ; a leap or caper, as 
in dancing: v. to leap without advancing: caprio- 
ling, imp. : cap'rioled, pp. -old. 

capsicum, n. kdp'si-kum (new L. capsicum— from 
capsa, a box, a chest), red or Cayenne pepper, from 
Cayenne in French Guiana: cap'sicine, n. -sin, the 
active principle in the capsules of Cayenne pepper. 

capsize, v. kdp-slz' (probably cap, top, head ; and 
seize), to upset; to overturn: capsi'zing, imp. : cap- 
sized', pp. -slzd'. 

capstan, n. kdp'stdn (F. cabestan: old Sp. cabra, 
an engine for throwing stones : It. capra, an engine 
to raise ordnance), in a ship, a movable upright block 
of timber round which a rope or chain is made to coil 
when raising an anchor or other heavy weight. 

capsule, n. kdp'-sul (L. capsula, a little chest: F. 
capsule), in bot., the seed-vessel of a plant ; in anat., a 
membranous bag inclosing an organ ; in chem.,0, china 
saucer, for roasting: cap'sular, -lir, also capsular^, 
a. -ler'-l, hollow; full of cells: capsulate, kdp'su-ldt, 

mdte, mat, far, hub; mete, met, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




also cap'sulated, a. -Wtid, inclosed in a capsule, or 
as in a box. 

captain, n. kdp'-tdn (F. capitaine : It. capitano— from 
L. caput, the head), an officer who commands a com- 
pany of foot, a troop of horse-soldiers, or a ship ; a 
leader or chief: captain-general, the commander- 
in-chief of an army: cap taincy, n. -si, the rank or 
commission of a captain : cap'tainship, n. 

captious, a. kdp'shils (L. captiusus, captious, de- 
ceptive—from capere, to take : F. captieiu), disposed 
to find fault ; apt to cavil or raise objections ; insidi- 
ous : captiously, ad. -II: cap tiousness, n. 

captivate, v. kdp'-tl-vdt (L. captivus, taken prisoner 
— from capere, to take : F. capticer, toenslave), to take 
prisoner ; to charm or subdue by beauty ; to gain by 
excellence in manners or conduct ; to enslave by love : 
captivating, imp. : captivated, pp. : captivation, 
n. 'Va'shun: captive, n. kap'tlv, a prisoner taken in 
war ; one who is charmed by beauty or enslaved by 
love : adj. made prisoner in war : captivity, n. -l-ti, 
bondage ; the state of being in the power of an enemy ; 
state of being under subjection or control : capture, n. 
-tur, the act of taking orseizing by an enemy, as aship ; 
the thing taken ; a prize ; seizure, as of a criminal : 
v. to take or lay hold of by force ; to seize by strata- 
gem : capturing, imp. : cap'tured, pp. -turd : cap tor, 
n. one who seizes or captures, as a ship. 

capuchin, n. kdp'-oo-shen (F. capuci n— from capuce, 
a cowl : It. capjmccio—see cap), a monk of St Francis ; 
a cloak and hood for females. 

car, n. kar (L. carrus; It. carro; F. char, a car, a 
cart: Dut. karren, to creak: F. charrier, to carry), a 
small light carriage drawn by one horse ; a railway 
carriage ; a chariot. 

carabine, n. kdr'd-bin, or carbine, kdr'bln (F. cara- 
bin: It. calabrino), a short gun carried by a cavalry 
soldier: carabineer' or carbineer', n. -bluer', one 
who carries a carabine. 

caracole, n. kdr'dkol (Sp. caracal, a winding stair- 
case : Gael, car, a twist: AS. cerran, to turn), the 
half-turn which a horseman makes to the right or 
left ; in airh., a winding staircase. 

caramel, n. kdr'd-mel (¥.), burnt sugar; a black 
porous substance obtained by heating sugar to about 

carapace, n. kdr'd-pds (F.— fromGr. karabos, a crus- 
taceous animal like the crab or lobster), the crusta- 
ceous and horny coverings of certain classes of ani- 
mals, as the tortoise, the crab, &c. 

carat, n. kdr'dt (F. : Gr. keration, seed of pulse : 
Ar. kirat, a small weight ; kuara, name of a plant 
whose beans in Africa are used as weights for gold), a 
weight of 1 grains used in weighing gold and pre- 
cious stones ; the weight that expresses the purity of 
gold, 24 carats being the standard of purity. 

caravan, n. kdr'dvdn (Pers. kerwan : Ar. qaira- 
ivan: F. caravane), a large close carriage ; in the East, 
a company of merchants journeying together for 
mutual safety : car'avan'sary, -ser'i, or car avan sera, 
n. -sir-d (caravan, and Pers. sarai, a large place), a 
station for unloading the camels and beasts of burden 
for the night. 

caravel, n.kdr'd-vdl(F. : It. caravela, akindof ship: 
Gael, carbh, a ship), a small French herring-vessel; 
a light vessel formerly used by Spaniards and Por- 

caraway, n. kdr'-dAod (F. and It. carvi— from Caria 
in Asia Minor : carum carui, the plant), a plant, the 
seeds of which are used as the kernel in confections, 
and for giving a flavour to cakes. 

carbazotic, a. kdr'bd-zot'ik (carbon and azote), ap- 
plied to an acid which consists of carbon, nitrogen, 
and oxygen. 

carbine— see carabine. 

carbo-vegetabilis, n. k&r'-bo-vej'S-tdb'il-is (L. carbo, 
coal; and new L. vegelabilis, vegetable), a name for 

carbon, n. kdr'bon (It. carbone ; F. charbon ; L. carbo, 
a coal), pure charcoal, existing pure only in the dia- 
mond : carbon'ic, -Ik, or car'bona'ceous, a. -bo-nd'shus, 
containing charcoal ; coaly: carbonate, n. -ndt, a com- 
pound formed by the union of carbonic acid with a 
base, &c. : car bona'ted, a. combined or saturated with 
carbon : car'bonif'erous, a. -nif'-er-us (L. fero, I carry), 
producing carbon or coal : car'bonise', v. -niz', to 
change into carbon: carTsoni'sing, imp.: carbonised', 
pp. -nlzd': carTjonisa'tion, n. -zd'shun, the act or 
process of carbonising: carbonic acid, an acid com- 
posed of one part of carbon and two of oxygen : car- 

bolic acid, kdr-bol'lk. a colourless oily liquid obtained 
from coal-tar: carbolene, n. kar'-bo-len, a non-volatile 
hydro-carbon, may be used for increasing the illumi- 
nating power of coal-gas. 

carboy, n. kdr'bou (mod. Gr. carabovia, copperas or 
green Vitriol : Turk, karaboya, black dye : Sic. carabba, 
a bottle with a big belly and narrow neck), a large 
globular bottle generally covered with basket-work. 

carbuncle, n. kdr'-bung-kl (L. carbunculus, a little 
coal— from carbo, coal), a red fiery round blotch on the 
skin; an inflammatory boil; a precious stone of a 
deep-red colour: car bunded, a. -kid, set with car- 
buncles ; spotted with red fiery sores : carbun'cular, 
a. -kil-ldr, pert, to or resembling a carbuncle; red; 

carburet, n. kdr'bd-rdt (F. carbure— from L. carbo, 
a coal), carbon in combination with some other sub- 
stance, the residt not being an acid: v. to combine 
some other substance with carbon: car buret ting, 
imp. : car buret'ted, a. combined with carbon : car - 
buret ter, n. that which: carbura'tion, -rd'tliun, the 
act of: carburetted hydrogen gas, a compound of 
carbon and hydrogen, as common coal-gas. 

carcanet, n. kdr'kd-net (F. carcan), a chain or col- 
lar of jewels. 

carcass, n. kdr'kds (F. earquasse, a dead body : mod. 
Gr. karkasi, a quiver, a carcass: It. carcasso, the hard 
core of fruits), the dead body of an animal ; applied 
to the living body in contempt; the framework or 
principal parts of a thing unfinished, as a house : car- 
casse, n. -kds, an iron case filled with combustibles 
to be thrown into a besieged town from a mortar. 

carcerule, n. kdr's&r-iU (L. career, a jail), in bot., a 
dry, indehiscent, many-celled fruit, with few seeds in 
each cell, the cells cohering round a common style 
placed in the axis. 

carcharodon, n. kdrkdr'o-don (Gr. karcharodon, 
having rough or jagged teeth— from karcharos, sharp- 
pointed, and odontes, teeth), in geol., a genus of sharks 
whose fossil teeth, &c, are often of great size. 

carcharopsis, n. kdr'-kdr-op'-sls (Gr. kareharos, 
sharp-pointed ; opsis, appearance), in geol., a genus 
of carboniferous shark like fishes. 

carcinoma, n. kdr'si-nO'md (Gr. karkirios, a crab, 
cancer), cancer in general; ulcerative stage of can- 
cer: carcinomatous, a. -nom'dtus, pert, to cancer in 

card, n. kdrd (F. carte; L. charia, paper: It. carta), 
a piece of pasteboard usually written or printed on 
for social or business purposes; oblong pieces of 
pasteboard on which figures are printed, used in 
games: card-table, n. : card-maker, n., one who. 

card, n. kdrd(It, cardo, athistle : Gael, card, to card 
wool: Ger. scharren, to scrape: L. carduus, a 
thistle, a teasel— from carere, to comb wool), an in- 
str. for combing out wool or flax : v. to comb out 
wool, flax, or hemp ; to separate the finer from the 
coarser fibres : carding, imp. : card'ed, pp. : card- 
er, n. one who. 

cardamom, n. kdr'dd-nwm(F. cardamome: L. car- 
damomum),an Indian spice plant, whose seeds are 
used in med. 

cardiac, kdr'-dl-dk, also cardi'acal, a. -dl'd-kdl (Gr. 
kardia, the heart or the upper orifice of the stomach), 
pert, to the heart ; invigorating the heart by stimu- 
lants: car'diac, n. a medicine that excites action in 
the heart, and animates the spirits : car'dial'gia, n. 
-dl-dl'gld (Gr. algos, pain), pain in the stomach ; heart- 
burn: carditis, n. kdrdi'-tls, inflammation of the 

cardinal, a. kdr'dl-ndl (L. cardinalis, pert, to a 
hinge— from cardo, a hinge: It. cardinale ; F. car- 
dinal, principal), that on which other things turn : 
chief ; principal ; fundamental : n. a dignitary of the 
R. Cath. Ch. next in rank to the Pope : cardinalate, 
kdr'di-nd-lat, also car'dinalship, n. the office or rank 
of a cardinal : cardinal points of the compass, the 
four principal points— north, south, east, and west. 

cardium, n. kdr'diiim (Gr. kardia, the heart), the 
cockle, so named in allusion to its heart-like form. 

care, n. kar (AS. cearian, to take heed: Goth, kara, 
care : L. earns, dear), thoughtful attention ; uneasi- 
ness of mind ; concern ; regard ; charge : v. to be 
anxious or uneasy in mind ; to heed or regard: ca'ring, 
imp.: cared, pp. kard .• careful, a. kar'fdbl, full of con- 
cern ; attentive to ; watchful ; cautious : careless, a. 
without concern or thought ; regardless; inattentive: 
carefully, ad. -II: care'fulness, n. : care'lessly, ad. 
■li : care lessness, n. : care worn, a. crushed with 

coiv, boy,fovt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




care ; fatigued with anxiety : to take care, also have 
a care, be careful ; take heed. 

careen, v. kd-ren' (F. carener, to refit : L. carina, the 
bottom of a ship : It. carena, bottom of a ship : Dut. 
krengen, to sail on one side), to lay a ship on one side 
in order to repair the other; a ship to incline to one 
side while sailing: careen'ing, imp.: n. the act of 
heaving down a ship on one side : careened', pp. -rend' : 
careenage, n. kd-ren'dj, place for careening a ship ; 
expense of careening. 

career, n. kd-rer' (F. carriere; It. carriera, a race, 
a highway : L. currus, a two-wheeled cart), course of 
action ; progress in life ; procedure ; a race or run- 
ning ; speed in motion : v. to run or move rapidly : 
careering, imp. : careered', pp. -rerd'. 

careful, a.— see care. 

caress, v. kd-rSs' (F. caresse; It. carezza, an endear- 
ment : W. caru, to love), to treat with fond affection ; 
to embrace with affection and love, as a parent a 
child ; to fondle : n. an act of endearment ; an expres- 
sion of affection: cares'sing, imp.: caressed', pp. 
-rSst' : cares 'singly, ad. -II. 

caret, n. kd'ret (L. caret, it wants or is wanting), a 
mark thus (a) to show in written compositions that 
something has been omitted in a line. 

cargo, n. kdr'-go (Sp. cargo, the load of a ship : It. 
caricare; Sp. car gar; F. charger, to load), the whole 
goods conveyed in a ship: supercargo, n. (L. super, 
over), the person who has the charge of the cargo on 
board a ship. 

caricature, n. kdr'l-kd-tur' (It. caricatura, an over- 
loaded representation of anything— from carricare, to 
load), a figure or description of a person or thing in 
which defects are greatly exaggerated in order to 
make ridiculous : v. to sketch or describe in order to 
turn into ridicule ; to represent as very ugly : car'ica- 
tu'ring, imp.: caricatured', pp. -turd' : car icatu'rist, 
n. -tu'rlst, one who. 

caries, n. kd'-rlez{L. caries, rottenness: It. and F. 
tarie), the mortification of a bone in the living body; 
decay or rottenness of a bone: ca'rious, a. -us, de- 
cayed or rotten: ca'rios'ity, n. -os'l-tl, rottenness of 
a bone. 

carinate, a. kdr'l-iult, or car'ina'ted, a. -na'tSd (L. 
carina, a keel), in bot., keel-shaped, as the two lower 
petals of a papilionaceous flower: car'inal, a. -%-ndl, 
applied to aestivation when the carina embraces the 
other parts of the flower. 

cariole, n. kdr'l-ol (F.), a small open carriage ; a 
covered cart. 

carl or carle, n. karl (AS. ceorl; Icel. karl, a man), 
a rude, rough man. 

carlings, n. plu. kdr'llngz (F. carlingue), in a ship, 
short pieces of timber ranging fore and aft from one 
deck-beam to another, used to sustain and fortify the 
smaller beams of the ship. 

Carlovingian, a. kdr'lo-vln'jl-dn (F.), pert, to or de- 
scended from Charlemagne. 

cirman, n.— see car. 

Carmelite, n. kar'-me'-Ut, a monk of the order of 
our Lady of Mount Carmel. 

carminative, n. kdr-min'-d-tlv (It. carminare, to card 
wool, to make gross humours fine and thin by medi- 
cines), a medicine used to expel wind or to cure flatu- 
lence: adj. expelling wind from; warming. 

carmine, n. kdr'mln (F. carmin: It. carminio), a 
powder of a beautiful red or crimson colour bordering 
on purple; the colouring matter of cochineal: car- 
min'ic, a. -mln'-lk, pert. to. 

carnage, n. kdr'ndj (F. carnage,— from L. caro, flesh 
— gen. carnis), great destruction of life by violence— 
literally, heaps of flesh, as in slaughter-houses ; havoc, ; 
massacre : car'nal, a. -ndl, fleshly; sensual ; opposed to 
spiritual, as carnal pleasure ; unregenerate : car'nal- 
ist, n. one who: carnally, ad. -li: carnal-minded, a. 
worldly-minded : carnal-mindedness, n. : car'nalism, 
n. -llzm, also carnality, n. -ndl'l-tl, grossness of mind 
or desire : carna'tion, n. -nd'shiin, flesh colour ; a 
plant so called from the colour of its flower : carna- 
tioned, a. -shilnd, coloured like the carnation : carne'- 
lian, n. -ne'il-dn (F. cornaline), a silicious stone of 
a deep flesh or whitish-red colour. 

carneous, a. ktir'nS-us (L. caro flesh— gen. carnis), 
like flesh; fleshy: car'nival, n. -vdl (L. caro, flesh; 
vale, farewell : low L. carnis levamen, the solace of the 
flesh), the season of rejoicing before Lent in Catholic 

carnivora, n. plu. kdr-nW-6-rd (L. caro, flesh ; vnro, 
I eat greedily), flesh-eating animals : carniv'orac'ity, 

n. -rds'-Ul, greediness for flesh : carniv'orous, a. -6-riis, 
feeding on flesh : carnos'ity, n. -nos'l-ti, asmall fleshy 
excrescence: carnose', a. -n6z y , in bot., fleshy— applied 
to albumen having a fleshy consistence. 

carol, n. kar'ol (properly a round dance : F. carole, 
a dance : W. coroli, to dance : L. corolla, a garland, a 
chaplet), a song of joy and exultation ; a song in 
general : v. to praise or celebrate in song ; to sing in 
joy; to warble: carolling, imp.: carolled, pp. -old: 
car'olet'ic, a. -O-Ut'-lk, also -litic, in arch,, adorned 
with festoons or foliage. 

carotid, a. kd-rot'id (Gr. karos, deep sleep ; Gr. plu. 
karotides), the carotids are the two great arteries of 
the neck that convey the blood to the head and brain. 

carouse, v. kd-rowz' (Ger. gar aus, all out : Sp. car- 
auz or caraos, act of drinking a full bumper to one's 
health), to drink hard ; to revel : n. a drinking-match ; 
a revel: carou'sing, imp.: caroused', pp. -rowzd' .- 
carou'ser, n. one who : caron'singly, ad. -li : carou- 
sal, n. -zdl, a feast or banquet. 

carp, n. kdrp (Ger. karpfen: Dut. karper: F.carpe), 
a fresh-water fish. 

carp, v. kdrp (L. carpere, to seize : Bohem. krapati, 
to chatter : Port, carpire, to cry or weep), to snatch or 
catch at; to find fault, generally without sufficient 
reason ; to cavil ; to censure : carping, imp. : carped, 
pp. karpt: carp'ingly, ad. -It: carp'er, n. one who. 

carpal, a. kdr'pdl (new L. carpus, the wrist), be- 
longing to the wrist. 

carpel, n. kdr'-pel (Gr. karpos, fruit), in bot., one of 
the parts which compose the innermost of the four 
sets of floral whorls, into which the complete flower is 
separable : carpel'lary, a. -pcl'ler-1, pert, to a carpel : 
carpol'ogy, n. pol'o-jl (Gr. logos, discourse), the study 
of fruits; a treatise on fruit: carpol ogist, n. one 
who : car'pophore, n. -po-for (Gr. phero, I carry), in 
bot., a stalk bearing the pistil, and raising it above 
the whorl of the stamens, as in the caper. 

carpenter, n. kdr'pen-ter (L. carpentarius, pert, 
to a chariot, a wheelwright: F. charpentier, a car- 
penter: Gael, carbh, a plank), a man who works 
in timber ; a builder or framer in wood, as in houses 
and ships; a joiner; awright: car'pentry, n. -trl, the 
art of framing and joining timber in the construc- 
tion of buildings. 

carpet, n. kdr'-piit (midl,. carpeta, plucked wool, any 
quilted fabric— from L. carpere, to pluck : F. charpie, 
lint : It. carpetta, a kind of petticoat), the woven or 
felted stuff made of wool, used to cover rooms, stairs, 
&c. : v. to cover with a carpet : car'peting, imp. : n. 
carpets in general; stuff for making carpets: car'- 
peted, pp. : to be on the carpet, or to be on the 
tapis (F. tapis, a carpet), means that a matter is under 
consideration: carpet-knight, a soldier who has 
never known the hardships of actual service: car- 
pet-bag, a travelling-bag made of the same materials 
as carpets. 

carpolites, n. plu. Mr'po-lits, also car'polithes, 
-llthz (Gr. karpos, fruit; lithos, a stone), in geol., a 
general term for fossil fruits. 

Carrara marble, kd-rdr'-d, a pure white marble from 
Massa Carrara in Italy. 

carriage, n. kdr'lj (old Eng. caroche; It. carroccio; F. 
carrosse, a conveyance with springs— from L. carrus, 
a cart), the act of carrying or conveying ; the thing 
that carries ; any vehicle with springs ; a coach ; be- 
haviour or conduct ; the charge or cost of conveyance 
of goods. 

carrier, n. kdr'-rl-er— see carry. 

carrion, n. kdr-rhon (It. carogna ; F. charogne— 
from L. caro, flesh), flesh unfit for human food : adj. 
relating to : carrion-crow, the species of crow com- 
mon in England which feeds on carrion, insects, &c. 

carronade, n. kdr'ron-dd (from Carron in Scot., 
where first made), a short cannon formerly used in the 

carrot, n. kdr'rdt (F. carotte: It. carota), a long 
esculent root of a reddish colour: carroty, a. Mr- 
rot-l, like a carrot in colour. 

carry, v. kdr'-rl (F. charrier, to convey in a car: 
Wal. carare, to convey in a cart : L. carrus, a car), to 
bear ; to convey ; to effect or accomplish ; to lead or 
draw ; to produce ; to transact or conduct ; in mil., to 
obtain possession of a military position by force : car' 
rying, imp. : car'ried, pp. -rid: car'rier, n. -rl-er, one 
who : to carry away, in naval language, to break a 
spar ; to part a rope : to carry off, to kill ; to bear away : 
to carry on, to promote ; to help forward : to carry 
out, fully to accomplish ; to put into execution : to 

mdte, mdt./dr, law; mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




carry through, to succeed by perseverance : carrier- 
pigeon, a variety of the pigeon employed for carrying 

carse, n. kdrs (W. cors, a bog), in Scotland, low, 
fertile, alluvial land near a river, or the valley through 
which a river flows. 

cart, n. kdrt (AS. krat; It. carretto; F. charrette— 
from L. carrus, a two-wheeled cart), a carriage for the 
conveyance of goods, &c. : v. to carry away in a cart : 
carting, imp. : carted, pp. : carter, n. one who 
drives a cart: cartage, n. kdr'-tdj, conveyance in a 
cart ; cost of goods so conveyed : cart-horse, n. a 
strong horse for drawing a cart : cart-load, n. as much 
as can be carried in a cart : cart-wright, n. one who 
constructs carts, 
carte, n. kdrt (F.), a card ; a bill of fare at a hotel. 
carte -blanche, n. cdrt-bldngsh (F. carte, paper; 
blanche, white), a paper signed but not filled up; 
unconditional power to do some business for another : 
carte-de-visite, n. kdrt'-de-ve-zet' (F— literally, a 
card of visit), a small photographic likeness gummed 
on a card— so called from its original use as a visiting 
card : phi. cartes-de-visite. 

cartel, n. kdr'til (It. cartella, pasteboard), a written 
agreement between states at war for an exchange of 
prisoners : cartel-ship, n. a ship employed in convey- 
ing exchanged prisoners, or the messenger to obtain 
an exchange. 

Cartesian, a. kdr-te'zhl-dn, pert, to the doctrines of 
the French philosopher Descartes : n. a person who 
believes in the philosophy of Descartes. 

Carthaginian, a. kdr'-thdjUi'-l-dn, pert, to anc. Car- 
thage : n, a native of. 

carthamus, n. kdr'-thd-mus (L.— from Gr. kathairo, I 
purge, I purify), the wild or bastard saffron ; safflower : 
car thamine, n. -mln, a colouring matter obtained 
from the safflower. 

Carthusian, n. kdr-tho'-zhl-dn, one of an order of 
monks, named from Chartreux in France: adj. pert, 

cartilage, n. kdr'-tll-dj (F.— from L. cartilage-, gris- 
tle), gristle ; a whitish elastic substance, softer than 
bone, and harder than ligament: car'tilag'inous, a. 
-tl-ldj'l-nus, having gristle instead of bones. 

cartoon, n. kdr-ton' (It. cartone, pasteboard— from 
carta, paper: L. chart a), a sketch made on paper, &c, 
as a design to b<i executed in tapestry, in mosaics, or 
on glass ; a design on paper to be transferred from 
the paper on to the fresh plaster of a wall, and painted 
in fresco. 

cartouch, n. kdr-t6sh' (F. cartouche: It. cartoccio, a 
paper case), a cartridge-box; a small wooden case 
filled with rifle-balls or small cannon-balls for being 
discharged from a gun; in arch., an ornament re- 
presenting a scroll of paper. 

cartridge, n. kdr'-trlj (a corruption of cartouche: 
L. charta, paper), a small bag or case made of paper, 
pasteboard, wool, &c, for containing powder and balls, 
used for loading rifles or cannon— containing powder 
alone they are called blank-cartridges— with ball, they 
are called ball-cartridges: cartridge-box, n. the small 
leather case in which the soldier holds his cartridges : 
cartridge-paper, n. a thick sort of paper. 

cartulary, n. kdr'tu-ler'-l (F. cartidaire: low L. car- 
tularium), a register book; one who keeps records, 

caruncle, n. kdr'-ung-kl (L. caruncula, a little piece 
of flesh— from raro, flesh), a small fleshy excrescence, 
diseased or natural, as the comb of a cock ; in hot., 
a fleshy or thickened appendage of the seed : carun- 
cular, a. -ku-ler, pert, to or having the form of a 
caruncle : carun'cula'ted, a. having a fleshy excres- 

carve, v. kdrv (AS. ceorfan ; Dut. kervan, to cut or 
carve : Ger. kerben, to notch), to cut into pieces, as 
meat; to cut into forms or shapes; to engrave or 
sculpture : carv'ing, imp.: n. the act of cutting; the 
art of cutting: figures in wood, &c; sculpture: carved, 
pp. kdrvd: carver, n. one who: carving-knife, n. 
a knife for cutting and slicing meat at table: to carve 
out, to cut or take out from some large thing ; to 
lay out by design. 

carvel, n. kdr-vSl (another form of caravel), a small 
ship ; jelly-fish. 

caryatides, n. plu. kdr'-i-df'-l-de'z, in arch., female 

figures used to support entablatures— so called from 

the women of Carya in Arcadia: car'yat'ic, a. -Ik, 

pert. to. 

caryocaris, n. kdr'l-ok-d-ris (Gr. karuon, a nut, and 

karis, a shrimp), in geol. , a small crustacean, having 
a long, pod-shaped, bivalved carapace. 

caryophyllia, n. kdr-i-6-fil-lla (Gr. karuophullon, a 
clove), literally "clove-shaped;" in geol., a section of 
lamellated flower-like corals: car'yophylla'ceous, a. 
■Id'-shus, in hot., having corollas of five petals with 
long claws, as in the pink : car'yophylline, n. ■of-ll-lin, 
a crystalline substance extracted from cloves. 

caryopsis, n. kdr'-lop'-sis (Gr. karuon, a nut, a ker- 
nel ; opsin, sight, form), in hot., a dry, one-seeded, in- 
dehiscent fruit, incorporated with a thin pericarp, 
forming a single grain— as in wheat, barley, &c. 

casava, n. kd-sd'-vd (Sp. cazabe), bread made from 
the starch obtained from the root of the tapioca plant. 

cascade, n. kds-kdd' (It. cascata; F. cascade, a fall 
of water— from It. cascare, to fall), a waterfall ; water 
flowing over steep rocks. 

cascalho, n. kds-kdl'-yo (Port, cascalho, gravel), a 
name given in Brazil to the gravelly deposit in which 
diamonds and gold are found. 

cascarilla, n. kds'kd-rll'ld (Sp. cascara, bark of 
trees), the bark of a tree of Jamaica ; a powerful tonic. 

case, n. kds (F. caisse, a box: It. cassa, a chest: Sp. 
casco, a cask : Dut. kast ; Ger. kiste, a chest : L. cassus, 
hollow), a covering ; a box ; a sheath ; a frame ; a cer- 
tain quantity : v. to cover in ; to put in a case or box : 
ca'sing, imp. : n. a covering: cased, pp. kdst: case'- 
harden, v. -hdrd'n, to harden the outer part— as iron, 
by converting it into steel : case-hardening, imp. : 
case-hard'ened,pp.: case-knife, n. -nlf, a long kitchen- 
knife : caseworm, n. caddis-worm ; a worm or grub 
which makes itself a case: case-shot, n. shot in a 
case: case'man, n. a compositor. 

case, n. kds (L. casus, afall : F. cas, a case, amatter), 
that which falls, comes, or happens ; an event ; con- 
dition or state in which any person or thing may 
chance to be ; a question for discussion ; a cause in a 
court ; the inflection of nouns : in case, if it should so 
happen : in good case, in good condition or health of 

caseine, n. kd'-se-ln (F. — from L. caseus, cheese: 
It. cascio), the cheesy portion of the curd of milk : 
ca'seous, a. -its, like cheese ; having the qualities of 
cheese : ca'seic, a. -Ik, of or from cheese. 

casemate, n. kdshndt {¥.: Sp. casa-mata— from casa, 
a house, and matar, to slay), a vault of mason-work 
in the flank of a bastion serving as a battery : case'- 
mated, a. having casemates. 

casement, n. kds'-ment (It. casamento, a large house), 
a window made to turn and open on hinges ; a hollow 
moulding : case'mented, a, having casements. 

caseous, a.— see caseine. 

casern, n. kd'-zern (F. caserne— from L. casa, a hut), 
small sleeping-places for soldiers near the ramparts. 

cash, n. kdsh (F. caisse ; It. cassa, a merchant's cash 
or counter), money on hand, or at command, as in a 
chest or in the bank ; ready money ; a Chinese copper 
coin : v. to turn into money ; to exchange for money : 
cash-account, n. in Scot., an account of advances 
made by a banker to a merchant or trader who has 
given security for the repayment of them : cash-credit, 
the privilege of drawing money out of a bank on 
security being given : cash-book, n. the book in which 
money paid out and received is written down : cash'- 
ing, imp.: cashed, pp. kdsht: cashier, n. kd-sher 1 , a 
clerk who has charge of the money and the cash-book. 
cashew, n. kd-shd' (F. acajou — from the native 
name), a tree of W. I. and S. Amer. and its fruit, which 
yields an acrid juice, there growing at the apex of the 
fruit a flattened kidney-shaped nut yielding a caustic 

cashier, v. kd-sher' (Dut. kasseren; F. casser, to 
break— from L. cassus, empty), to dismiss from an 
office of trust for bad conduct ; to reject or discard: 
ca8hier'ing, imp.: cashiered', pp. -sherd', dismissed; 

cashmere, n. kdsh'-mera, rich and costly shawl, so 
called from the place in India where first made : adj. 
of or pert. to. 

casino, n. kd-se'-no (It.— from casa, a house), a small 
country-house ; a saloon for dancing, Ac. 

cask, n. kdsk (Sp. casco, a vessel for holding liquids ; 
F. casque, a case), a round, close, wooden vessel for 
holding liquors, formed of staves and hoops. 

casket, n. kdsk'-it (dim. of cask: F. cassette, a case 
for jewels), a small chest or box for holding jewels, 
trinkets, &c. 

casque, n. kdsk (F.— from Sp. casco, a helmet, a cask), 
a helmet or head-piece for a soldier. 

coiv, bo~j,fdbt; pure, bud; chair, game jog, shurt,, thing, there, zeal. 


cassation, n. kds-sd'-shun (F— from casser, to make 
void), the act of repealing or annulling: court of 
cassation, n. the highest court of appeal in France, 
cassava— see casava. 

cassia, n. cdsh'l-d (L. and Gr.) a name for many 
species of aromatic plants ; a spice ; a medicine. 

cassideous, a. kd-sld'-l-us (L. cassis, a helmet), in hot., 
having one large helmet-shaped petal, as the aconite. 
Cassiopeia, n. kds'l-6-pe'yd (after the mythical wile 
of Cepheus), a constellation on the opposite side of 
the pole to the Great Bear, and at about the same 
distance from it. 

cassiterite, n. kds-sU'-er-it (Gr. kassiteros, tin), the 
oxide of tin, being the ordinary tin ore. 

cassock, n. kds'^sOk (F. casaque; It. casacca, a man's 
long gown: Gael, casag, a long coat), a long, close- 
fitting vestment worn by clergymen under their pulpit- 
gowns : cas'socked, a. -sdkt, clothed with a cassock. 

cassowary, n. kds'so-wd'rl (Hind, kassmuaris), a 
large bird which runs with great rapidity, a native of 
the E. I. 

cast, v. kdst (Icel. kasta; Sp. cascar, to crack, to 
burst : F. casser, to break : It. cascare, to fall), to 
throw or fling; to sow seed; to reject; to reckon ; to 
contrive or plan ; to mould or shape , to ponder or 
weigh, as in the mind : n. a throw ; the distance passed 
by a thing thrown ; a glance or a turn of the eye ; 
chance or hazard ; a form or shape ; a tinge ; manner ; 
whatever is run into a mould : casting, imp. : cast, 
pt. and pp. : to cast aside, to dismiss or reject : to 
cast away, to reject ; to lavish : to cast down, to de- 
ject or depress : to cast forth, to throw out ; to ex- 
hale : to cast off, to discard, or to put away : to cast 
out, to reject; to throw or turn out: to cast up, to 
compute ; to reckon ; to eject or vomit : to cast on, to 
put or place on, as loops of worsted on wires : to cast 
one's self on, to resign or yield to the disposal of, 
without reserve : to cast in the teeth, to upbraid ; 
to blame for : to cast in one's lot with any one, to 
take the chance ; to share the fortune : last-cast, all 
ventured on one effort : cast-iron, n. iron melted from 
the ore, and run into moulds— called also pig-iron or 
cast-metal: cast-steel— see steel: casting-vote, a 
vote that decides, when the votes are equally divided. 

Castalian, a. kds-ta'll-dn (L. castalius), pert, to 
Castalia, a spring on Mount Parnassus sacred to the 

castanets, n. plu. kds'fd-nets (Sp. castana, a ches- 
nut), small concave shells of ivory or hardwood, 
shaped like spoons, rattled with the fingers in danc- 

castaway, n. kdst'd-iva {cast and away), a person 
lost or abandoned : adj. useless ; of no value. 

caste, n kdst (Port, casta, breed, race), a name ap- 
plied to each of the four classes into which the Hindoos 
are divided; a class or circle of persons in any com- 
munity who chiefly hold intercourse within their own 

castellated, a. Jcds'tel-ld'tSd (It. castello ; L. castel- 
lum, a fortified place -from L. castra, a camp), having 
turrets and battlements like a castle : castle, n. 
kds'sl, a building fortified ; a fortress : forecastle, a 
short deck in the fore part of a ship, at one time a 
castle : castle-in-the-air, an empty scheme ; the form- 
ing of hopes on no solid foundation ; visionary ex- 
pectations : cas'tled, a. -ski: cas'tlery, n. -Cr-l, govern- 
ment of a castle : castle-building, the forming in the 
mind of wild or visionary schemes. 

caster, n. kds'ter (see cast), one who casts ; a small 
spice bottle or cruet : cas'ters, n. plu. small wheels 
attached to the legs of sofas, tables, &c— sometimes 
written castors. 

castigate, v. kds'tl-gdt (L. castigatum, to correct, to 
chastise : It. castigare), to correct or chastise ; to criti- 
cise severely in writing ; to punish with stripes : cas- 
tiga'ting, imp. : castigated, pp. : cas'tiga'tion, n. 
■qa'-shua, correction by stripes; a whipping: cas'ti- 
ga'tor, n. one who : cas'tiga'tory, a. -ter-t, corrective : 
n. the thing used in correction. 

castile-soap, n. kds-tcl' (from Castile in Spain), a very 
pure variety of soap : Castil'ian, a. -til'l-dn, of or from 
Castile : n. a native. 

castle, n. kds'sl— see castellated. 

castor, n. kds'tor (L.), a beaver; also a drug taken 
from it : cas'torine, n. -In, a substance extracted from 
the drug castor. „ , , 

castors, n. kds'tors (see caster), small wheels on 
the legs of tables, sofas, &c. . 

Castor and Pollux, kds'-tdr, pol'liiks (mythical 



names), an electrical phenomenon, seen as a flame 
on the mast-head at sea, sometimes double, and then 
called C. and P. ; names of jtars. 

castoroides, n. kds'tor-oy'dez (Gr. castor, beaver; 
eidvs, like), in geol., a large fossil rodent allied to the 

castor-oil, n. kds'tor-dyl (said to be a corruption of 
castus-oil, the sacred oil), the oil of the Palma Christi 
(palm of Christ), a plant of the W. I., used in medicine, 
castrametation, n. kds'trd-metd'shun (L. castra, a 
camp ; meto, I measure), the art or practice of en- 

castrate, v. kds'trdt (L. and It. castrare, to deprive 
of generative power), to emasculate ; to geld : cas'trat- 
ing, imp. : cas'trated, pp. : castra'tion, n. -ti-d'-shua, 
the act of emasculating. 

castrel, n. kds'trel (F. crecerelle), a kind of hawk 
resembling the sparrow-hawk ; same as kestrel. 

casual, a. kdz'u-dl (F. casuel — from L. casus, a 
fall), happening without design ; coming to pass with- 
out being expected or foreseen ; accidental: cas'ually, 
ad. -II: cas'ualty, n. -dl-tl, an injury or hurt to the 
body by accident ; death or other misfortune by acci- 
dent : cas'uistry, n. -u-ls-tri, the science or system of 
rules that undertakes to decide in matters of con- 
science as to what is lawful or unlawful ; the art of 
quibbling; the art of drawing fine distinctions: cas- 
uist, n. -1st, one who resolves doubts of conscience in 
matters of duty: cas'uis'tic, a. -ls-tlk: cas'uis'tical, 
a. -tlkal, pert, to casuistry: cas'uis'tically, ad. -II. 

cat, n. kdt (Ger. katze: Gael, cat: Icel. kottr), a 
well-known domestic animal : cat-gut, n. strings for 
musical instruments made of the entrails of animals : 
cat's-paw, a term of contempt, applied to aperson who 
is made the tool of another ; a dupe ; a puff of wind : 
cat'kin, a kind of flower, long and slender, resembling 
a cat's tail, as in the hazel, the birch, &c. : cat-like, 
a, stealthily, like a cat : cats-eye, a variety of chalce- 
donic quartz : cat-block, in a ship, tackle used to raise 
the anchor: cat-call, a small squealing instr. : cat's- 
foot, cat-mint, &c, plants : cat'ling, the down or moss 
growing about walnut-trees ; in surg.,& kind of knife. 

cata, kat'-d (Gr.), prefix, signifying down; against; 
opposition or contrariety ; completeness ; intensity. 

catacaustics, n. plu. kdt'-d-kaws'-tlks (Gr. kata, 
against; kaustikos, burning), in opt., the curves 
formed by the reflection of the rays of light : cat'- 
acaus'tic, n. a particular curve formed by reflection : 
adj. pert. to. 

catachresis, n. kdt'd-kri'sls (L. and Gr. misuse), in 
rhet., an abuse of a trope or of words ; the use of a 
word in a sense different from its own : cat'achres'tic, 
a. -krSs'tlk, or ca'tachres'tical, a. -ti-kdl, forced; far- 
fetched: cat'achres'tically, ad. -II. 

cataclysm, n. kdt'd-kllzm (Gr. kataklusmos, inunda- 
tion—from kata, down, and kluzein, to wash), any vio- 
lent inundation that sweeps over a country: cat'- 
aclys'mal, a. -kUz'mdl, pert, to an inundation or to its 
destructive effects. 

catacomb, n. kdt'd-kom (Gr. kata, under, down; 
kurnbos, a hollow or recess), burial-places in caves or 
hollow recesses under ground ; divisions or niches in 
a cellar for storing liquors ; certain old quarries near 
Rome, in Egypt, Paris, &c, used as burial-places. 

catacoustics, n. plu. kdt'd-koivs'tlks (Gr. kata, 
against, and acoustics), the doctrine of reflected 
sounds or echoes. 

catalectic, a. kdt'dlel'llk (Gr. katalektikos, incom- 
plete), ending suddenly, as a verse wanting a syllable. 

catalepsy, n. kdt'd-Up'sl (Gr. kata, down; lepsis, a 
taking or seizing), a disease in which motion and sen- 
sation are suddenly suspended ; a trance: cat'alep'tic, 
a. -tik, pert. to. 

catalogue, n. kdt'd-log (Gr. kata, down; logos, a 
word), a list of names in regular order : v. to make a 
list of: cataloguing, imp. : catalogued, pp. -Idgd. 

catalysis, n. kd-tdl'l-sls (Gr. katalusis— from kata, 
down ; luo, I loosen), in chem. , a term used to designate 
certain phenomena, in which changes in the composi- 
tion of substances are effected by the action of one 
body on another by contact: catalytic, a. kdt'-d-llt'-lk, 
relating to catalysis. 

catamaran, n. kdt'd-mdrdn' (cathamaran, floating 
trees— native name), a kind of raft used by the natives 
of the E. I. 

catamenia, n. kdt'd-me'nl-d (Gr. katamenios, month- 
ly_from kata, down; men, month), the monthly 
courses of females: cat'ame'nial.a. -me'nl-dl, pert. to. 

catamount, n. kdt'dnidivnt, also -mountain (cat, 

mate mat, far, laiv; mete, met, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 




and mount or mountain), the wild mountain-cat ; the 
N. Amer. tiger. 

catapetalous, a. kdt'd-pSt'd-lus (Gr. kata, under; 
petition, a petal), in bot,, having the petals held to- 
gether by stamens which grow to their bases. 

cataphract, n. kdt'd-frdkt (Gr. katajihraktos, en- 
cased, fortified), defensive armour; a horseman in 
complete armour: cat'aphrac'ted, a. -frdk'ted, cov- 
ered with armour or scales. 

cataplasm, n. kdt'd-pldzm (L— from Gr. kata, down ; 
plasso, I mould), a poultice or plaster. 

catapult, n. kdt'd-pult (L. catajndta— from Gr. kata, 
down, and pcdlo, I hurl), a war-eugine, used anciently 
to throw large stones. 

cataract, n. kdt'drdkt (L. cataracta, a waterfall— 
from Gr. kata, down ; raktos, a precipice), the rushing 
of a great body of water over steep rocks ; a disease 
in the eye by which the vision becomes impaired or 

catarrh, n. kd-tdr' (L. catarrhus— from Gr. kata, 
down ; rheo, I flow), a cold in the head causing a run- 
ning at the nose, &c. : catar'rhal, a. -rdl, pert. to. 

catastrophe, n. kd-tds'tro/6 (Gr. katastrophe, an 
overthrow— from kata, down ; strophe, a turning), a 
great calamity; a violent convulsion in nature; a 
final event ; the conclusion of a series of events. 

catch, v. kdeh (F. chasser; prov. F. cacher, to hunt: 
Ger. klatsch, a slap, a clap: Gael, glac, to seize), to 
seize suddenly; to lay hold on with the hands; to 
take or receive by exposure, as a cold, or a disease by 
infection ; to ensnare ; to overtake : n. anything that 
seizes or holds ; the act of seizing ; a sudden advan- 
tage taken ; a song in parts, in which those singing 
catch up the strain one after the other at various in- 
tervals : catching, imp. : adj. apt to catch ; infec- 
tious: caught, pp. pt. kaTvt: catch'er, n. one who: 
catch-penny, n. something worthless; a book pub- 
lished for the public taste, but without value : catch- 
word, n. the word placed under the last line of a page, 
and made to begin the first line of the next : catching 
a tartar, being caught in the trap one has laid for 

catch-poll, n. kdch'pOl (catch, and poll, the head : 
F. chacepol), a serjeant; a bailiff's follower. 

catchup, n. kdtch'-up, or catsup, n. kdts'-up (of E. I. 
origin), a sauce made from mushrooms. 

catechise, v. kdt'eklz (Gr. katechesis, the act of 
stunning by loud sound, instruction in the elements 
of a science — from kata, down ; echos, a sound), to in- 
struct or examine by asking questions and receiving 
answers ; to interrogate ; to try by asking questions : 
cat'echi'sing, imp. : cat'echised, pp. -klzd : cat'echi- 
ser, n. one who : cat'echism, n. -kizm, a book on any 
subject arranged for instruction in the form of question 
and answer : cat'echist, n. one who instructs in the 
principles of religion ; a catechiser: cat'echis'tic, -fcfeS 
tik, or cat'echis tical, a. tlkal: cat'echet'ic, -ket'lk, 
cat'echet'ical, a.: cat'echet'ically, ad. -II: cat'echu'- 
men, n. -ku'-men, in the anc. church, one not yet fully 
instructed in the principles of Christianity ; one being 
prepared for baptism. 

catechu, n. kdt'e-shoo, a dry brown extract obtained 
from the acacia catechu, an E. I. plant, used in medi- 
cine and the arts: cat'echu'ic, a. -Ik, of or from 

category, n. kdt'S-gdr-l (Gr. kategoria, an accusa- 
tion—from kata, against ; agoreuo, I speak in an as- 
sembly), in logic, the general head of a class, to one 
among a certain number of which anything whatever 
is referable ; a class ; an order of ideas : categorical, 
a. -i.kal, absolute; positive ; direct ; without possi- 
bility of evasion : categorically, ad. -II : cat'egor'- 
emat'ic, a. -e-mdt'lk (Gr. kategorema, a predicate), in 
logic , capable of being employed by itself as a term ; 
also cat'egor'emat'ical, a. -l-kdl: -mat'ically, ad. -li. 

catenate, v. kdt'e-ndt (L. catena, a chain), to con- 
nect, as a series of links in a chain : cat'ena'ting, imp. : 
cat'ena'ted, pp. : cat'ena'tion, n. -nd'shiin, regular 
connection, as the links of a chain: cat'enar'y, a. 
-ner'4, relating to a chain ; also ca'tena'rian, a. -nd' 
ri-dn : catenary curve, the curve or bend made by a 
rope or chain hanging freely between two points of 

catenipora, n. plu. kdt'e-n-lp'or-d, or catenipores, 
n. plu. kd-ten'l-pors (L. catena, a chain; porus, a 
channel, a pore), chainpore coral, so termed from the 
chain-like arrangement of its pores in polished speci- 

cater, v. kd'ter (Norm. F. acater, to buy : mod. F. 

acheter; It. accattare, to acquire, to get: L. cap>tare, 
to lay hold of), to provide food ; to purchase provisions : 
catering, imp.: ca'tered, pp. -terd: caterer, n. one 
who: ca'teress, n. fem., a woman who seeks to pro- 
cure food. 

caterpillar, n. kdt'-ir-pll'-ler (old Eng. cates, food ; F. 
piller, to plunder— probably named from its resem- 
blance to the catkins of a nut), a hairy, ringed, worm- 
like creature, the grub of an insect, and very vora- 

caterwaul, v. Mt'er-u-dTvl (from cat, and waul, to 
cry as a cat), to make a noise, as cats at night under 
the influence of the sexual instinct ; to make a harsh 
disagreeable noise : caterwauling, imp. : cat'er- 
wauled, pp. -wau-ld. 

cates, n. plu. kdts (Norm. F. acater, to buy), dainties ; 
cakes ; nice food. 

catgut, n.— see cat. 

Catharine-wheel, n. kath'ir-hi (so called from St 
Catharine of Alexandria, in allusion to the manner of 
her intended martyrdom), in arch., an ornamental 
window of a circular form, having radiating divisions 
or spokes like a wheel ; a firework of similar form. 

cathartic, a. kd-thdr'tlk (Gr. kathairo, I clean or 
purge), purgative : n. a purging medicine : also ca- 
thar'tical, a. : cathar'tine, n. -tin, the purgative prin- 
ciple of senna. 

cathedral, n. kd-the'drdl (L. or Gr. cathedra, a chair 
—from Gr. kata, down, and hedra, a seat or chair), the 
principal church in a diocese, containing the bishop's 
official seat or throne : adj. pert, to the principal 
church of a diocese : cathe'dra, n. -drd, the seat or 
chair of a professor ; a pulpit. 

catheter, n. kath'e-ter (L. or Gr. catheter, a thing let 
down or put in), in surg., a small tube introduced into 
the bladder to draw oft' the water. 

cathode, n. kdth'od (Gr.kata, down ; {h)oclos, a 
way), the surface at which electricity passes out of a 

catholic, a. kdth'6-llk (Gr. katholikos, universal— 
from kata, down; (h)olos, the whole: L. catholicus), 
universal ; general ; liberal ; not narrow-minded or big- 
oted: n. a name commonly applied to the adherents 
of the Church of Rome : Catholicism, n. kd-thol'l-slzm. 
universality ; liberality of sentiments ; adherence to 
the Church of Rome : catholicity, n. kath'6-lis'l-tt, the 
quality of being universal or catholic ; the religion of 
the Church of Rome: catholicon, n. kd-thol'bkon, a 
universal medicine. 

cation, n. kat'l-on (Gr. kata, down ; ion, a going), an 
electro-positive substance which appears or is evolved 
at the cathode. 

catkin, catling— see cat. 

catlinite, n. kdt'lin-lt (after Catlin, the Amer. 
traveller), a reddish variety of claystone found west 
of the Mississippi. 

Catonian, a. kd-td'nl-dn, severe and inflexible, like 
the ancient Roman Cato. 

cat-o'-nine-tails (Pol. kat, executioner; kota woti, 
to scourge or torture: Russ. koshka, a cat), nine pieces 
of leather or cord knotted at intervals, used to flog 

catoptrics, n. plu. kd-top'Mks (Gr. katoptron, a 
mirror— from kata, down or against, and optomai, I 
see), that part of optics which treats of the properties 
of light reflected from polished bodies : catop'tron, n. 
-tron, an optical glass or instrument : catoptric, 
-trik, or catop'trical, a. -tri-kdl, pert. to. 

cattle, n. kdt'tl (mid L. catalla, chattels, goods 
in general,— specially applied to cattle as the princi- 
pal wealth in an early stage of society : old F. catel, 
goods, movables), quadrupeds, being domestic animals 
used for labour or for food — more especially applied 
to oxen, bulls, and cows : cattle-show, n. an exhibi- 
tion of domestic animals in competition for prizes : 
cattle-pen, n. pen for cattle. 

catty, n. kdt'tl, a Chinese weight of about 1J lb. 

Caucasian, a. kaw-kd'zhi-dn, pert, to Mount Cau- 
casus in Europe : n. one belonging to the Indo-Euro- 
pean race originating near Mount Caucasus. 

caucus, n. kaw'kus (a supposed corruption ofCalkers, 
who, along with others, used to meet in Boston for 
political purposes previous to the independence of 
the U.S. of Amer.), in U.S. of Amer., a meeting prelim- 
inary to a public meeting of citizens for election or for 
other purposes, generally political. 

caudal, a. kaw'ddl (L. cauda, a tail), pert, to the 
tail of an animal, or the thread at the bottom of the 
seed of a plant : cau'date, a. -dot, and cau'dated, a. 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




in hot., applied to seeds that have a tail-like ap- 
pendage: cau'dicle, n. -dl-kl, in bot., the tail-like 
process supporting the masses of pollen in orchids : 
cau'dex, n. -deks (L. the trunk), in but., the main trunk 
or axis of a plant. 

caudle, n. kaw'dl{L.calidiua, hot, warm— oraprobable 
corruption of cordial), a warm drink containing wine 
or other liquors given to women at childbirth: v. to 
prepare caudle; to treat tenderly: cau'dling, imp.: 
caudled, pp. kawklld: caudle-cup, the drink given to 
women at childbirth; the glass of wine, &c, drunk in 
honour of the child born. 

cauf, n. kaTof (Celt, kaff; L. cavus, hollow: L. 
rophinus, a basket), a chest for holding live fish ; the 
box or cage for raising coal from the mine. 

caught, v. pt. or pp. kawt— see catch. 

caul, n. kawl (AS. cawl: F. cdle, a kind of little cap), 
a netted membrane covering the lower intestines ; 
the membrane covering the head of a child when born ; 
a net for enclosing the hair. 

cauldron, n. kawl'dron —see caldron. 

caulescent, a. kaw-les'&nt (L. caulis, a stalk), in bot., 
having a true stem : cau'licle, n. -ll-kl, a short stem : 
cau'licule, n. -ll-kill, in bot. , a short stem ; in arch., one 
of the curled tops in a Corinthian capital; plu. in bot., 
small stems rising immediately from the neck of the 
root: cau'liform, a. -ll-fawrm (L. forma, shape), same 
as caulescent : cau'line, a. -lln, growing on a caulis 
or stem. 

cauliflower, n. kdiol'-l-fimur (L. caulis, a stem, and 
flower), a kind of cabbage with a thick, soft, white 

caulk, n. kruvk (see calk), in a ship, the operation of 
driving oakum into the seams between the planks of 
a ship: caulking-iron, an iron chisel for driving in 
the oakum. 

cause, n. kaTvz (L. causa, a cause: It. causa; F. 
cause), anything that produces an effect ; the person or 
thing that brings about or does something; a reason; a 
motive or inducement that urges or impels ; a suit at 
law; a party or side: v. to effect or produce ; to occa- 
sion: cau'sing, imp.: caused, pp. kaivzd: causal, a. 
kawz'ai, relating to or expressing cause: causality, 
n. kaw-zdl'441, agency of a cause ; quality of causing: 
causally, ad. kaXoz'dhll: causable, a. kawz'd-bl .- 
causation, n. kaw-za'shun, the act or power of caus- 
ing or producing: cau'sative, a. -tlv, that effects as a 
cause : causeless, a. having no cause : causelessly, 
ad. -II : cause'lessness, n. : cau'ser, n. one who. 

causeway, n. kcCwz'wa (F. chaussee, a raised way: 
mid. L. calceta, a road), a raised roadway paved; a 
raised road over wet or marshy ground : causey, n. 
kaw'zl, a contr. for causeway: cau'seyed, a. -sad, or 
cause'wayed, a. -wad, paved with blocks of stone. 

caustic, a. kaws'-tlk, or cau'stical, a. -tl-kdl (Gr. 
kaustikos, having the power to burn), burning ; cor- 
roding; that has power to destroy a living texture: 
caus'tic, n. a substance that acts like fire when ap- 
plied to a living body ; nitrate of silver : causticity, 
n. -tls'l-tl, the quality of being caustic. 

cautery, n. kaw'-ter-l (Gr. kauterion, a hot iron for 
marking— from kaio, I burn: L. cauterium), a burning 
or searing of living flesh with a hot iron, or by caustic 
medicine, so as to remove a diseased part : cau'terise, 
v. -ter-lz, to burn or sear living flesh : cau'teri'sing, 
imp. : cau'terised, pp. -Izd: cauterisation, n. -i-za- 
shun, the act of burning or searing with a hot iron ; 
also cau'terism, n. -izm. 

caution, n. kaw'shiin (L. cautio, a taking heed : It. 
cauzione: F. caution), great care in the midst of dangers; 
forethought ; a prudent course of conduct ; security 
for ; an advice ; a warning : v. to warn ; to exhort : 
cau'tioning, imp. : cau'tioned, yp.-shiind: cau'tionary, 
a. -er-l, containing warning ; given as a pledge ■ cau- 
tioner, n. in Scot., one bound for another : cau'tionry, 
n. -rl, in Scot., suretiship; the obligation of snreti- 
ship: cau'tious, a. -shiis, very careful in conduit; 
wary; watchful; discreet: cau'tiously, ad. -It: cau'- 
tiousness, n. 

cavalcade, n. kdv'dl-kd'l (F.— sec cavalry), a proces- 
sion of persons on horseback. 

cavalry, n. Mv'dl-rl (It. cavallo ; F. cheval; L. cab- 
alius; Gr. kaballes ; old Ens;, caple, a horse), horse-sol- 
diers : cav'alier', n. -d-ler' (It. cavaliere: F. chevalier), 
a horseman ; an armed horseman ; a knight ; a gay 
soldier; in mil., an elevation of earth situated with- 
in a work overlooking the surrounding parts : adj. 
sprightly; say; brave; generous; haughty: cav'a- 
liers', n. plu. •lerz', in Eng. hist., the partisans of 

Charles I.: cav'alierly, ad. -It, arrogantly ; disdain- 
fully : caValier'ness, n. 

cavatina, n. kav'-a-ti'-nd (It.), in music, an air of one 
movement, frequently preceded by a recitative. 

cavazion, n. kd-vd'zhiin (It. cavazione, excavation), 
in arch., an excavation for the foundation of a build- 
ing or for cellarage. 

cave, n. kdv (L. cavus, hollow: Fin. koppa, any- 
thing hollowed or vaulted), a hollow place under 
earth or rocks, as at the side of a hill ; a den ; a cavern : 
v. to hollow or scoop out ; to dwell in a cave ; (followed 
by in), to fall in, as earth in digging a pit : ca ving, 
imp.: caved, pp. kavd: cavity, n. kav'l-tl, a hollow in 
anything: cave-earth, the reddish calcareous earth 
accumulated in anc. caverns. 

caveat, n. ka'vl-dt (L. let him beware), in a court of 
law, an intimation to stop proceedings ; a caution ; a 
warning : ca'vea'tor, n. one who: 

cavern, n. kdv'ern (L. cavus, hollow), a large hollow 
place below the earth or rocks ; a cavern is larger than 
a cave: cav erned, a. -irnd, or cav'ernous, a. -ern-us, 
full of caverns : cavern'ulous, a. kd-vem'-u-lus, full of 
little caves or hollows. 

cavetto, n. kd-vet'to (It.— from cavo, hollow), in arch., 
a hollow moulding used principally in cornices. 

caviare, n. kav-l-dr (F. caviar: mod. Gr. kabiari), 
a prepared article of food consisting of the salted 
roes of several kinds of large fish, chiefly of the 

cavil, v. kdv'll (L. cavillor, I taunt — from cavus, 
hollow : old F. caviller, to wrangle), to raise frivolous 
objections; to find fault unreasonably ; to wrangle; to 
carp at : n. a false or frivolous objection : cavilling, 
imp. : cavilled, pp. -lid: caviller, n. one who : cav'- 
illingly, ad. -II : cav'illous, a. -II- us, captious : cavil- 
lously, ad. -It. 

cavity, n.— see cave. 

caw, v. kaw (from the sound), to cry like a crow 
or rook : cawing, imp. : cawed, pp. kau-d. 

cawk, n. kawk, (prov. Eng. cauk), a familiar term 
for heavy spar or native sulphate of barytes : cawk'y, 
a. -i, like cawk or pert, to it. 

cayenne, n. ka-yen' or kd-en', a very strong pun- 
gent pepper of a red colour that conies from Cay- 
enne : adj. pert. to. 

cayman, n. ka'-mdn (a negro name), the Amer. 
alligator ; also spelt caiman. 

cazique, n. kd-zek' (native or Amer. name), a \V. 
I. or Amer. chief ; also spelt casique. 

cease, v. ses (F. cesser, to cease : L. cessum, to go 
from, to yield : It. cessare to dismiss), to leave off; to 
stop doing ; to fail ; to be at an end : ceas'ing, imp. : 
ceased, pp. sest : ceaseless, a. without a stop or pause ; 
incessant; endless: ceaselessly, ad. -li: cessation, 
n. sSs-sd'sMn, a stop ; a pause ; a leaving off. 

cedar, n. se'der[L. cedrus: Gr. kedros), a large ever- 
green tree : ce'dared, a. -derd: cedar-like, a: ce'drine, 
a. -drln, pert, to the cedar. 

cede, v. sed (L. cedere, to go, to give up : F. cider: It. 
cedere), to give up; to yield; to relinquish or sur- 
render to : ce'ding, imp. : ce'ded, pp. : cession, n. 
sesh'un (L. cessum, to give up), the act of yielding up 
or granting: cessible, a. s6s'i-bl, liable to give way: 
ces'sibillty, n. -bd'hti, qualitv of giving way. 

cedilla, n. se-dil'ld (Sp. cedilla: F. cedille), a mark 
put under the letter c (thus, c) to show that it must be 
sounded like an s. 

ceil, v. sel (It. cielo; F. del, heaven, sky; then ap- 
plied to a canopy, the inner roof of a room ; after- 
wards confounded with seal, in the sense of to close), 
to cover the inner roof of a building with anything, 
as with plaster or wood : ceiling, imp. : n. the roof 
of a room : ceiled, pp. seld. 

celandine, n. sel'-dn-dln (Gr. chelidonion ; L. cheli- 
donia— from Gr. chelidon, the swallow), a genus of 
plants of the ranunculus family ; a plant called swal- 

celebrate, v. sel'H-brdt (L. celebratus, celebrated : It. 
celebrato), to praise or extol ; to render famous ; to 
keep holy ; to honour by marks of joy or by ceremon- 
ies : cel'ebra'ting, imp. : cerebrated, pp. : adj. fam- 

ous ; renowned : cel'ebra'tor, n. one who : cel'ebrant, 
n. one who performs a religious act in a church pub- 
licly; the officiating Roman Catholic priest: cel'e- 
bra'tion, n. -bra-shun, the performance of solemn 
rites ; the distinguishing by marks of joy or respect ; 
praise; renown: celeb'rity, n. s6-leb'-rl-ti, fame; 
renown ; distinction or notoriety. 
celerity, n. se-ler'-i-tl (L. celeritas, swiftness— from 

mate, mdt, far, law; mete, mit, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, viOve; 




celer, swift: F. celeritd: It. celerita, quickness), speed 
in anything, as actions, words, thoughts, or of bodies 
on or near the earth ;— velocity is more frequently 
applied to objects remote or inappreciable, as the 
planets, sound, light, &c. ;— swiftness. 

celery, n. sel'ir-l (F. celeri), a kitchen vegetable. 

celestial, a. se-lest-yal (L. caelum, heaven; cozlestis, 
heavenly: It. celeste: F. celeste), heavenly; of or 
pert, to heaven : n. an inhabitant of heaven : celes'- 
tially, ad. -ll: celes'tialise, v. -ydl-iz, to make lit for 
heaven: celest'iali'sing, imp. : celest'ialised', pp. -llzd': 
celestine, n. se-les'tin, a mineral, sulphate of strou- 
tian, so named in allusion to its sky-blue colour. 

Celestins, n. plu. sel'es-tlnz, a religious order in the 
R. Cath. Ch. who eat no flesh unless when sick, and 
fast often— named after Pope Celestin. 

celiac, a.— see coeliac. 

celibacy, n. sgl'-i-bd-sHL. ccelebs, unmarried, single), 
a single life ; an unmarried condition : celibate, n. 
sel'l-bdt, the state of being unmarried ; one who. 

cell, n. sil (L. cella, a hiding-place: F. cellier: It. 
cella), a small confined room ; an apartment in a pri- 
son ; a small cavity ; a private room in a nunnery or 
monastery: cella, n. sel'-ld, the body or principal part 
of a temple : cellar, n. -ler, a room or place under a 
house used for storing coals, &c. : cellarage, n. -dj, 
the capacity of a cellar ; charge for cellar-room : cel'- 
laret, n. -it, an ornamental case for bottles : cellar- 
ist, n. : cel'larman, n. one who has charge of the cel- 
lar: cellular, a. sel'il-ldr, consisting of small cavi- 
ties or hollows: cellula'ted, a. -Id'-ted, formed with 
cells : cellule, n. sei'-ul, a little cell : cellular tissue, 
in bot., an aggregation of minute membranous vesi- 
cles filled with fluid: cellif'erous, a. -Ijf'er-us (L. 
fero, I carry, I bear), producing cells : cellulif erous, 
a. -u-llf-er-us (L. cellula, a little cell, and fero, I bear), 
producing little cells : cellulose, n. -loz, a compound 
of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, forming the funda- 
mental material or cell-structure of plants : adj. con- 
taining cells. 

Celt, n. selt (L. celiac ; Gr. keltai, the Celts: W. cel- 
tiad, an inhabitant of the wood or covert— from L. 
celo, I conceal), one who speaks the Celtic language ; 
one of the great parent stock of Southern and West- 
ern Europe ; a stone or bronze cutting instrument 
found in ancient barrows or tumuli: Celtic, a. sd'tlk, 
pert, to a Celt ; the language of the Celts : Cel'ticism, 
n. et-slzm, a custom of the Celts, or an idiom of their 

cement, n. se'-me'nt' (L. coementum, quarried stone : 
F. cement, cement), the substance that unites two 
bodies together, or the parts of a broken thing ; bond of 
union ; mortar : v. to unite by a glutinous substance ; 
to unite firmly and closely; to cohere: cementing, 
imp.: cemented, pp.: cemen'ter, n. one who: cemen- 
tation, n. s&m'-en-td'-shun, the act of cementing; the 
process by which iron is converted into steel: ce- 
mentatory, se-men'td-tor'-l, also cementitious, a. 
sSm'en-tlsh'us, having the quality of cementing. 

cemetery, n. sem'e-tir-l {Gr. koimeterion, a sleeping- 
place : L. cozmeterium), a place for the burial of the 

cenobite, n. se'no-blt (Gr. koinos, common ; bios, 
life), one of a religious order who lives in a convent or 
monastery with others, and not alone, like an anchoret 
or hermit: cenobitic, sen' 6 -bit -Ik, and cen'obitlcal, 
a. -l-kdl, living in community as a monk. 

cenotaph., n. sen'6-tdf (Gr. kenos, empty ; taphos, a 
tomb: F. cenotaphe), a monument in honour of one 
who is buried elsewhere. 

cense, v. sins (F. encenser, to perfume: contr. from 
incense), to perfume with burning odoriferous sub- 
stances : censer, n. -sir, a vase or pan in which in- 
cense is burned: cen'sing, imp. : censed, pp. senst. 

censor, n. sin'sor (L. censor, a Roman magistrate), 
an officer in anc. Rome who imposed taxes and 
punished immorality ; in some countries, a person who 
inspects all MSS. before they are permitted to be 
printed or published : one given to fault-finding : 
censo'rious, -sd'ri-us, also censo'rial, a. -rldl, given to 
blame or to condemn ; severe in making remarks on 
the conduct or writings of others : censo'riously, ad. 
-II: censo'riousness, n. disposition to find fault: cen'- 
sorship, n. the office or dignity of a censor. 

censure, n. sin'sho'or (L. censura, severe judgment : 
It. censura .- F. censure), the act of blaming or finding 
fault; reproof: v. to find fault with; to blame; to 
condemn as wrong : censuring, imp. ; cen'sured, pp. 
•shdbrd: cen'surer, n. one who : cen'surable, a. -d-bl, 

worthy of blame : cen'surably, ad. -Ml : cen'surable- 
ness, n. 

census, n. stn'sus (L. census, a registering and ra- 
ting of citizens: It. senso: F. sens), an authoritative 
enumeration of the inhabitants of a state or country : 
cen'sual, a. -shdb-dl, of or relating to a census. 

cent, a. sint (L. centum, a hundred, of which cent 
is an abbreviation: It. cento: F. cent), a hundred: 
per cent, a certain rate for each hundred of any 
thing; in the U.S. of Amer., a copper coin, in value 
the hundredth part of a dollar, being a little more 
than a halfpenny sterling : per-centage, n. -tdj, so much 
for each hundred : centenary, n. sen-ten-er'i, the num- 
ber of a hundred : cen'tena'rian, n. a person a hun- 
dred years old : centen'nial, a. -tin'ni-dl (I,, annus, 
a year), pert, to a hundred years: centesimal, a. 
■tes'l-mdl (L. centesimus), the hundredth: centesl- 
mally, ad. -II : centipede or cen'tiped, n. ti-ped (L. 
pes, a foot— gen. pedis), an insect with many feet, re- 
puted 100 : cent per cent, £100 for each £100, as profit 
or interest. 

centaur, n. sSn'tawr (L. centaur : us; Gr. kentauros, 
a herdsman who fought on horseback— from Gr. kenteo, 
I spur ; tauros, a bull), a fabulous being said to have 
been half man and half horse ; in astron., a constella- 
tion, part of a bright group in the southern hemisphere. 

centering, n. sen'-ter-lng(see centre), the temporary 
frame on which an arch is built. 

centigrade, n. sdn'tl-grdd (L. centum, a hundred ; 
gradus, a step), a thermometer divided, between the 
freezing and boiling points of water, into 100 parts or 

centime, n. sin-tern' (F.— fromL. centum, a hundred), 
the hundredth part of a franc. 

centimetre, n. sen-tlm'e-tir, or sen'tl-md'tr (F.— 
from L. centum, a hundred ; Gr. metron, a measure), a 
French measure of length, equal to -394 in., or about 
2-5ths in. English. 

centre, n. s6n'-tir (Gr. kentron, anything with a 
sharp point: L. centrum, the middle point), the mid- 
dle point or place : v. to place on the middle point ; 
to collect to one point ; to settle exclusively on one ob- 
ject ; to rest on : cen'tring, -trlnq, or cen'tering, -tir- 
ing, imp. : cen'tred or centered, pp. -terd: cen'tral, 
a. -trdl, placed at or near the middle : centrally, ad. -II : 
cen'traHse, v. -lz, to draw or bring to a centre : cen'- 
trali'sing, imp. : cen'tralised, pp. -llzd: cen'tralisa- 
tion, n. -zd'shiin : centralism, n. -izm , the combination 
of several parts into one whole : centrallty, n. -hti, 
state of being central : centre-bit, n. -tir-blt, an instru- 
ment withaprojectingconical point, nearlyin the mid- 
dle, for boring circular holes : centre of gravity, that 
point of a body which, being supported, the whole 
body will remain at rest, even though acted upon by 
gravity : centre of motion, the point in a body which 
remains at rest, while all the other parts move round 
it : cen'trical, -trlkdl. and centric, a. -trik, placed in 
or near the centre or middle : cen'trically, ad. -ll ; 
cen'tricalness, n. 

centrifugal, a. sSn-trif'-i'i-gdl (L. centrum, the centre, 
and fugio, I flee), tending to fly or go off from the cen- 
tre ; in bot., applied to that kind of inflorescence in 
plants in which the central flower opens first: cen- 
tripetal, a. -trlp'6-tdl (L. peto, I seek, I move to a 
place), tending to the centre ; having a desire to move 
to the centre ; in bot., applied to that kind of inflores- 
cence in plants in which the flowers expand from be- 
low upwards : centrifugal force, the force by which 
bodies, when set in motion round a centre, have a 
tendency to fly off at a tangent from the circle round 
which they move : centripetal force, the force which 
drives or impels a body towards some point as a centre ; 
the force or gravity by which bodies tend to a point 
or centre. 

centuple, n. sSn'tu-pl (L. centum, a hundred, and 
plico, I fold : F. centuple), a hundred fold : v. to mul- 
tiply a hundred fold: centuplicate, v. -tu'pll-kdt, to 
make a hundred-fold: centu'plica'ting,imp.: centup- 
lica'ted, pp. 

centurion, n. sln-tu'rl-dn (L. centurio— from centum, 
a hundred), among the anc. Romans, the captain of 
100 men : century, n. sen'tu-ri, a period of a hundred 
years : centu'rial, a. -rl-dl, pert, to a century. 

cephalaspis, n. sef'dlds'pis (Gr. kephale, the head ; 
as2ris, a shield), in geol., a fossil fish, so called from 
having the bones of the head united into a single 
shield-like case. 

cephalic, a. se-fdl'ik (Gr. kephale, the head), pert, to 
the head: n. a medicine for headache: cephalalgia, 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




n. sSf'd-ldl'jld, or ceph'alal'gy, n. -jl (Gr. algos. pain), 
pain in the head ; headache : ceph'alal gic, a. -jik, 
pert. to. 

cephalopoda, n. plu. sef'dl-6-podz (Gr. kephale, the 
head ; pons, the foot— gen. podos), the highest class of 
mollusca— so called from the principal organs of loco- 
motion being arranged round the head, as in the cuttle- 

ceramic, a. se-rdm'lk (Gr. keramos, potter's clay, 
earthenware), pert, to pottery, or the art. 

ceramidium, n. ser-d-mid'-l-um (Gr. keramidoo, I 
cover with tiles ; keramion, a jar), in hot., an ovate con- 
ceptacle having a terminal opening, and with a tuft 
of spores arising from the base, as in algae. 

cerate, n. se'-rdt (L. cera, wax : It. cero : F. cire), a 
thick ointment containing wax: cera'ted, a. covered 
with wax : cere, v. ser, to cover with wax : n. the naked 
skin covering the base of the bill in some birds : ce'- 
ring, imp. spreading over with melted wax : cered, pp. 
serd: cere-cloth, n. -kloth, a cloth covered with melted 
wax, or with some gummy matter: cere'ment, n. -ment, 
a cloth dipped in melted wax in which dead bodies are 
■wrapped : cerasine, n. s5r'd-sln, a variety of gum : 
cereous, a. se'rl-us, and cera cious, a. -ra'shus, of or 
like wax; waxen : ceru'men, n. -ro'-men, the wax of 
the ear : ceru'menous, a. -us, relating to or containing 
cerumen : ce'ruse, n. -ros (L. cerussa, white lead— from 
cera, wax), a kind of paint like wax ; white lead : 
ce'rine, n. -rln, the part of bees' wax soluble in boiling 

ceratiocaris, n. se-rdsh'l-ok'd-rls (Gr. keration, a 
pod; karis, a shrimp), in geol., a fossil crustacean 
having a pod-like carapace and a shrimp-like body. 

ceratites, n. plu. ser'd-tlts (Gr. keras, a horn), in 
geol., a genus of ammonitidse peculiar to the triassic 
strata: ceratodus.n. se-rdt'odiis (Gr. odous, a tooth), 
fossil fish-teeth occurring between the trias and lias 
formations: ceratose, a. sSr'd-toz, horny; having 
the texture and consistence of horn : ceratium, n. 
se-rd'-shl-um, in hot., a long one-celled pericarp with 
two valves, containing many seeds. 

cereal, a. se'rl-dl (L. cerealis, pert, to Ceres or grain 
— from Ceres, goddess of agriculture : It. and F. 
czrdale), pert, to all kinds of grain used for food : n. 
one of the grain kind : cerea'lia, n. plu. -rl-a'll-d, or 
cereals, se'rl-dlz, the different grains used for food. 

cerebellum, n. sSr'e-bel'ltlm(L.: It. cerebello: F.cer- 
velle), the hinder or lower part of the brain : cer'ebel'- 
lar, a. -ler, pert, to the cerebellum : cer'ebral, a. -brdl, 
pert, to the brain : cer'ebrum, n. -brum (L.), the brain 
proper ; the front or larger brain : cerebic, a. se-reb- 
%k, of or from the brain: cereb'riform, a. -rl-fawrm (L. 
cerebrum, and forma, shape), shaped like the brain: 
cerebritis, n. sSr'i-brl'tls, inflammation of the brain: 
cer'ebroid, a. -broyd (L. cerebrum, the brain ; Gr. eidos, 
shape), like or analogous to brain : cerebro-spinal, a. 
-bro-spl'ndl (L. spina, the spine), belonging to the 
brain and spinal cord. 

ceremony, n. ser'8-mon-l (L. azremonia, pomp or 
state in religious rites : F. ceremonie), outward forms 
or rites in religion; formal rules or regulations ; cer- 
tain kinds of social intercourse; state etiquette: 
ceremonial, a. -mo'nl-dl, according to established 
forms or rites, as of the Jewish religion ; ritual : n. 
outward form ; a system of rites or rules established 
by authority : ceremonially, ad. -II: cer'emo'nious, a. 
-us, full of ceremony ; formal ; exact and precise : 
cer'emo'niously, ad. -II : cer'emo'niousness, n. the 
practice of too much ceremony or formality. 

cerithium, n. se-rlth'l-ilm (Gr. keration, a small 
horn), in zool., a gasteropod, with an elongated, many- 
whorled, turreted shell. 

cerium, n. se'rl-um (from the planet Ceres), one of 
the rarer metals found in the mineral cerite, ser'-lf. 

cernuous, a, ser'nu-ui (L. cernuus, bending or stoop- 
ing with the head to the ground), in bot., pendulous ; 

cerography, n. se-rog'rd-fl (L. cera, wax; Gr. 
graphe, a writing), the art of engraving on a waxed 
copper plate. 

ceroon, n. se"r6n' (Sp. ser on— from sera, a large 
basket), a bale or package in skins or hides. 

ceroplastic, n. se'ro-plds'tik (L. cera, wax ; Gr. plas- 
s°in, to form), the art of modelling in wax: adj. 
modelled in wax. 

cerosine, n. sSr'6-sln (L. cera, wax), a waxy sub- 
stance found on the surface of the sugar-cane. 

certain, a. scr'tan (F. — from L. certus, sure: It. 
certo), not doubtful ; sure ; that cannot be denied ; un- 

failing; fixed or regular: cer'tainly, ad. -11: cer- 
tainty, n. -ti, a real state ; exemption from doubt or 
failure: cer'tes, ad. -tez, assuredly; in truth. 

certify, v. ser'-tl-fl (L. certus, sure, and facio, I make : 
F. certifier), to testify to in writing ; to declare or in- 
form positively : certifying, imp. : certified, pp. -fid: 
adj. testified to in writing ; assured : certifier, n. one 
who : certificate, n. -tif-l-kat, a declaration in writing 
to testify something; a testimonial of character : v. to 
give a status or position to by a written declaration, 
as to a parishioner by a clergyman, or to a teacher by 
the Committee of Privy Council on Education : cer- 
tificating, imp. : certificated, pp. : adj. declared in 
writing to have a certain status: certification, n. 
■kd'shun, the act of certifying: cer'titude, n. -ti-tud, 
certainty ; freedom from doubt. 

certiorari, n. plu. ser'-shi-o-rd'-rl (low L. certiorare, 
to certify— from L. certior, more certain), a writ issued 
from a superior court to an inferior one, to remove a 
cause depending in it. 

cerulean, a. s6-r6'li-dn (L. ccvruleus, dark blue), 
blue ; sky-coloured: cerulific.a. s6r'6-llf'ik, producing 
a blue or sky colour : cer'uline, n. -lin, a preparation of 

ceruse, n. an ore of lead— see under cerate. 

cerussite, n. se'-rus-sit (L. cerussa, white lead: F. 
ce'ruse), a common ore of lead found in beds or veins 
with galena. 

cervical, a. ser'vl-kdl, (L. cervix, the neck — gen. 
cervicis : It. cervice), pert, to the neck. 

cervine, a. ser'-vin (L. cervus, a deer), pert, to a stag 
or deer: cer vinous, a. -vl-nus, dark, tawny, or deep 
yellow with much grey. 

cervix, n. ser'viks (L. the neck), the back part of 
the neck ; any part of an organ resembling a neck. 

cesarian, a. se-zd'ridn, in surg., the operation of 
taking a child from the womb by cutting— said to be 
that by which Crcsar was born. 

cespitose, n. ses'-pl-toz (L. cespes, a turf), turfy; in 
bot., having a turf-like root. 

cess, n. ses (from assess: L. census, the rating of 
Roman citizens according to their property), a perman- 
ent land-tax in Scotland : v. to rate : ces'sing, imp. : 
cessed, pp. sest. 

cessation, n. sSs-sd'shun (L. cessatio, an idling : F. 
cessation— see cease), a ceasing; a stopping; a rest; a 

cession, n. sis' shun (L. cessio, a giving np— from 
cessum, to yield, to give way : F. cession), the act of 
giving way; a surrender of property, rights, or territory 
to another : ces'sionar'y, a. -er'-l, having surrendered 
effects; yielding. 

cesspool, n. ses'pool (AS. sesse, a settle, a seat, and 
pool), a receptacle for liquid filth; a collection of 
offensive stagnant water. 

cestoid, a. ses'tdyd (Gr. kestos, a girdle ; eidos, form), 
like a girdle— applied to intestinal worms with long 
fiat bodies, as the tape-worm. 

cestracionts, n. plu. sestrd'sM-Snts (Gr. kestra. a 
kind of fish, a pike), the oldest sub-family of sharks, 
mostly fossil. 

cestus, n. sSs'tus (L.— from Gr. kestos, a girdle em- 
broidered), the Venus or marriage girdle ; among the 
ancients, a kind of boxing-glove loaded with some 

cesura, n. se-zit'-rd (see caesura), in prosody, the 
division of a foot or measure between two words for 
the sake of securing nn accent on a certain syllable. 

cetaceous, a. se-fd'shils (Gr. ketos; L. cetus, a whale: 
It. ceto), pert, to the whale kind : ceta'cea, n. -shl-d, 
also ceta'ceans, n. -sM-dnz, animals of the whale kind . 
cetine, n. se'tln, the solid crystalline mass of sperma- 
ceti : cetiosaurus, n. se'shi-6-saiv'rus (Gr. sanros, a 
lizard), in geol, a genus of marine saurians : cetology, 
n. se-tol'-o-'ji (Gr. logos, discourse), the natural history 
of cetaceous animals, 

cetotolites, n. plu. setot'6-llts (Gr. ketos, a whale; 
ota, the ears ; lithos, a stone), the fossil ear-bones of 

chabasite, n. kdb'd-zl* (Gr. chabos, narrow, com- 
pressed), a ciystal of a white colour, one of the zeolite 

chad, n. shad, a kind of fish— see shad. 

chafe, v. chaf (F. echauffer, to heat, to warm: L. 
calefacere, to make hot), to warm with rubbing; to 
heat; to perfume: n. heat by friction: cha'fing, imp. : 
chafed, pp. chaff: cha'fer, n. or chafing-dish, a por- 
table grate for coals : cha'fery, n. -fi.r-1, a forge in 

mate, m&t,far, law; mete, met, her; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 




J chafe, 7. chdf(Bax. kauchen, to breathe, to puff: It. 
'. •.•/(»>'. to puff with snorting), to excite passion; to 
tge; to fret; to fume: chafing, imp.: chafed, pp. 
.chafer, n. chd'-fir (Ger. kafer: AS. ceafer; Dut. 
\ever, any insect of the beetle kind), a buzzing insect, 
t c<,ck-chaft r, fern-chafer. 

\ chaff, n. chdf (AS. ceaf: Ger. kaff: Pers. khah), the 
|usks oi grain or grasses ; anything worthless : chaffy, 
. -fl. like chaff. 

chaff, v. chaf (Dut. keffen, to yap, to bark: Ger. 
■ 'f. itl'e words), in familiar language, to rally one; 
p chatter or talk lightly: chaffer, v. chaffer, to 
teat about a purchase ; to haggle ; to bargain: chaf- 
fering, imp. : chaffered, pp. -fird. 
I chaffinch, n. chaff lush, a bird of the finch family. 

chagrin, n. sha'-gren' (F. chagrin, care, grief, the 
pugh substance called shagreen — a type of the 
hawing of care and grief: Piedm. sagrin, care), ill- 

amour; vexation: v. to excite ill-humour in ; to vex: 
tagri'ning, imp. : chagrined', pp. -grind', vexed ; dis- 

chain, n. chdn (F. chaine: L. catena: Sp. cadena), 
I series of links or rings loosely but strongly con- 
eeted. generally of some metal ; something that binds 
r restrains ; any connected series or range of things, 
s chain of ideas, chain of mountains; bondage; a 
leasure of length of 6(5 feet or 100 links : v. to fasten ; 
3 bind with a chain, or in the manner of a chain ; to 
nslave ; to fix temporarily to one spot by the sudden 
xhibition or expression in words of something which 
m excite strong mental emotion, as fear, awe: 
hain'ing, imp.: chained, pp. chdnd: chain less, a. 
•ithout chains :, n. two cannon-balls con- 
ected by a short chain : chain-work, n. any sort of 
•ork in the form of links or rings : chain-rule, in 
rith., a theorem for solving numerical problems 
y composition of ratios or compound proportion : 
hain-pump, a pump consisting of an endless chain 
irrying small buckets. 

chair, n. char (F. chaire, a pulpit: L. cathedra; Gr. 
athedra, a seat), a movable seat with a support for 
le back ; any seat ; by a metonymy, the person who 
resides at a public assembly ; one of the grooved iron 
locks resting on the sleepers that secure and support 
le rails of a railway: v. to carry in procession in a 
hair: chair'ing, imp.: chaired, pp. chard: chair'- 
tian, n. the person that presides over a public or pri- 
ate assembly ; the chief officer of a public company : 
hair manship, n. the office of a chairman. 
i chaise, n. shdz (F. chaise, a pulpit, a chair), a light 
jwo-wheeled carriage drawn by one horse, 
i chalaza, n. kdld'zd, or chalaze', n. -Idz' (Gr. chal- 
za, a small tubercle), in bot., the disc-like scar where 
le nourishing vessels enter the nucleus of the ovule. 
chalcedony, n. kdl-sedo-nl (fromChalcedon, a town 
i Asia Minor), a variety of quartz with some opal 
isseminated through it: chal'cedon'ic, a. -se-don'lk, 
ert. to : chalced'onyx, n. -sed'-o-niks (chalcedony, 
nd onyx), a variety of chalcedony. 
chalcolite, n. kdl'-ko-llt (Gr. chalkos, copper, and 
ithos, a stone), a mineral occurring in scales of an 
merald-green colour: chalcography, n. kdl-kog'-ra-fl 
3r. grapho, I write), engraving on copper : chalcog'-, n. one who; also chalcog'raphist : chalcopy- 
ites, n. plu. kal'-ko-pl'rits (Gr. chalkos, copper, and 
pyrites), copper pyrites, a common ore of copper. 
Chaldaic, a. kdl-dd'ik. or Chal dee. a. -de (L. chaldai; 
T.chaldaioi, the Chaldeans), pert, to Chaldea: n. 
he language or dialect of the Chaldeans : Chalde'an, 
. -de'-dn, a native of: adj. pert, to: Chalda'ism, n. 
Id'lzm, an idiom or peculiarity in the Chaldee dialect. 
chalder, n. chcCiclkUr (old F. chauldron, a kettle), in 
•cotland, a dry measure containing nearly eight im- 
lerial quarters : chaldron, n. chawl'dron, a measure 
[or coals containing thirty-six bushels. 
. chalice, n. chdl'ls (It. and F. calice ; L. calix, a cup : 
pr. kulix), a cup or bowl ; a communion-cup : chal'- 
jced, a. -1st, having a cell or cup. 
chalk, n. chawk (F. chaidk— from L. calx, lime), a 
oft calcareous stone of a white colour : v. to rub or 
Inark with chalk : chalking, imp. : chalked, pp. 
\hawkt: chalk iness, n. : chalk'y, a. -i, like chalk: 
;o malk out, to lay out ; to plan ; to describe : red- 
:halk, a natural day containing carbonate of iron : 
>rown-chalk, a familiar name for umber: black- 
:ha,lk, a variety of drawing-slate : French-chalk, a 
ranety of steatite or soapstone. 

i challenge, n. chdl'lenj (F. chalanger, to challenge — 
from L. calumniare, to institute an action at law), a 

call or summons to fight in single combat ; the letter 
or message containing the summons; an exception 
taken to a voter or juror ; the demand of a soldier on 
sentry : v. to call or summon to fight ; to call to an- 
swer ; to call to prove an assertion ; to take exception 
to a juror : challenging, imp. : challenged, pp. and a. 
■lenjd: challenger, n. one who: challengeable, a. 
-d-bl, that may be challenged or called in question. 

chalybeate, n. kd-llb'-i-dt (L. chalybs; Gr. chalvps, 
very hard iron : F. chalybe, chalybeate), medicine or 
water containing a solution of iron : adj. impregnated 
with iron ; having a taste like that of iron : chalybite, 
n. kdl'i-blt, an iron ore — called also sparry or spathose 
iron, carbonate of iron, or siderite. 

Cham, n. kdm, the sovereign prince of Tartary— also 
written Kham. 

chamade, n. shd-mad' (Port, chamar ; L. clamare,ta 
call : F. chamade), the beat of a drum or the sound 
of a trumpet inviting an enemy to a parley. 

chamber, n. chdm'-ber (F. chambre, a chamber: L. 
camera ; Gr. kamara, a vault or arched roof), an 
apartment in a house ; a retired room ; a political or 
commercial body, as a chamber of commerce ; a hol- 
low or cavity ; that part of a gun which contains the 
powder, &c, called the charge; in a mine, the spot 
where the powder is placed: cham'bering, n. im- 
modest behaviour: cham'bered, a. -bird, consisting 
of chambers or cavities ; divided into cavities : cham- 
berlain, n. -ld7i{F. chambellayi: It. camerlengo), one 
who has the charge of the apartments, &c, of a sover- 
eign or noble ; a servant who has the care of cham- 
bers ; the treasurer of a corporation : cham'berlain- 
ship, n. the office of: chamber-maid, n. a woman who 
cleans and arranges bedrooms : chamber practice, 
the practice of a barrister who gives his opinions 
privately or in his chambers. 

chameleon, n. kd ■me'll-6n(L.chamcrleon; Gr.chamai- 
leon, ground-lion — from chamai, on the ground; leon, 
a lion), an animal of the lizard kind that can change 
the colour of its skin ; in cheyn., manganate of potass, 
from the changes in colour which its solution under- 

chamfer, n. chaw-fir (F. r'chancrcr, to slope or 
slant: Port, chanfrar, to slope, to hollow), a small 
gutter or channel ; a bevel or slope : v. to cut a furrow 
in ; to channel ; to slope ; to wrinkle : chamfering, 
imp.: cham'fered, pp. -fird. 

chamois, n. sham -wd (F. chamois: It. camoscio), a 
kind of goat or antelope; a soft leather originally 
made from its skin. 

chamomile, n. kdm'6-mil or mil (Gr. chamai, on 
the ground, and melon, an apple), a plant so called 
from the smell of its flowers. 

champ, v. champ (old F. champayer, to feed, to 
graze: jtcel. kaiyipa, to chew— from kiamvii, a jaw), 
to bite with repeated action of the teeth so as to be 
heard ; to chew ; to devour ; to bite frequently : cham- 
ping, imp.: champed, pp. chdmpt: cham'per, n. one 

champagne, n. sham-pan' (F.), a kind of sparkling 
wine from Champagne, in France. 

champaign, n. shdm'pdn (L. campvs, a plain: It. 
campo: F. champ), a flat open country: adj. level; 


champignon, n. sham -pin'- yong (F.), an edible 
mushroom ; the small mushroom of the fairy rings. 

champion, n. chdm'pion (Icel. kapp, contention: 
AY. camp, a feat: Sp. campear, to be eminent: Ger. 
kampeln, to dispute), a man who undertakes to de- 
fend the cause of another in combat or otherwise ; one 
who is bold or successful in a contest ; a hero: cham- 
pionship, n. state of being a champion. 

chance, n. chdns (F. chance, chance: L. cadere: Sp. 
caer: Port, cahir, to fall), an unforeseen event; acci- 
dent; what fortune may bring; an opportunity: v. to 
happen ; to occur without design ; to risk : adj. casual : 
chan'cing, imp. : chanced, pp. chanst. 

chance-medley, n. chdns-med'-ll (F. chaude mesle'e— 
from chand, hot, and mesle'e, bickering, fight), an acci- 
dental conflict not prepared beforehand ; in law, un- 
intentional homicide in self-defence, or on a sudden 

chancel, n. ehdn'scl (old F. chancel : L. cancelli, lat- 
tices with which the chancel was enclosed), that part 
in a church where the altar is placed. 

chancellor, n. chan'-seher (F. chancelier : L. cancelli, 
lattices, as anciently sitting behind them), a judge or 
officer in a court who possesses the highest power and 
dignity ; a great officer of state ; the head of a uni- 

cdiv, boy, foot; pure, Mid; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




versity ; a lawyer attached to an ecclesiastical court : 
chancellorship, n.: chan'cery, n. -ser-i, the high 
court of equity in England and Ireland presided 
over by the Lord Chancellor; in Scot, a court for 
registration of charters, patents of dignity, &c. 

chancre, n. shdng'ker (F.), a venereal ulcer: chan- 
crous, a. sMtng'-krus, ulcerous. 

chandelier, n. shdn-dc-ler' (F. a dealer in candles), 
a hanging branched lamp : chandler, n. chdnd'ler 
(Ger. handler, a dealer in small-wares), a maker of 
candles, or dealer in them; a dealer or shopkeeper: 
chandlery, n. -I, goods sold by a chandler. 

change, n. chdnj (F. changer ; It. cambiare, to ex- 
change : Icel. kaupa, to deal), an alteration or varia- 
tion on anything ; a passing from one state or form 
to another; vicissitude; variety; small money: 
change, contracted for exchange, a place where per- 
sons meet for the transaction of business : v. to al- 
ter ; to make different ; to shift ; to put one thing in 
the place of another ; to give one kind of money for 
another; to undergo variation: chan'ging, imp.: 
changed, pp. chdnjd: chan'ger, n. one who: change'- 
able, a. -d-bl, fickle ; prone to change : changeability, 
n. -btt'ltl: change'ableness.n.: change'ably, ad. -bll: 
change'ful, a. -fool, full of change ; inconstant : 
changeless, a. constant ; not allowing of alteration : 
changeling, n. a child left in place of another ; a fool ; 
a waverer ; any one apt to change. 

channel, n. chdn'nel (L. canalis, a pipe for water— 
from canna, a reed : It. canale : F. canal), a water- 
course; the hollow or bed of running water; the 
deepest part of a river, harbour, or strait ; that through 
which anything passes, as news ; a passage of water 
wider than a strait; a gutter; a furrow: v. to groove; 
to cut or form into a channel : channeling, imp. : 
chan'neled, pp. -neld. 

chant, n. chdnt (F. chanter; L. cantare, to sing), a 
song ; words recited to musical tones in church ser- 
vice: v. to sing; to intone the words of a hymn or 
psalm, as in church service ; to make melody with the 
voice: chanting, imp. : chanted, pp. : chanter, n. 
masc. one who : chant'ress, n. fem. one who : chant- 
icleer 7 , n. -l-cler' (chant, and clear .- L. canticularius, a 
singer or chanter), a cock, from the loudness and 
clearness of his tones : chantry, n. chdnt'rl, a chapel 
endowed for the saying or singing of masses for the 
souls of donors or founders. 

chaos, n. ka'os (L. and Gr. chaos, a yawning gulf, 
immense void), the confused mass in which this earth 
is supposed to have existed prior to its being made a 
fit habitation for man ; any mixed and confused mass ; 
confusion ; disorder : chaotic, a. -ot'lk, confused ; 
thrown together into a vast heap without any order 
or arrangement, 

chap, n. chap (Scot, chap, to strike : Dut. kappen, 
to cut, to prune : W. cobio, to strike), a gap or chink ; 
a crack in the hands or feet ; the jaw, applied to ani- 
mals (chop); a stroke; a blow: v. to split; to crack, 
as the hands or feet ; to open in long slits : chap ping, 
imp. : chapped, pp. chdpt : chappy, a. -pi, full of 

chap, n. chdp (old E. chuff, fat, full-bodied: AS. 
ceaplas, the chaps, the jaws), a familiar term for a 
man or boy. 

chape, n. chdp (F. chape; It. chiappa; Sp. chapa, 
a small plate of metal), a metal plate at the end 
of a scabbard ; a catch by which a thing is held in 
its place, 
chapeau, n. shdppo' (F.), a hat; a cap or head-dress. 
chapel, n. chdp'el (F. chapelle : mid. L. capella, ahood, 
the canopy or covering of an altar where mass was 
celebrated— afterwards extended to the recess in a 
church in which an altar dedicated to a saint was 
placed), a subordinate place of public worship ; a 
church; a dissenter's meeting-house : chap'elry, n. 
■ri, the bounds assigned to a chapel. 

chaperon, n. shdp'er-ong (F. : It. capperone, a cloak 
worn by peasants), a hood or cap ; an elderly female 
attendant on a young lady in public ; any attendant 
and guide: v. to attend as a guide or protector: 
chaperoning, imp. -on-lng: chaperoned, pp. -ond: 
chap'eronage, n. -6n-dj, patronage or protection af- 
forded by a chaperon. 

chapfallen, a. chop-fdiuln (chap, the jaw, and fcdlen), 
having the lower jaw depressed ; dejected ; dispirited ; 

chapiter, n. chdp'l-ter (old F. chapitel; It. capitello 
—from L. caput, the head), the upper part or capital 
of a pillar. 

chaplain, n. ch&p'ldn (F. chapelain; It. cappellano 
a chaplain : low L. capella, a hood), a clergyman at 
tached to a ship in the navy, to a regiment in the i 
army, to a family, &c. : chap laincy, -si, and chap', i 
lainship, n. the office, station, or business of a chap 

chaplet, n. chdp'let (F. chapelet— from L. caput, th( 
head), a garland or wreath encircling the head; a I 
string of beads, called a paternoster or rosary, usee 
by Roman Catholics to keep count of their prayers; a I 
little moulding carved into beads, &c. 

chapman, n. chdp'-mdn (AS. ceap-man, a merchanl i 
—see cheap), an itinerant dealer; a travelling mer ; 

chapped, chappy— see chap. 

chapter, n. chdp'-ter (F. chapitre; It. capitolo, head | 
or division of a book— from L. caput, the head), th( 
division of a book ; an assembly of the dean, canons, 
and prebendaries, or of the dean and canons residen I 
tiary alone, attached to a cathedral. 

chaptrel, n. chdp'trel (L. caput, the head), the uppei | 
part of a pillar that supports an arch. 

char, n. char (Gael, cear, red, blood-coloured), ar | 
esteemed lake-fish. 

char, v. char (old Eng. chark or chirk, applied to the I 
creaking or grating noise which charcoal makes when 
struck together — from AS. cearcian, to creak: F. | 
charree, ashes), to burn to a black cinder ; to blacker. | 
wood by exposure to fire ; to reduce wood to coal 01 
carbon by burning it slowly under cover : char'ring, i 
imp. : charred, pp. chard .- charcoal, n. -kol, wood 
burnt into carbon, or made black all through like I 
coal : animal charcoal, lamp-black derived from oils 
and fat : wood charcoal, from twigs and faggots : 
mineral charcoal or coke, from ordinary pit-coal. 

char or chare, n. char (AS. eyre, a turn : Dut. keeren, \ 
to turn : Gael, car, a twist), work done by the day ; a j 
single job : v. to work at the house of another by the I 
day; to do jobs: cha'ring, imp.: chared, pp. chard. 
char-woman, n. a woman that works by the day ; an 
occasional servant. 

character, n. kdr'dk-ter (Gr. charakter: L. character. 
F. caractere), a mark cut on any thing ; a mark or fig- 
ure to represent a sound, as a letter or a note in music ; 
a picture to convey an idea ; manner of writing, speak- 
ing, or acting; peculiar qualities in a person; an 
account or representation of the qualities of a person 
or thing ; moral excellence ; reputation : v. to inscribe ; 
to engrave : charactering, imp. : char'actered, pp. 
-terd: characterise, v. -%z, to describe by peculiar 
qualities ; to distinguish : char'acteri'sing, imp. : 
characterised, pp. -izd .- characteristic, n. -Is'tik, that 
which distinguishes a person or thing from another: 
adj. applied to the principal letter of a word, retained 
in all its derivatives and compounds, or nearly all : , 
adj. and char'acteris'tical, a. -tl-kal, that marks the! 
peculiar and distinctive qualities of a person or thing : ' 
char'acteris'tically, ad. -1%: char'acterless, a. without, 
any character ; destitute of any distinguishing peculi- 

charade, n. shd-r&d' (F. : Norm, charer: Lang, chara, 
to converse), a riddle ; a witty playing on the syllables' 
of a word, and then on the word itself. 

charcoal, n.— see char. 

chard, n. chard (F. carde ; It. carda ; L. carduus, the 
wild and esculent thistle), the leaves or centre stalks of 
artichokes, beet, 4c, blanched in their growth. 

charge, n. chdrj (It. caricare; F. charger, to load, to. 
place in a car), that which is laid or imposed on ; the I 
quantity of powder and shot or balls necessary to 
load a gun or cannon ; an onset or attack, as on an 
enemy in battle; any person, thing, or business in- 
trusted or delivered over to another ; a trust ; exhor- 
tation or instructions by a judge to a jury, or by a 
bishop to his clergy ; a solemn direction or command ; i 
accusation or imputation ; the transactions that con- ; 
stitute a debt ; cost ; expense ; rent or tax on pro- 1 
perty ; the quantity of electricity sent into a coated r 
jar : v. to rush on ; to attack ; to load, as a gun ; to 
lay on, as a tax ; to intrust to ; to set down to, as a , 
debt ; to blame ; to censure ; to accuse ; to command, 
exhort, or enjoin ; to give directions to, as a judge to 
a jury, or a bishop to his clergy; to fill with the elec- I 
trical fluid : char 'ging, imp. : charged, pp. chdrjd : i 
char'ger, n. the person who charges ; a war-horse ; a 
large dish : chargeable, a. chdrj'd-bl, that maybe laid | 
upon or charged to ; liable to be charged : charge'- 
ably, ad. -bll: charge ableness, n. : charge less, a. 

charge d'affaires, n. shdrzha'-ddf-faf (F. charge or 

mate, mat, far, law; mete, met, her; pine, pin; note, nCt, m6ve; 




care of matters), one who transacts diplomatic busi- 
ness at foreign courts, in the absence of an ambas- 
charily, ad.: chariness, n.— see chary, 
chariot, n. chdr'-l-ot (F. chariot— from char, a car : L. 
carru^ ; It. carro, a two-wheeled cart), a light kind of 
coach with a front seat only; a war-coach; a car: 
charioteer, n. o-ter, the driver of a war-chariot in 
ancient times. 

charity, n. chdr'-ltl (F. chariti; It. carita— from L. 
caritas, high regard, high price or value), kindness ; 
love ; that disposition of heart which inclines men to 
think well of others, and do them good ; liberality to 
the poor; candour; an institution for the poor: chari- 
table, a. -tdbl, benevolent in disposition; kind in 
words and actions ; liberal in relieving the necessities 
of the distressed according to ability: charitably, ad. 
■Ill: charitableness, n. -td-bl-nis. 

charlatan, n. shdr'ld-tdn (F. and Sp.— from Sp. 
charlar, to chatter : It. carlatano, a quack doctor), a 
quack; a prating pretender; a mountebank: char - 
latan'ical, a. -Ikdl, making undue pretensions to 
skill; quackish: charlatanry, n. -rl, quackery; de- 
ceit: charlatanism, n. -tzm. 

Charles's-wain, n. chdrlz'6z-icdn (AS. carles-u-aen, 
the churl's or farmer's wain), a familiar name, from 
the shape of their arrangement, of the cluster of seven 
stars in the constellation Ursa Major, or the Great 

charlock, n. cMr'ldk (AS. rerlice), a wild plant of 
the mustard family— also called ketlock. 

charm, n. charm (F. charme; It. carme, a charm, a 
spell— from L. carmen, a song), words, figures, or 
things supposed to possess some hidden or mysterious 
power; anything supposed to possess a magic power 
or spell; that which can subdue or delight: v. to sub- 
due or control ; to exercise irresistible power over; to 
please or delight greatly ; to yield exquisite pleasure 
to the mind or senses ; to fortify against evil ; char- 
ming, imp. : adj. pleasing in the highest degree : 
charmed, pp. ch&rmd, greatly delighted: charmer, 
n. : charmless, a. : charms, n. plu. what pleases irre- 
sistibly; that which delights and attracts, as beauty, 
music, conversation : charmingly, ad. -ft: char'ming- 
ness, n. 

charnel, a. chdr'ndl (F. charnier, a churchyard— 
from L. caro, flesh— gen. carnis), containing flesh or 
carcasses : charnel-house, n. a place in some burial- 
grounds Avhere the bones of the dead are stored up ; 
a burial-ground where too many dead are interred. 

Charon, n. ka'ron, in fabulous history, the son of 
Erebus (darkness) and Nox (night), who was em- 
ployed to ferry the souls of the dead over the waters 
of Acheron and Styx. 

chart, n. chdrt (L. charta, paper: Gr. chartes: It. 
carta : F. carte), a map of any part of a sea or river for 
the use of navigators ; the representation of a ship's 
[course; a map: chartless, a. without a chart: 
charta ceous, a. ■id'shiis, in hot., resembling paper; 
thin; flexible: charter, n. chdr'-tir, any written pa- 
| per or document conferring privileges or confirming 
rights ; privilege ; exemption : v. to hire or let a ship 
under a written agreement : chartering, imp. : char- 
i tered, pp. -terd: charter-party, n. the written agree- 
ment regarding the hire of a vessel and its freight, of 
j which two copies are written : Magna-Charta, mdg- 
nd-kdr'-td (L. great charter), the great charter of Eng- 
lish liberties obtained from King John, A.D. 1215: 
Chartist, n. chdr'-tlst, one of a body of political agita- 
i tors who demand certain radical changes in the govern- 
ment: Chartism, n. -tlzm, the political opinions and 
principles of the Chartists : chartographer, n. char- 
I tog'rd-fer (L. charta, paper, and Gr. grapho, I deli- 
neate, I write), a constructor of charts or sea-maps : 
char'tographlc, a. -to-grd/'ik, relating to charts. 
I charwoman, n. : char'work— see char. 

chary, a. char'-l (AS. cearig, careful : Dut. karigh, 
sparing, niggard : Ger. karg, niggardly), careful ; 
I cautious; frugal: charily, ad. -ft: chariness, n. cau- 
Ition; nicety. 

chase, n. chds— sometimes spelt chace (F. chasser; 
j Sp. cazar, to hunt), eager or vehement pursuit ; hunt- 
I ing ; an earnest seeking after, as pleasure, fame, &c. ; 
| the thing sought for or hunted ; open ground or re- 
I treat for the larger game : v. to pursue eagerly ; to 
[drive away ; to follow eagerly after, as pleasure, profit, 
l&c. : cha'sing, imp.: chased, pp. chOst: chaser, n. one 
f who : chase able, a. -d-bl, that may be chased : chase- 
, gun, a gun placed at the bow or stern of a vessel. 

caw, boy, /dot; pure, bud; chair, 

chase, v. chds (F. chasse, a shrine for a relic : contr. 
of enchase), to work or emboss plate as silversmiths 
do : cha sing, imp. : n.the art of embossing or represent- 
ing figures on metals: cnased, pp. chad, 

chase, n. chds (F. chasse— from L. capsa, a box, a 
case), an iron frame in which to confine types. 

chasm, n. kdzm (Gr. and L. chasma, a gaping or 
wide opening), a deep gap or opening in the earth, or 
between rocks; a void space: chasmed, a. kdzmd, 
having gaps or deep openings : chas'my, a. -ml, full of 

chasseurs, n. shds-sers' (F. a huntsman— from chas- 
ser, to hunt), horse or foot soldiers trained for rapid 

chaste, a. chdst (F. chaste— from L. castus, pure: 
Pol. czysty, clean, pure : It. casto), pure ; undefiled ; 
in language, free from barbarous or affected words 
and phrases ; refined in expressions ; in works of art, 
pure in taste or design ; not vulgar in style : chastely, 
ad. -ft: chaste ness, n. : chastity, n. chds'tl-tl, purity 
of body and of speech. 

chasten, v. chds'n (F. chdtier, to correct— from L. 
castigare, to correct), to correct; to punish for the 
purpose of reclaiming an offender; to afflict in any 
way; to purify: chastening, imp. chds'nlng : chast- 
ened, pp. chas'nd: chas'tener, n. -ntr: chastise, v. 
chAs-tiz", to punish or correct with the rod ; to inflict 
a pain as punishment for an offence; to correct or 
purify in any way : chastising, imp. : chastised', pp. 
■tizd'.- chasti'ser, n. one who: chasti'sable, a. -sdbl: 
chastisement, n. chds'tlz-meid, correction ; punish- 

chat, n. chdt (It. gazzolare, to chat or chatter: Ma- 
lay, kata, to speak: an imitative word), familiar talk ; 
idle conversation : v. to converse in a familiar easy 
way; to talk idly: chatting, imp.: chatted, pp.: 
chat'ty, a. -ti, talkative : chatter, v. chat'te-r, to utter 
sounds rapidly, as a monkey ; to talk idly or careless- 
ly; to rattle the teeth, as in shivering: n. the rapid 
sounds, as of a monkey: chat tering, imp. n.: chatter- 
ed, pp. -Urd: chat tefer, n. one who: chatterbox, n. 
one that talks idly and incessantly. 

chateau, n. shdto' (F.), a castle; a country seat; 
plu. chateaux', -toz': chatelet, n. shdt'6-ld, a little 
castle ; the common jail and session-house in Paris. 

chattels, n. chdt'tls (F. chatel; old F. chaptel, a piece 
of movable property— from mid. L. captale, the prin- 
cipal, as distinguished from interest), goods in gene- 
ral, with the exception of land— anciently applied to 
cattle, as being the principal wealth of the country. 

chauffer, n. chof/tr (F. chavffer, to heat), a small 
furnace ; a round box of sheet-iron for containing a 
fire, open at the top, with a grating near the bottom. 

cheap, a. chip (AS. ceap, cattle, price: Goth, kau- 
pon, to deal: Icel. kaupa, to buy: Dut. koopen ; Ger. 
kaufen, to buy), low in price for the quality ; not dear 
as prices go ; common or little in value : cheaply, 
ad. -II : cheapness, n. : cheapen, v. chep'n, to lessen 
in value: cheapening, imp. -nlng: cheapened, pp. 
•ind : cheap'ener , n. -ner. 

cheat, v. chet (see escheat— the escheators or cheat- 
ers were officers appointed to look after the king's 
escheats, giving many opportunities of oppression— 
hence cheater came to signify a fraudulent person), 
to deceive and defraud ; to impose on ; to trick : n. a 
fraud committed by deception ; a trick of dishonesty ; 
an imposition or imposture ; one who cheats : cheat- 
ing, imp.: cheat ed, pp.: cheater, n. one who: cheat'- 
ingly, ad. -II. 

check, n. chik (F. ichec, a repulse, a rebuke— a meta- 
phor taken from the game of chess, when a player is 
stopped by receiving check to his king), stop ; restraint ; 
continued restraint; curb; that which stops or con- 
trols ; a term in chess ; a pass, ticket, or token ; cloth 
woven in squares of different colours : v. to stop ; to 
restrain ; to moderate ; to chide or reprove ; to con- 
trol ; to compare and examine papers or accounts to 
ascertain their accuracy— (to check an account, in the 
sense of ascertaining its correctness, is derived from 
the Court of Exchequer, where accounts were compared 
and corrected by means of counters upon a checked 
cloth) : checking, imp. : checked, pp. chekt .- checker, 
-ir, n. one who, or that which: checkered, a. -erd, as 
checkered cloth, cloth consisting of squares or stripes 
of different colours : check less, a. uncontrollable ; vio- 
lent : checker or chequer, v. -er (from the squares of 
a chessboard), to variegate by cross lines ; to form 
into squares like a chessboard by lines or stripes ; to 
diversify; to vary or mix with different qualities, 

game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




scenes, or events: checkering, imp. : checkered, pp. 
-ird: adj. crossed with good and bad fortune in the 
career of life : check'mate, n. -mat (Pers. shah-mat, 
king dead), a movement that finishes a game of chess : 
v. to hinder from moving and so to finish ; to defeat ; 
to overthrow: check mating, imp. : checkmated, pp. : 
check'ers, n. plu. device of alternate white and black 
squares used as a tavern sign : check'erwork, work 
having a pattern of squares varied alternately in col- 
ours or materials : check-roll, a list of servants in a 
household: check'string, a cord by which the occu- 
pant of a carriage may arrest the attention of the 

Cheddar, n. cMd-dir, a kind of cheese manufactured 
at Cheddar, in England. 

cheek, n. chek (AS. ceac, the cheek, the jaw: Dut. 
kaecke, the jaw), the side of the face below either eye : 
cheek-by-jowl (AS. geagl, a jaw, a jowl), nearness; 
closeness ; side by side : cheek-bone, n. bone of the 
cheek: cheeks, n. plu. two upright, equal, and similar 
parts of any piece of timber-work ; the two solid parts 
upon the sides of a mortise; the projection on each 
side of a mast. 

cheep, v. chip (an imitative word), to make a shrill 
noise like a young chicken : cheep'ing, imp.: cheeped, 
pp. chipt. 

cheer, v. chir (prov. Sp. cara; old F. chiere; Tt. cera, 
the countenance : F. ch'ere, the face, favour, entertain- 
ment), to receive with shouts of joy; to applaud; to 
comfort ; to gladden ; to infuse life into ; to encour- 
age ; to become gladsome : n. a joyful shout ; applause ; 
mirth; provisions for a feast: cheering, imp.: adj. 
animating; encouraging: cheered, pp. client: cheer'- 
ingly, ad. -It: cheerily, ad. -l-ll, with spirit: cheerful, 
;\. ch-lr'/iTol, lively ; in good spirits ; full of life : cheer'- 
fully, ad. -II: cheerfulness, n. liveliness; gaiety: 
cheerless, a. chir'lis, without cheer ; cold ; gloomy ; 
dispiriting : cheerlessly, ad. -ll : cheer'lessness, n. : 
cheer'er, n. one who : cheer'y, a. -I, gay ; sprightly : 
cheer up, to become cheerful ; to enliven. 

cheese, n. chez (AS. cese, curdled milk: L. caseus, 
cheese: Fin. kasa, a heap), the curd of milk pressed 
into a mass of various shapes and sizes, and suffered 
to dry: cheesy, a. che'-zl, having the taste or form of 
cheese: chee3e'cake, n. a sweet cake: cheese-press, 
n. and cheese-vat, n. the one for pressing and the 
other for holding the curd to be formed into a cheese : 
cheesemonger, n. -mung'ger, one who deals in or sells 

cheetah, n. chi'td, the hunting leopard of India. 

chef-d'oeuvre, n. shef-dd'vr or shd- (F.), a master- 
piece ; a very fine work of art. 

chegoe, n. chig'o (of Peruvian origin : Sp. chico, 
small), in tropical countries, a small insect that enters 
the skin of the feet in man ; also written chigger, 
chlg'ger : chigoe, chlg'O : jigger, jig'- ger : chigre, 
chig'er: chegre, chSg'er. 

cheiracanthus, n. kl'-rd-kd n't litis (Gr. cheir, the 
hand; akantha, a thorn), a small fossil fish armed 
with defensive spines : chei'role'pis, n. -rO-le'jrfs (Gr. 
lepis, a scale), a fossil fish having lozenge -shaped 
scales, and a great development of its pectoral and 
ventral fins : cheiroptera, n. plu. ki-rop'-ter-d (Gr. 
pteron, a wing), the systematic name for bats and the 
bat-kind: cheiropter, n. one of the cheiroptera: 
cheirop'terons, a. -us, pert, to : cheiru'rus, n. -rd'rus 
(Gr. oura, a tail), in geol., a genus of Lower Silurian 
trilobites, so termed from their tail presenting four or 
five finger-like spines. 

chelae, n. plu. ke'-li (Gr. chele, a claw), applied par- 
ticularly to the bifid claws or pincers of the crustace- 
ans, &c: chelif'erous, a. -lif'-er-us (L. ferre, to bear), 
having claws as a crab: cheliform, a. kel'l-fawrm 
(L. forma, a shape), having the form of a claw: che- 
late, a. ke'-ldt, having chela) or two-cleft claws. 

chelonian, n. ki-lo-nl-dn (Gr. chelon-e, the tortoise), 
pert, to the chelonia or tortoise and turtle tribe. 

chemical, a.— see chemistry. 

chemise, n. shi-mez' (F.: Sp. camisa, a chemise), an 
under garment worn by females; a shift; awalllining 
any earthwork in order to support it: chemisette, 
shim'-l-zit' , an under waistcoat for a female. 

chemistry, n. kem'-is-trl (Ar. kimia, the occult art : 
Gr. chumos, juice : It. chimica : F. chimie), the science 
that ascertains the nature and constituent parts of 
any body, investigates the laws that regulate the 
action of bodies on each other, and determines in what 
proportion their elements unite : chemical, a. -l-kdl, 
pert, to chemistry : chem'ically, ad. -ll .• chem'ist, n. 

one skilled in chemistry: chemicals, n. plu. -kills, 
substances used for producing chemical effects: or- 
ganic chemistry, that which treats of the substances 
which form the structure of animals or vegetables, and 
their products: inorganic chemistry, that which 
treats of the substances which form mineral bodies : 
practical or applied chemistry, that which treats of 
the products of chemistry useful in the arts, and for 
economical purposes: pure chemistry, that which 
treats of the elemental constitution of substances, and 
of the laws of combination. 

cheque, n. chek (see check), an order for money on 
a banker, to be paid on demand. 

cherish, v. cher'lsh (F. cherir, to love dearly, to 
cherish), to treat with tenderness and affection ; to 
foster ; to protect and aid ; to harbour in the mind, as 
feelings of ill-will : cherishing, imp. : n. support ; en- 
couragement: cherished, pp. -isht: adj. comforted; 
fostered : cher'isher, n. one who : cher'ishingly, ad. -it. 

cheroot, n. she-rot', a kind of cigar. 

cheropotamus, n. ker'o-pot'd-mtis (Gr. choirns, a 
hog, and pota>nos, a river), a fossil animal very closely 
related to tlie hog family. 

cherry, n. cher'-rl (L. cerasus: F. cerise: Ger. kirsche), 
a well-known fruit, consisting of a pulp surrounding 
a pip or kernel: adj. ruddy: cheny-pit, n. a child's 
plav: cherry-brandy, brandy in which cherries have 
been steeped : cherry-stone, the hard kernel of the 

Chersonese, n. ker'so-nez (Gr. chersos, land ; and 
nesos, an isle), a tract of land, of any extent, nearly 
surrounded by water ; a peninsula. 

chert, n. cliert (W. edit, flintstone ; a probable cor- 
ruption of quartz), an impure flinty rock resembling 
some varieties of flint and hornstone ; a limestone so 
silicious as to be worthless for the limekiln, is said to 
be cherty. cher'ty, a. -tl, flinty. 

cherub, n. cher'-ub, plu. cher'ubs or cher'ubim (Heb. 
kerub— from karat, to grasp), any figure of a creature ; 
a heavenly being : cher'ubic, adj. -o'u-blK, also cheru'- 
bical, a. -kdl, angelic : cher'ubim, n. plu. -oo-blm (Heb. 
plu. of cherub), angels; heavenly beings. 

cherup, v. chir'-up (for chirp), to twitter; to make a 
noise as a bird : n. a short, sharp noise : cher'upping, 
imp.: cher'upped, pp. -ilpt. 

chesible, n. chez'-l-bl, or chasuble, chdz'o~b-bl, a 
Roman priest's garment. 

chess, n. dies (F. echec; It. scacco; Sp. xaque ; Ger. 
schach— from the cry of check : Pers. schach, a king), 
a game played on a board divided into sixty-four 
squares : chess-board, the board used in the game of 
chess : chess-player, one skilled in the game of chess. 

chessil-bank, chis'-sl-bdnk (Ger. kiesel, a pebble), the 
shifting pebble -beach extending from Portland to 
Abbotsbury, on the southern coast of England. 

chest, n. cMst (AS. cist: Ger. kasten: L. cist a), a 
large box ; the breast or thorax ; a certain quantity of 
goods, as tea : v. to lay in a chest ; to hoard : chest'ing, 
imp.: chest'ed, pp. : adj. having a chest ; placed in a 
chest : chest of drawers, a case of movable boxes, 
called draivers. 

chestnut, n. chis'-ntit (F. chastagne: Dut. kasta?n'e: 
Ger. kesten), the seed or nut of a large forest-tree: 
adj. of a bright-brown colour; also chesnnt. 

chetah, n. chc'td— see cheetah. 

cheval-de-frise, n. shi-vdl'-dc-friz': chevaux-de- 
frise', n. plu. she-vo"- (F. cheval, a horse ; /rise, any- 
thing curled), a long piece of timber pierced by wood- 
en spikes four or six feet long, pointed with iron, 
which cross each other, used to fill a breach or to hin- 
der the advance of cavalry. 

chevalier, n. shiv'-d-lir (F.— from cheval, a horse), a 
horseman ; a knight ; a gallant young man. 

chevron, n. chiv'ron (F.: Sp. cabrio, a rafter), a fig- 
ure of two rafters meeting at the top ; a term in her- 
aldry ; a variety of fret ornament, called also zigzag; 
the badge on the coat-sleeve of a non-commissioned 
officer : chev'roned, a. -rond, having a chevron. 

chew, v. chd (AS. ceoivan, to chew— from ceac, the 
jaw: Dut. kauwen, to chew— from kauive, the jaw), to 
crush with the teeth; to masticate: chewing, imp.: 
chewed, pp. chdd: chew the cud, to eat the food over 
again, as a cow ; to think ; to meditate. 

Chian, a. kl'-dn, pert, to Chios, an island in the 
^gean Sea. 

chiaro-oscuro, n. ki-ar'6-os-kG'ro (It. chiaro, clear; 
oscuro, dark), a drawing in black and white; the art 
of advantageously distributing the lights and shadows 
in a picture. 

vidte, mdt,fur, lav:; mite, mSt, her; plne.ptn; note, not, mCve; 


chiasma, n. klds'md (Gr. chiasmos, a marking with 
the letter X, a cut crosswise), in anat., the <•. ntral 
of nervous matter formed by the junction and the 
crossing of the fibres of the optic nerves. 

chiastolite, n. kids'tollt (Gr. chia^tos, marked with 
the Greek letter X, "r cleft, and lithos, a stone), a mine- 
ral, so called from the resemblance of the lines on the 
summits of the crystals to the Greek letter X- 

chibougue, n. chl-bobk' (Turk., with F. spelling), a 
Turkish tobacco-pipe. 

chicane, n. shi-kdn', orchica'nery.'n. -ner-l (F. chican- 
er, to wrangle or pettifog it— from chique, originally 
a jag or rag, a lump of bread), mean or unfair artifices 
to obscure the truth; trick: sophistry; wrangling: 
v. to use shifts or artifices : chicaning, imp.: chicaned, 
pp. -hand': chica'ner, n. one who. 

chick, n. chlk, or chick'en, n. -in (imitative of the 
cry: Dut. fcieken; AS. cicen, a chicken: Hung, tyuk, 
a hen), the young of the domestic cock and hen; a 
child ; a word of endearment : chicken-hearted, a. 
timid; cowardly; fearful: chicken-pox, n. a mild 
eruptive disease among children : chick-weed, a com- 
mon wild plant with white blossoms: chick ling, u. 
a small chick : chick-pea, a variety of pea or vetch. 

chicory, n. chlk'dr-i (F. chicoree; It. cicoria; L. 
ctehorium, chicory or endive), a plant with a root like 
the carrot, the root of which cleaned, dried, roasted, 
and ground, is extensively used to mix with coffee. 

chide, v. chid (AS. cidan, to scold: Swiss kid> n, to 
resound as a bell), to reprove bywords; to scold at; 
to rebuke; to quarrel: chiding, imp.: chid, pt. chid, 
orchode, pt. chad: chidden or chid, pp. chid'n: chi - 
dingly, ad. -U: chider, n. cWd&r, one who. 

chief, a. chef (F. chef, the head, or highest point : 
It. oipo— from L. caput, the head: GSer. fop/; Dut. 
cop, a cap, a head), highest ; principal ; the most emi- 
nent or distinguished ; the most important ; first: n. 
acommander or leailer; the head man of a clan, or 
tribe, or family: chiefly, ad. -U, especially; mainly; 
principally; in the first place : chief less, a. without a 
leader: chieftain, n. -ton, a leader; the head of a clan 
or family: chieftaincy, -si, and chieftainship, n. 
the government over a clan : chief-justice, the prin- 
cipal judge of a court. 

chiffonier, n. shif-fo-ner' (F. chiffimnier, a rag- 
picker— from chiffon, a rag), a rag-picker; a kind of 
cupboard for holding scraps. 

chigoe, n. chlg'o— see chegoe. 

chilblain, n. chU'bldn (chill and blain), an inflam- 
matorv sore on the skin produced by cold 

child, n. chtid, plu. children, chU'-drSn (AS. cild, 
plu. cildra: Dut. and Ger. kind, a child), a son or 
daughter ; an infant or very young person ; one weak 
in knowledge or experience of the world : plu. off- 
spring ; descendants; the inhabitants of a country: 
child hood, n. the time in which persons are children : 
childish, a. like a child; trifling; ignorant; silly: 
childishly, ad. -It: childishness, n. the qualities of a 
child in regard to conduct ; simplicity ; weakness of 
mind : childless, a. without children • childlessness, 
n.: childlike, a.: child-bearing, the act of producing 
or bringing forth children : child-bed, the state of a 
woman bringing forth a child : child-birth, the act of 
bringing forth a child; travail: child's-play, trifling 
contest; light work. 

fhilde, n. child (from child), formerly a noble youth: 
childermas-day, n. clill'di-r-mds, a feast of the Church 
held on 28th December, in remembrance of the chil- 
dren slain at Bethlehem by Herod — called usuaUv 
Innocent's Day. 

chiliad, n. kll'VOd (Gr. chilias, a thousand), 1000 

chill, a. chll (AS. cyle, cool : Sp. chillar, to crackle : 
low Ger. killen, to smart), moderately cold ; tending to 
cause shivering ; not warm ; cool : n. a cold ; a shiv- 
ering with cold ; the sensation of cold ; a depressing 
influence or sensation : v. to cause a shivering ; to 
check the circulation of the blood; to make cold; to 
blast with cold; to deject: chil'ling, imp. : adj. caus- 
ing to shiver: chilled, pp. child: chillingly, ad. -II: 
chilly, a. -li, rather cold : chilliness, n. -ll-nes, sensa- 
tion of shivering ; cold : chill'ness, n. -nes, coldness. 

chillies, n. plu. chll'llz (Sp. chili), the pods of the 
Cayenne or Guiana pepper. 

Chiltern Hundreds, n. plu. chU'tirn hun'drMz, a 
hilly district in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, 
England, belonging to the Crown, to which a nominal 
office is attached, called the "Stewardship of the 
Chiltern Hundreds," which a member of the House 



of Commons accepts when he wishes to vacate his 

chime, n. chlm (imitative of aloud, clear sound: 
Fin. kunia, acute, sonorous), the musical harmony 
produced by striking a set of bells with hammers ; a 
set of bells tuned to the musical scale, and stiu< k by 
hammers acted on by clockwork : v. to sound in 
harmony or accord ; to agree with ; to cause to sound 
in harmony: chi'ming, imp. : chimed, pp. chlmd. 

chimera, n. kl-me-rd (L. chimara, a monstrous 
beast: Gr. chimaira), a vain or idle fancy; a creature 
of the imagination only: chimerical, a. -meYikdl, 
merely imaginary ; vainly or wildly conceived; that 
can have no existence except in thought: chiiner'- 
icaUy, ad. -II. 

chimney, n. chim'ni. plu, chimneys, -nlz (F. chemi- 
nee : It. cumminuta, a hall: low L. caminata, an 
apartment with a fireplace), a funnel or pass 
wards in a wall for the .scape of smoke or heated air: 
c himn ey-flue or vent, the passage from the fir. plat e 
upwards for the escape of the smoke or heated air: 
chimney-sweep, one who cleans chimneys: chimney- 
piece, an ornamental frame of wood or s'toue round a 

chimpanzee, n. chlm'pdnze, one of the hig! 
of Africa. 

chin, n. chin (AS. cinne; Dut. kinn/>, the jaw, the 
• heck: Gr. genus, the jaw, the chin), the par: 

low the under lip: chin cough, n. -kof (Dut. 
kinkhocst—trom kincktn, to wheeze), hooping-cough. 

china, n. chl'ral, a fine kind of earthenware, ori- 
ginally from China: adj. of or from China: china- 
shop, a shop for the sale of china-ware, &c. : a bull 
in a china shop, strength and violence unr* 
Chinese, a. < /.i/i.V. of China : n. the language or inha- 
bitants : china-aster, n. -ds'-tir (Gr. aster, a star), one 
oi a genus of plante having compound flowers: china- 
clay, the Oner varieties of "pottery-clay, called kaolin .■ 
chiha-stone, the decomposed granites yielding the 
china-day or kaolin of commerce. 

chinchilla, n. chln-chU'ld, a small S. Amer. rodent 
animal, whose soft fur is used for muffs, &c. 

chine, n. chin (F. ichine, the back-bone: W. ccfn, a 
ridge), the back-bone of an animal; a piece of the 
back-bone, with adjacent parts, cut from an animal 
for cooking; part of the water-way of a ship: v. to cut 
into chine pieces : chi'ning, imp.: chined, pp. chlnd. 

chink, n. chlngk (AS. drum, to gape : Dut. teinckt n, 
to dink or sound sharp), a small rent, cleft, or open- 
ing lengthwise; a ciack or gap, as in a wall: v. to 
cra.k; to make a small sharp sound with a piece of 
money or metal: chinking, imp.: chinked, pp. 
chingkt: chink'y, a. -kl, full of clunks or long small 

chinse, v. chins, to push oakum or tow into the 
chinks or Beams between a ship's planking : chin'sing, 
imp.: chinsed, pp. chimt. 

chints or chintz, n. chints (Hind, chhint, spotted 
cotton cloth : Dut. chitz), cotton cloth printed in more 
than two colours. 

chip, n. chip (Swiss, hide, a twig: W. cedys, fagots 
of small wood: Ger. kippen, to clip or pare), a small 
piece of a body cut or broken off; a fragment : v. to 
cut into small pieces ; to cut or break off small pieces ; 
to hew: chip 'ping, imp.: n. a piece cut or broken off: 
chipped, pp. chipt. 

chiragra, n. kl-rd'grd (L.— from Gr. cheir, the hand ; 
agra, a catching), gout in the hand. 

chirography, n. klrog'-rdfl (Gr. cheir, the hand; 
graphe, a writing), the art of writing : chirographic, 
a. -rOgrdfik, pert, to: chirog'rapher, n. -rd-fcr, also 
chirog'raphist, -fist, one who: chirology, n. -rol'dji 
(Gr. logos, discourse), art of talking with the hands : 
chirol'ogist, n. -jist, one who: chi'roman'cy, n. -r0- 
mdn'-sl (Gr. manleia, divination), the art of foretelling 
events or the dispositions of persons by inspecting the 
lines of the hands: chi'roman'tic, a. -tik, pert to: 
chiromancer, n. -ser, one who; also chi'roman'tist, 
n. -tlst : chi'roplast, n. -ro-pldst (Gr. pla.ssein, to shape), 
in music, an instrument to teach fingering: chirop'o- 
dist, n. -rop'-O-dist (Gr. cheir, the hand, and poda, the 
feet ; or Gr. keiro, I clip or pare), a corn or wart doctor. 

chirp, n. chirp (an imitative word: Sp. chirriar, to 
chirp : Norm, charer, to chatter), a particular sound 
uttered by birds or insects : v. to make a noise, as the 
cry of small birds : chirping, imp. : chirped, pp. 
clierpt .- ehirp'er, n. one who : chirp'ingly, ad. -II. 

chisel, n. chlz'-il, (F. ciseler, to emboss, to engrave: 
Sp. cincel; Port, sizel, a chisel: oldF.ctseZ: It. ciseilo), 

,/aot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




a cutting instrument or tool of iron or steel, used by 
masons, joiners, and sculptors : v. to cut ; to pare ; to 
carve or engrave with a chisel: chiseling, imp.: 
chls'eled, pp. -did: chis'eler, n. one who : derivatives 
also spelt withM, as chiselling, chiselled, &c. 

Chisleu, n. kis'-lo (Heb. chisleu), the ninth month of 
the Jewish year, beginning with the new moon of our 

chit, n. chit (Swiss kide, a twig : prov. Eng. chits, the 
first sprouts of anything: It. citto, a little dirty boy), 
a shoot or sprout : a lively child : chit'ty, a. -tl, child- 
ish ; like a babe : chit-chat, n. -chat, prattle ; familiar 

chitine, n. kl'tln (Or. chiton, a coat of mail), the 
hardening substance of the covering of insects : chi'tin- 
ous, a. -us, consisting of or having the nature of chi- 
tine : chi'ton, n. -ton, a mollusc with a many-jointed 
shell covering its back— also found fossil : chi'tonel'lus, 
n. -61'lus (dim. of chiton), a sub-generic form of chiton, 
distinguished by the form of the plates. 

chitterlings, n. plu. chlt'ter -lings (prov. Eng. chit- 
ter, to twitter, then to shiver), the small entrails of 
swine, from their wrinkled appearance. 

chivalry, n. shU'dlri, or chW- (P. chevalerie— from 
cheval, a horse), the system of knighthood ; valour ; 
the body or order of knights : chiv'alric, a. -rik, par- 
taking of the character of chivalry or knighthood: 
chivalrous, a. -rus, warlike; bold; gallant: chiv'al- 
rously, ad. -II. 

chives, n. plu. chlvz (F. cive, small onions without 
bulbs ; cheveler, to put forth a small root), small onions 
growing in tufts ; in hot., slender threads or filaments 
m flowers. 

chlamys, n. kldm'-ls (L. chlamys, a coat, an upper 
garment: Gr. chlamus) in hot., a covering, applied to 
the floral envelope: chlamyd'eous, a. -ld'l-us, pert. to. 

chloral, n. klo'-rdl (see chlorine), a liquid formed 
from chlorine and alcohol. 

chlorine, n. klo'rln (Gr. chloros, grass - green), a 
greenish - yellow gas possessing great power as a 
bleacher: chloric, a. klor'ik, of or from chlorine: 
chloride, n. klor'ld, a compound of chlorine with a 
metal or other elementary substance : chlorid'ic, a. 
•Ik, pert, to chloride : chlorite, n. klo'rlt, a soft friable 
mineral, allied in character to talc and mica, and so 
called from its greenish colour: chlorit'ic, a. -rit'ik. 
pert, to : chloritic sand, any sand coloured green by 
chlorite, generally applied to the greensand of the 
chalk formation: chloridate, v. kldr-l-dat, to treat or 
prepare with a chloride, as a plate for the purposes of 
photography : chloride of lime, a combination of lime 
and chlorine, used in bleaching and as a disinfectant : 
chlor'ate, n. -at, a salt of chloric acid with a base : 
chlorous, a. klo-riis, noting an acid which contains 
equal parts of chlorine and oxygen. 

chloroform, n. klor'6-fawrm (Gr. chloros, grass- 
green, and formyle ; L. formica, an ant), a volatile 
liquid remarkable for its property of producing insen- 
sibility to pain when inhaled by the lungs. 

chlorometer, n. klo-rom'S-ter (Gr. chloros, grass- 
green, and metron, a measure), an instrument for 
testing the strength of chloride of lime : chlorom'etry, 
n. -e-trl. 

chlorophaeite, n. klO'rO-fe'-it{Gr. chloros, grass-green, 
and phaios, brown, in allusion to the change of colour 
produced by exposure), a soft earthy mineral of an 
olive -green colour, changing to blackish - brown : 
chlo'rophane, n. -fan (Gr. phaino, I shine), a variety 
of fluor-spar, exhibiting a bright -green phospho- 
rescent light when heated : chlo'rophyll, n. -fll (Gr. 
phullon, a leaf), the colouring matter in plants, espe- 
cially in their leaves. 

chlorosis, n. klo-ro'sis (Or. chloros, green), a disease 
of young females; green sickness; in hot., etiolation: 
chlorot'ic, a. -rot'-lk, pert, to or affected with chlorosis : 
chloros, -ros, in hot., green: in composition, chloro. 

choanites, n. plu. ko'-d-nlts (Gr. choane, a funnel), 
in geol., a genus of spongiform zoophytes occurring in 
the chalk formation. 

chock-full, a. chok'-Jool or chuck- (Swab, schoch, a 
heap; geschop2)t-voll, crammed full), full up to the 
brim ; full to overflowing. 

chocolate, n. chok'6-ldt (F. chocolat: Sp. chocolate: 
Mexican, cacualt, cacao), a powder or paste prepared 
from the kernels of the cacao-nut, used in making the 
beverage so called. 

choice, n. c/toT/s (F. choix— from choisir, to choose), 
the determination of the mind in preferring one thing 
to another; option; the thing chosen; election: adj. 

select ; precious ; very good, or best ; selecting with 
much care: choice'less, a.: choicely, ad. -II: choice - 
ness, n. -nSs. 

choir, n. kwir (F. chaiur— from L. chorus : Gr. choros, 
a dance in a ring, a company of singers), a band of 
singers in a church ; the place in the church where they 
sing : chorus, n. ko'-rus, a number of singers singing 
together ; the part of a song repeated at the end of 
every verse : choral, a. -rdl, pert, to what can be sung 
by a choir: chorally, ad. -II: chorist and chorister, 
n. kdr'-is-ter, one who sings in a choir. 

choke, v. chok (Icel. kok, the throat; koka, to swal- 
low : W. ceg, the throat ; cegu, to swallow), to stop the 
passage of the breath by filling the windpipe with 
some body, or by compressing or squeezing the throat ; 
to smother or suffocate ; to obstruct or block up ; to 
hinder: choking, imp.: adj. suffocating : choked, pp. 
chokt: cho'ker, n. one who: choke-damp, n. the car- 
bonic acid gas of mines: cho'ky, a. -ki, tending to 
choke: choke'-full, a. —see chock-full, which is the 
proper spelling. 

choler, n. kol'-er (Gr. and L. cholera— from Gr. kole, 
bile, and rheo, I flow), the bile, the flow of which was 
supposed to cause angeV, or the redness of face in 
anger ; anger ; wrath ; irascibility : chol'era, n. -d, bil- 
ious vomiting and purging— the milder form of the 
disease is called cholera-morbus ; the malignant form 
is called Asiatic cholera: chol'era'ic, a. -d'-ik, pert, to 
the disease cholera : chol'eric, a. -Ik, easily irritated ; 
irascible ; excited by anger. 

cholesterine, n. ko-les'-ter-in (Gr. chole, bile, and 
stear, tallow or fat), a substance having the properties 
of fat, found principally in bile. 

chondrine, n. kon'-drin (Gr. chondros, cartilage or 
gristle, a grain), a substance resembling gelatine, pro- 
duced by the action of hot water on gristle : chondro- 
dite, n. kon'dro-dlt, one of the gems, occurring in 
grains of various shades of yellow and red: chon- 
drol'ogy, n. -drol'-o-ji (Gr. logos, discourse), a treatise 
on cartilage. 

chondrites, n. plu. kdn'drlts (L. chonclrus, a kind of 
sea-weed), fossil marine plants resembling the Irish 
moss of our own shores. 

choose, v. chdz (AS. ceosan: Goth, kiusan: Dut. 
kiesen), to select ; to take by preference ; to have the 
power to take; to adopt; to follow: chose, pt. choz:. 
choosing, imp. chdz'lng: chooser, n. one who : chosen, 
pp. choz'-n. 

chop, n. ehoj) (Scot, chap, to strike; choppe, a 
blow; to chap hands, to strike hands: Icel. kaup ; 
Scot, coup, to buy and sell, to exchange), a piece cut 
or struck off; a piece of meat: v. to cut off or sepa- 
rate by the blow, or repeated blows, of a sharp instru- 
ment ; to cut into small pieces ; to mince ; to barter 
or exchange: chopping, imp.: chopped, pp. choi4: 
chopper, n. an instrument for chopping ; one who : 
chop-house, n. a dining-house : chop, n. in China, a 
permit or stamp ; quality of goods ; quantity : chop- 
stick, n. a Chinese instrument for feeding. 

chop, n. chdp, chops, plu. (AS. ceajilas, the chaps or 
jaws : Wallon. chiffe, the cheek ; cho/e, smack on the 
chops: Gael, gob, the beak, the mouth— see chap), 
the sides of the mouth of a river or of a channel ; the 
chap or jaw : v. to vary or turn ; to shift suddenly, as 
the wind chops or chops about: chopping, imp.: 
chopped, pp. chopt : chop-fallen, a. cast down iu 
spirits ; dejected : chops, n. plu. the jaws. 

chopin, n. chop-in (F. choyine; Ger. schoppen, a 
liquid measure), in Scot., a liquid measure containing 
a quart. 

choral, &c— see choir. 

chord, n. kawrd (L. chorda : Gr. chorde, an intestine 
of which strings are made), the string of a musical 
instrument ; notes in harmony ; a straight line joining 
the two ends of the arc of a circle : v. to string a mu 
sical instr. : chord'ing, imp.: chord'ed, pp. strung. 

chore, n. kor, for char, which see. 

chorea, n. ko-rc'-d (Gr. chorda, a dance), in med., St 
Vitus's dance ; a disease attended with constant 
twitchings of the voluntary muscles. 

chorepiscopal, a. ko'rS-pls'ko-jidl (Gr. choros, place, 
country, and episkopos, bishop), relating to a local or 
suffragan bishop. 

choriambus, n. ko'-rt-dm'biis (Gr. koreios, a trochee, 
and iambos, an iambus), a poetic foot consisting of 
four syllables— the first and fourth long, the second 
and third short; a trochee and an iambus united: 
cho'riam'bic, a. -blk, pert. to. 

chorion, n. ko'-rl-on (Gr. chorion, skin) the exterior 

mdte, mdt.fdr, laTv; mete, mSt, her; pine, phi; note, not, m6ve; 




membrane investing the fcetus in the womb ; in hot., 
a fluid pulp composing the nucleus of the ovule in its 
earliest stage : cho'roid, n. -rofid (Gr. eidos, form), 
a membrane resembling the chorion— applied to a 
coat of the eye. 

chorisis, n. kor'l-sls (Gr. chorizo, I separate), inbot., 
separation of a lamina from one part of an organ so 
as to form a scale or a doubling of the organ. 

chorography, n. ko-rog'rd-fi (Gr. choros, a place or 
country, and grajihe, a writing), the description of 
a region or country. 

chorus, n.— see choir. 

chosen and chose— see choose. 

chough, n. chuf(AS. ceo: Dut. kauice: F. choucas), 
a kind of jackdaw or crow. 

chow-chow, n. choiv-chdiv, a Chinese sweetmeat ; 
a kind of mixed pickles. 

chowder, n. chowkler, fresh fish boiled with biscuit, 
pork, onions, &c: v. to make a chowder of. 

chrism, n. krlzm (Gr. chrisma, ointment : F. chrisme, 
consecrated oil), consecrated oil ; unction : chrismal, 
krlz'mdl, pert, to chrism : chris'matory, n. -md-ter'l, 
a vessel for chrism : chrisom, n. kriz'um, a child that 
dies within a month after birth : chrisma'tion, n. 
-ma'-shun, the act of applying the chrism or conse- 
crated oil. 

Christ, n. krlst (Gr. christos, used as ointment, 
anointed), the Anointed ; the Messiah : christen, v. 
kris'n, to baptise and name in the name of the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit : christening, imp. -tOna: n. the 
act of baptising and naming ; initiation into the Chris- 
tian religion : christ'ened, pp. -nd : Christendom, n. 
krls'n-dom, the countries inhabited by those profess- 
ing to believe in the Christian religion : Christian, n. 
krist'ydn, a true disciple of Christ; a professed be- 
liever in Christ : adj. pert, to Christ, his doctrines, 
or his church: Christianity, n. kris'-ti-dn'ltl, the re- 
ligion of Christians, its doctrines and precepts : christ- 
ianise, v. krist'yan-izf , to convert to Christianity : 
christ'iani'sing, imp. : christianised', pp.-izd': christ'- 
ianisa'tion, n. -l-zd'shun, the act of converting to 
Christ : christ'less, without the true knowledge of 
Christ: christology, n. kris-tol'6-gi (Christ, and logos, 
a discourse), a discourse or treatise on Christ : Christ- 
mas, n. krls'mds (Christ, and mass), the festival of 
Christ's nativity on the 25th December: Christmas 
season, from 25th December to 6th January : christ- 
mas-box, a box in which little presents of money, 
&c, are collected at Christmas ; the present itself. 

chromatic, a. kro-mdt'lk (Gr. chroma, colour), relat- 
ing to colours : chromat'ic scale, n. (from the interme- 
diate notes being printed in colours), the scale in music 

that proceeds by semitones : chromatically, ad. 
-kdl'-%: chromat'ics, n. phi. -Iks, the science of colours : 
chromatography, n. kro'md-tdg'rd-fi (Gr. chroma. 

colour ; graphe, writing), a treatise on colours ; the 
art of printing in colours— also called chromo-litho- 
graphy: chrome, n. krom, also chromium, n. kro' 
ml-um, one of the metals, so named from its property 
of imparting colour to others in a remarkable degree : 
chromic, a. krom'ik, of or from chrome : chromate , 
n. kro'mdt, a compound of chromic acid with a base : 
chrome-ochre, n. -o'-kr, oxide of chrome of a fine yel- 
lowish green : chromatrope, n. kro'-md-trop(GT. trope, 
turn, rotation), an optical apparatus for exhibiting 
a stream of colours : chromogen, n. krom'o-jen, also 
chrom'ule, n. -ul (Gr. gennao, I produce), in hot., the 
colouring matter of plants : chrom'atom'eter, n. 
-d-tom'6-ter (Gr. metron, measure), scale for measur- 
ing colour: chromite, n. kro'mit, or chromate of iron, 
a mineral consisting of protoxide of iron and oxide of 
chromium, used in the preparation of various pig- 

chronic, a. kron'lk, also chron'ical, a. -Ikal (Gr. 
chronikos ; F. chronique— from Gr. chronos, time, dura- 
tion), continuing a long time, as a disease : chron'icle, 
n. -kl, a history that narrates the facts in the order in 
which they occurred as to time ; a history : v. to record 
events in the order of time; to record or register: 
chron'icling, imp. -Wing: chronicled, pp. -kid, re- 
corded or registered : Chronicles, n. plu. two books of 
the Old Testament: historical narratives of events: 
chronicler, n. -kler, one who ; an historian. 

chronogram, n. krdn'6-grdm (Gr. chro7ios, time, and 
gramma, a writing), an inscription which includes in 
it the date of an event : chron'ogrammatlc, a. -mdt'lk, 
also chron'ogrammatlcal, a. -i-kdl: chron'ogram- 
mat'ically, ad. -II : chron'ogram'matist, a. -md-tist, 
a writer of. 

chronology, n. kro-nol'o-jl (Gr. chronos, time or 
duration, and logos, discourse), the science that treats 
of the dates of past events ; the method of measuring 
or computing time : chronological, a. Jcrdn'6-loj'l-kdl, 
also chron'ologlc, a. -Ik, containing an account of 
past events in the order of time : chronologically, 
ad. -It: chronologist, n. krO-nol'-o-jist, also chronol- 
oger, n. one who endeavours to discover the true dates 
of past events, and to arrange them in order. 

chronometer, n. kro-nom'-e-ter (Gr. chronos, time, and 
metron, a measure), any instrument or machine that 
measures time, as a clock or a dial ; a large watch con- 
structed with great nicety for use at sea : chronomet- 
ric, kron'6-met'rlk, also chron'omet'rical, a. -rl-kdl, 
pert, to: chronometry, n. kronom'-e-tri, the art of 
measuring time, or of constructing chronometers. 

chrysalis, n. kris'd-lis, also chrys'alid, n. (L.— from 
Gr. chrusallis, the gold-coloured sheaths of butterflies 
—from chrusos, gold), the second stage in the state of 
such insects as the butterfly, the moth, &c: chrys'- 
alid, a. -lid, pert, to a chrysalis. 

chrysanthemum, n. kn-san'thS-mum (Gr. chrusos, 
gold ; anthemon, a flower), a genus of composite 
plants of many species. 

chrysoberyl, n. kris'd-ber'll (Gr. chriisos, gold ; and 
Gr. berullos; L. beryllus, beryl), a gem of a yellowish 
or asparagus green colour ; a species of corundum. 

chrysocolla, n. krls'6-kol'ld (Gr. chrusos, gold, and 
kolla, glue), a mineral of a fine emerald-green colour : 
chrysolite, n. kris'6-llt (Gr. lithos, a stone), a fine 
green-coloured transparent crystal: chrysoprase, n. 
kris'6-prdz (Gr. prasoii, a leek), a fine apple-green to 
leek -green variety of chalcedony. 

chub, n. chub (F. chevane: mid. L. capito), a plump 

chubby, a. chub'bl (AS. ceaplas, the chaps : It. civffo, 
the snout of an animal: Dan. kiarft, chaps), short 
and thick : chub-faced, a. -fast, having a plump round 
face: chub'biness, n. -M-n6s. 

chuck, v. chnk (F. claquer, to clack, to chatter: 
Wallon. caker, to strike in the hand, to chatter : Turk. 
chakil, a pebble), to make the noise of a hen when 
calling her chickens ; to give a slight blow under the 
chin so as to make the jaws snap ; to throw or pitch 
a short distance : n. the noise or call of a hen as imi- 
tative of the noise of pebbles knocking together ; a 
slight blow, as under the chin ; the part of a turning- 
lathe for holding the material to be operated upon : 
chucking, imp.: chucked, pp. chukt: Eng. chack- 
stone, Scot, chuckie-stane, a pebble. 

chuckle, v. chuk'kl (Icel. kok or quok, the throat — 
see chuck), to laugh inwardly in triumph : n, a broken 
half-suppressed laugh: chuckling, imp.: adj. a sup- 
pressed choking approaching to a laugh, expressive 
of inward satisfaction : chuckled, pp. -kid : chuckle- 
headed, a. stupid ; thickheaded ; noisy and empty. 

chum, n. chum (a probable contraction of comrade 
or chamber-fellow), one who lodges in the same room ; 
an intimate companion. 

chump, n. chump (an imitative word expressive of 
the thick end of anything, as chunk and hump), a 
thick heavy piece of wood ; a lump. 

chunam, n. ch6-ndm', in India, lime or anything 
made of it. 

church, n. cherch (Gr. kuriakon, the Lord's house — 
from kurios, the Lord: AS. cyrice : Scot, kirk), an 
edifice or a building consecrated or set apart for the 
worship of God ; the collective body of Christians 
throughout the world ; a certain number of Christians 
holding the same dogmas : v. to perform the office of 
returning thanks in church for women after child- 
birth : churching, imp. : n. attending church to offer 
thanks, as a woman after childbirth : churched, pp. 
chercht: churchwarden, n. -ivar'-dn, in Eng., one who 
has the charge of a church and its concerns, and who 
represents the parish : churchyard, n. a burial-ground 
beside a church: churchman, n. an Episcopalian; 
a clergyman or member of an established church: 
church-music, n. music adapted for use in a church : 
church-service, religious service in a church : church- 
goer, a regular attender at church : church militant, 
the church as warring against every form of evil: 
church-rate, a tax levied on parishes in England for 
repairing churches, and for other matters connected 
with them. 

churl, n. cherl (AS. ceorl, a countryman : Dut. kaerle, 
a man, a rustic : Ger. kerl, a fellow), a countryman ; a 
surly man: churlish, a. cher'llsh, rude; surly; sullen; 
rough in temper ; selfish ; said of things, unyielding ; 

colv, bdy,fo~bt; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, (here, zeal. 



cross-grained; hard or firm: churlishly, ad. -II: 
churlishness, n. rudeness of manners or temper. 

churn, n. chern (IceL kjarni; Ger. kern, the ker- 
nel, the choice part of a thing— whence Icel. kirna ; 
Fris. kernjen, to churn), a vessel in which milk or 
cream is agitated in order to separate the butter : v. 
to shake or agitate cream In order to make butter : 
churning, imp. : n. the operation of making butter by 
agitating milk or cream, or the quantity made at one 
time : churned, pp. cliernd. 

chyle, 11. kll ((Jr. kulos, juice or humour), in ani- 
mals, a white or milky fluid separated from the sub- 
stances digested in the stomach, and conveyed into 
the circulation of the blood by the lacteal vessels: 
chylifaction, n. kl-ll-fdk'shun (L. /actus, made), the 
process of making chyle from food: chy'lifac'tive, a. 
-tlv, forming or changing into chyle ; having thepower 
to make chyle: chyliferous, a. -kl-llf-er-us (L. fero, I 
carry), carrying chyle : chyliflc, a. ■lif'-ik (L. facio, I 
make), making chyle, usually applied to a part of the 
digestive apparatus of insects: chylopoetic, a. kl'-lO- 
po-et'-ik (Gr. poieo, I make), making chyle— applied to 
the stomach and intestines. 

chyme, n. klm (Gr. humus, juice), digested food before 
being changed into chyle: chymification, n. kl-mi/'l- 
ku-shun (L. facio, I make), the process of forming 
chyme : chy'mify, v. -fl, to change into chyme : chy- 
mifying, imp. : chy'mified, pp. -fid : chymous, a. 
kl'mils, pert, to chyme: chymist, n. klm'lst—see 

cicala, n. sl-ka'ld (It.), an insect having a long stout 
body and wings. 

cicatrix, n. sik'd-frlks; cic'atrice, n. -trls (L. cica- 
trix, a scar: F. cicatrice), the scar or seam that re- 
mains after a wound has skinned over and healed: 
cic'atrise, v. -triz, to heal a wound ; to induce a skin 
to grow over it ; to skin over : cic'atri'sing, imp. : 
cic'atrised, pp. -trlzd: cic'atrisa'tion, n. -trl-za'sh&n, 
the process of healing ; the being skinned over : cic'- 
atri sive, a. -tri'ziv, tending to promote the healing 
of a wound: cic'atric'ula, n. -trik'iild, in hot., the 
scar left after the falling of a leaf ; the hilum or base 
of the seed; in anat., the point in the ovum (egg) in 
which life first shows itself. 

cicerone, n. sls'6-ro'ne or chl'-chS-rO'ne : plu. ciceroni 
(It.— from Cicero, the great ancient orator), one who 
explains curiosities and antiquities ; a guide : Cicer- 
onian, a. sis'er-o'-nl-dn, like Cicero in style ; eloquent : 
cic'ero'nianism, n. -Izm, imitation of Cicero. 

cichoraceous, a. slk'o-rd'shus (L. cichorium, chic- 
ory) of or pert, to chicory or succory. 

cidarites, n. plu. sid'drlts (Gr. kidaris, a turban), 
in geol., a genus of the family of sea-urchins furnished 
with long curiously-ornamented spines. 

cider, n. sl'-der (F. cidre: L. sicera), the juice of 
apples fermented: ci'derkin, n. -kin, a poor liquor 
made from the refuse of apples after the juice has 
been pressed out for cider. 

ci-devant, ad. se'-dS-voiuf (F.), formerly; heretofore ; 

cigar, n. sl-gdr' (Sp. cigarro, originally a particular 
kind of tobacco : F. cigare), a small roll of tobacco-leaf 
for smoking : cigarette, n. slg'd-ret', a little cigar rolled 
in thin paper. 

cilia, n. plu. sll'-l-d (L. cilium, an eyelid with the 
hairs growing on it : It. ciglio : F. cil), the hair of the 
eyelids; hairs on the margin of anybody; thin hair- 
like projections from an animal membrane which 
have a quick vibratory motion— in the smaller ani- 
mals and insects only seen by the microscope : ciliary, 
a. -l-er-l, belonging to the eyelids or cilia: cilla'ted, 
a. -i-d'ted, in but., furnished or surrounded with paral- 
lel filaments or bristles resembling the hairs of the 
eyelids : cillobrachlate, a. ■l-6-hrdk'l-at(h. brachium, 
an arm), having the arms provided with cilia : cillo- 
grade, a. -grdd (L. qradus, a step), swimming by the 
action of cilia: ciliary motion, that rapid vibratile 
motion characteristic of cilia in a state of action. 

Cimbric, a. slm'brth, pert, to the Cimbri, an ancient 
tribe of northern Germany. 

cimeter or cymetar, n. stm'S-tcr (F. cimeterre: Sp. 
cimetarra), a short curved sword used by the Persians 
and Turks— also spelt scimetar, scymetar. 

Cimmerian, a. slm-me'-rl-dn (L. cimmerium, a for- 
mer name of the Crimea, fabled by the ancients to 
have been continually shrouded in darkness), ex- 
tremely dark ; very obscure ; benighted. 

cimolite, n. slm'o-llt, a pure white or greyish-white 
variety of clay from the island of Cimola (now Argen- 

mCUe, mdt,fdr, law; mite, met 

tiera), in the Grecian Archipelago, used as a fuller's 
earth : cimolian, a. sl-mo'-ll-dn, pert to. 

cinchona, n. sln-ko'nd (after Countess of Cinchon, 
wife of a viceroy of Peru), the bark of a tree of many 
species growing in Peru, &c. , also called Peruvian bai k ; 
the tree itself: cinchonlc, a. -kon'lk, pert, to: cin- 
chonine, n. sln'-konln, also cincho'nia, -ko'-ni-d, an 
alkaloid obtained from cinchona bark: cin'chonism, 
n. -kon-lzm, in med., a disturbed condition of the body 
caused by overdoses of cinchona or quinine. 

cincture, n. slngk'tur (L. cinctura, a girdle: It. cin- 
tura : F. ceinture), a belt ; a girdle ; something worn 
round the body ; a carved ring at the bottom and top 
of a pillar : cinctured, a. -turd, encircled with a belt 

It. cenere; L. cineres, ashes : Ger. sinter; Icel. sindur, 
dross of iron), any body or piece of matter thoroughly 
burnt, but not reduced to ashes— thus the refuse of a 
fire consists of ashes and cinders : cin'dery, a. -I, re- 
sembling cinders : cinder-bed, in geol., a stratum of 
the Upper Purbeck series, almost wholly composed of 

cinenchyma, n. sl-nSn'kl-md (Gr. ki?ieo, I move; 
engchuma, an infusion), in bot., laticiferous tissue 
formed by anastomosing vessels. 

cinerary, a. sin'-er-er-i(L. cineres, ashes — see cinder), 
relating to ashes, applied to sepulchral urns contain- 
ing the remains of bodies reduced to cinders and 
ashes : cinereous, a. sl-ne'rl-us, also cineritious, a. 
sln'-er-lsh'-us, resembling ashes in colour ; grey: cine'- 
reously, ad. -II. 

Cingalese, n. slng'gd-lez, of or pert, to Ceylon. 

cinnabar, n. si7i-nd-bdr (L. cinnabaris: Gr. kinna- 
bari, red lead or vermilion), the native red sulphuret 
of mercury ; the artificial cinnabar of commerce is 
called vermilion: cin'nabarine, a. -In, of or containing 

cinnamon, n. stn'nd-mon(Gr. and Heb. kinnamon). 
the inner bark of a tree that grows in Ceylon, Sumatra, 
Borneo, &c: cinnamlc, a. -ndm'ik, of or from cinna- 
mon: cinnamon-stone, a variety of lime-garnet of a 
clear cinnamon-brown tint. 

cinque, n. slnqk (F. five), a five; a word used in 
games : cinque-foil (L. folium, a leaf), a plant belong- 
ing to the genus Potentilla; in arch., an ornament; 
Cinque-Ports, n. plu., the five harbours or ports on 
the southern shore of England opposite France— viz., 
Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich; 
afterwards increased by the addition of Winchelsea, 
Rye, and Seaford. 

cipher, n. sl'fer (F. chiffre ; It. cifra — from Ar. cifr, 
a dot), in arith., the round or nothing; any per- 
son or thing of little value ; initials of a name inter- 
twined; a secret manner of writing: v. to use figures ; 
to practise arithmetic ; to write in concealed or secret 
characters : ciphering, imp.: n. the art or act of com- 
puting by numbers : ci'phered, pp. -ferd. 

Circassian, a. serkdsh'-i-dn, of or from Circassia, in 
Europe : n. a native of. 

Circean, a. ser-se'dn (L. circceus), pert, to Circe, the 
fabled daughter of Sol and Perseus, said to have first 
charmed her victims and afterwards changed them 
into beasts ; fascinating but noxious. 

circinate, a. ser'sl-ndt (L. circino, I turn round), in 
bot, rolled inwards from the summit towards the base 
like a crosier, as the young fronds of ferns : cir'cinal, 
a. -si-ndl, resembling a circle. 

circle, n. ser'kl (L. circulus; Icel. kringla, a circle: 
Gr. Icrikos, a ring : It. circolo ; F. cercle), a figure con- 
tained by a single curved line called its circumfer- 
ence, every part of which is equally distant from a 
point within it called the centre; a ring; any round 
body ; the compass or circuit of anything or place ; 
a sphere or station in society ; a number of persons, 
as a circle of friends ; a series ending where it begins : 
v. to move round ; to encompass ; to surround or en- 
close ; to keep together: circling, imp. : cir'cled, pp. 
■kid: circlet, n. ser'kUt, a little circle: great circles, 
in astron., those circles whose planes pass through the 
centre of the sphere and divide it into two equal parts : 
lesser circles, those circles whose planes do not pass 
through the centre of the sphere, and which divide it 
into unequal parts : hour-circles, great circles of the 
celestial sphere : polar circles, the arctic and antarc- 
tic circles. 

circu, prefix— see circum. 

circuit, n. sir-kit (F. circuit: L. circum, round, and 
itum, to go), the act of moving or passing round ; the -' 

Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mdve; 



space enclosed by a circle ; a ring ; the journey of the 
judges in holding courts in different parts of a coun- 
try : v. to move in a circle ; to go round : circuitous, 
a. -kii'l-tiis, going round in a circle; not straight or 
direct : circu'itously, ad. -II : to make a circuit, to go 
round : circular, a. -ku-lt-r, pert, to a circle or in the 
form of a circle ; round ; ending in itself ; addressed 
to a number or circle of persons : n. a written or 
printed letter or note sent to a number or circle of 
persons: cir'cularly, ad. -II : circulate, v. -Kit, to 
spread or move in a circle ; to spread ; to pass from 
one place or person to another ; to be diffused : n. a 
recurring or repeating decimal or part of a decimal : 
cir cula' ting, imp. moving or passing round ; repeat- 
ing; diffusing: cir'cula'ted, pp.: cir'cula.tor, n. one 
who: circulation, n. -Id'-shun, the act of moving 
round ; a series repeated in the same order ; the act 
of going and returning ; currency of money. 

circum, ser'kum, also circu, ser'-ku (L. circum), a 
Latin prefix signifying around, round about, &c. 

circumambient, a. ser'-kum-dm'-bl-dnt (L. circum, 
roundabout, and ambio, I go round), surrounding; en- 
closing, or being on all sides , as the air about the earth : 
cir'cumam'biency, n. -en-sl, the act of surrounding : 
cir'cumam'bulate, v. -dm-bu-lat (L. ambulo, I walk), 
to walk round about ; -am'bula'ting, imp.: -amnula- 
tion, n. -Id '-sh iin .- cir cumcise, v. -;>■ is ( L. c<zsum , to cut), 
to cut off the foreskin, as a religious rite among the 
Jews and other Eastern nations ; to purify the heart : 
cir'cumci'sing, imp.: circumcised', pp. -slzcl': cir'- 
cumci ser, n. one who : cir'cumcisi'on, n. -slzh'-un, the 
act or ceremony of cutting off the foreskin among 
the Jews, &c. : circumference, n. -Jer-ens (L., I 
carry), the line that bounds a circle ; the measure of 
a circular body or a sphere round and round— the 
measure round about of any other body is called its 
perimeter: circumferential, a. -Jer-en'shdl, pert, to 
the circumference : circum feren'tor, n. -Jtr-in'ttr, an 
instrument used by surveyors for measuring angles : 
cir'cumflex', n. -fleks' {L.Jterus, bent), a mark or char- 
acter over a vowel or syllable, combining the rising 
and falling (acute and grave) accent ; in anat., ap- 
plied to certain vessels and nerves from their course : 
v. to mark or pronounce with the circumflex : -flex'- 
ing, imp. : -flexed, pp. -fiikst .- circumfluent, a. -floo- 
eat (L. fluo, I flow), flowing round, as water : cir- 
cum'fluence, n. -jidb-cns, a flowing round on all sides : 
circum'fluous, a. -ftob-us, flowinground : cir'cumfuse', 
v. -JUz' (L.Jusus, poured), to spread round, as a fluid ; 
to surround : cir'cumfu'sing, imp. : cir cumfused', pp. 
-Jiizd': cir'cumfu'sion, n. -Ju'-zhun-. cir'cumfu'sile, a. 
-Ju'-zUCL.Jusilis, fluid, liquid), capable of being poured 
or spread around : cir'cumja'cent, a. -jd'sent (h.jace?is, 
lying), lying roimd ; bordering on every side : circum'- 
locu'tion, n. -Id-kil'shiin (L. locutus, spoken), the use 
of many words to express an idea, when the use of one 
word or few words, expressing the same idea, is wished 
to be avoided ; a periphrasis : cir'cumloc'utory, a. 
•lok'u-ter-l, pert. to. 

circumnavigate, v. ser'kiim-ndv'-l-gat (L. circum, 
round, and navigo, I sail— from navis, a ship), to sail 
round, as the world ; to pass round by water : cir- 
cumnav'iga'ting, imp. : cir'cumnav'iga'ted, pp. : cir- 
cumnavlgable, a. -gd-bl, that may be sailed round : 
cir'cumnav'iga'tion, n. -gd'shun, the act of sailing 
round the globe: cir'cumnav'iga'tor, n. one who has 
sailed round the globe: cir cumpo'lar, a. -po'ldr 
(L. polus, the pole), round the pole— applied to the 
stars near the north pole : cir'cumcis'sile, a. -sis'sll 
(L. scissum, to cut), in bot., to cut round in a circular 
manner, as seed-vessels opening by a lid. 

circumscribe, v. ser'-kum-skrlb (L. circum, round 
about, and scribo, I write), to draw a line round ; to 
bound ; to limit ; to confine or restrict : cir'cumscri'- 
bing, imp. : cir'cumscribed', pp. -skrlbd', limited ; 
confined : cir'cumscri'bable, a. -bd-bl : cir'cumscrip'- 
tion, n. -skrlp'shun (L. scriptus, written), limitation, 
in bot., the periphery or margin of a leaf: circum- 
scriptive, a. -tiv, limiting ; defining external form : 
cir'cumspect, a. -spekt (L. spectum, to look, to regard), 
cautious ; prudent ; weighing well the probable con- 
sequences of an action : cir'cumspect'ly, ad. -II : cir'- 
cumspec'tion, n. -spUk'shun, great caution ; attention : 
cir'cumspec'tive, a. -tiv, vigilant ; cautious : cir'cum- 
spec'tively, ad. -II: cir'cumspect'ness, n. caution; 

circumstance, n. ser'kum -stdns (L. circum, round 
about, and static, standing), that which affects a fact 
or case in some way ; event ; incident : plu. condition 

or state of affairs; matters attending an action that 
modify it for better or worse : v. to place in a particu- 
lar position or condition : circumstanced, pp. -statist, 
placed in a particular position as regards another 
state: cir'cumstan'tial, a. -stdn-shdl, relating to but 
not essential ; incidental ; casual; particular; minute; 
in laio, proving indirectly : cir cumstan'tially, ad. 
-shdl-li, not essentially; exactly;. in every circum- 
stance or particular : cir'cumstan'tial'ity, n. -shi-dl'- 
i-tl: circumstantials, n. plu. -shdlz, incidentals: 
cir'cumstan'tiate, v. -shl-at, to describe exactly; to 
verify in every particular : cir'cumstan'tia'ting, 'imp. : 
cir'cumstan'tia'ted, pp. 

circumvallation, n. sir'-kum-vdlld'shun (L. cir- 
cum, round about, and vallum, an earthen wall or 
parapet set with palisades), a fortification made round 
a place by a besieging army, consisting of a wall, 
ditch, &c. : cir'cumvent', v. -vent (L. ventum, to come), 
to gain advantage over another by deceit ; to outwit ; 
to cheat ; to impose on : cir'cumvent'ing, imp. : cir - 
cumvent'ed, pp. : cir'cumven'tion, n. -ven'-shun, the 
act of gaining an advantage by fraud ; deception: cir- 
cumven'tive, a. -tiv, deluding ; deceiving by artifice : 
cir'cumvolve', v. -volv' (L. volvo, I roll), to roll round ; 
to revolve : cir'cumvolv'ing, imp. : cir'cumvolved', pp. 
-volvd': circum'volu tion, n. -vd-lo'shiin, state of being 
rolled round ; act of. 

circus, n. sir'-kiis (L. circus, a circular line : Gr. 
kirkos ; It. circo ; F. cirque), a circular enclosure for 
feats of horsemanship, &c, with seats for spectators 
rising all round in tiers, and sloping backwards. 

cirrhose, a. sir'roz (L. cirrus, a curl), in bot., hav- 
ing or giving off tendrils; also cir'rous, a. -viis: cir- 
rnus, n. -riis, a tendril or modified leaf in the form of 
a twining process— also spelt cirrus : cir'ri, n. plu. -ri, 
the curled filaments acting as feet to barnacles ; in 
bot., tendrils: cirrif'erous.a. -rij'-er-iis [L. Jero, Ibear), 
producing tendrils: cirrigerous, a. slr-i-ij'-er-iis (L. 
gero, Ibear), having curled locks : cir'rigrade, a. -grud 
(L. gradus, a step), moving by means of cirri. 

cirrhosis, n. slr-ro'sis (Gr. kirrhos, tawny), in 
med., a term applied to a diseased state of the liver. 

cirriped or cirripede, n. sir'-rhpid; plu. cir'ripeds 
or cir'ripedes (L. cirrus, a curl, and pedes, feet), an 
animal of the class cir'riped'ia, -ped-l-d, as the bar- 
nacles, having curled jointed feet— also spelt cir'ro- 
pod, n. -ro-pod: cirrous, a. sir'riis (L. cirrus, a curl), 
terminating in a curl or tendril: cirrus, n. sir'riis: 
cirro, sir'ro, in composition, the " curl-cloud," one of 
the primary modifications of cloud : cir'ro-cum'ulus, 
n. -kum'u-lus (L. cumulus, a mass piled up high), one 
of the intermediate modifications of cloud ; also cir'ro- 
stra'tus, n. -strd'-tus (L. stratum, the thing spread 
out, a bed). 

cisalpine, a. sls-dl'-pln (L. cis, on this side, and Alpcs, 
the Alps), on this side the Alps in regard to Koine ; the 
south side of the Alps. 

cissoid, n. sls'sdijd (Gr. kissos, ivy, and eidos, form), 
a mathematical curve invented by Diodes. 

cist, n., also spelt cyst, slst (L. cista, a basket of 
wicker work: Gr. kiste: F. ciste: It. cesta), a chest or 
box ; in archazol., an anc. tomb of the Celtic period 
sisting of two rows of stone, and covered with rude 
stone slabs : cis'ted, a. inclosed in a cist. 

Cistercian, n. sls-ter'shl-dn, one of an order of 
monks established originally at Citeaux in France, 
whence the name. 

cistern, n. sls'-tern (L. cisterna, a reservoir for water : 
Bohem. ciste; L. cactus, clean), an oblong or square 
box for storing water for domestic use ; a hollow place 
or pond for containing water ; a reservoir. 

citadel, n. slt'-d-del (F. citadelle: It. cittadella, a 
little town), a fortress or castle in or near a city ; a 
place for arms. 

cite, v. sit (L. cito, I put into quick motion, I call), 
to summon; to call upon to appear in a court of jus- 
tice; to quote; to repeat the words of another in 
proof; to confirm or illustrate from some authority : 
ci'ting, imp. : ci'ted, pp. : citation, n. sl-ta'shun, a 
summons into court; a quotation: citable, a. -td-bl, 
capable of being cited: ci'tator'y, a. -id-tir'l, having 
power of citation : ci'ter, n. -ter, one who. 

citric, a. slt'rlk (L. citrus, a lemon, or the tree), be- 
longing to lemons or limes : citric acid, an acid ex- 
tracted from the juice of these : cit'rine, a. -rln, like 
a citron ; lemon-coloured : citron, n. -ron, the fruit of 
the citron-tree : citrate, n. slt'-rat, a salt of citric acid. 

city, n. slt'-l (F. cite: L. civitas: It. citta), a corpo- 
rate and cathedral town : adj. pert, to a city : citizen, 

coiv, boy,JOot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




n. -zSn, the native of a city ; one who enjoys the rights 
and privileges pert, to a city: citizenship, n. the state 
of being vested with the rights and privileges of a 

civet, n. slv'et (F. civette: It. zibetto: Pers. zabacl), 
a substance taken from a gland or bag under the 
tail of the civet-cat— used as a perfume. 

civic, a. slv'lk (L. civis, a citizen), pert, to a city or 
citizen: civ'il, a. -II, relating to the ordinary affairs 
and government of the people of any country, as civil 
rights and privileges, &c. ; political as opposed to cri- 
minal ; intestine as opposed to foreign ; lay as dis- 
tinguished from ecclesiastical ; ordinary life as distin- 
guished from military; courteous; gentle and oblig- 
mg; affable; kind; polite: civ'illy, ad. -tt: civility, 
n. sl-vil't-tl, politeness ; courtesy; obliging behaviour 
in the treatment of others: civilian, n. -idn, one en- 
gaged in the ordinary pursuits of life : adj. opposed to 
military or clerical: civilization, n. slv'-l-ll-za'shun 
(also with s for z), state of being refined in manners ; 
state of being free from the grossness of savage life : 
civ'ilize, v. -llz, to reclaim from barbarism ; to make 
less gross in manners : civ'ili'zing, imp. : civilized, 
pp. -llzd: civ'ili'zer, n. one who or that which: civil 
action, any action at law not criminal : civil death, 
the being banished or outlawed : civil law, the ecclesi- 
astical or Roman law : civil list, the whole of the 
sovereign's revenue in his own distinct capacity ; the 
expenditure of the royal household: civil war, a 
war between parties of the inhabitants of the same 

clack, v. kldk (F. claquer, to flap or clap : Icel. klak, 
a certain noise of the domestic fowl : Dut. klacken, to 
strike, to smack), to make a sharp noise suddenly ; to 
talk incessantly: n. a sharp continued noise; the 
valve of a pump-piston ; one of the valves in a loco- 
motive or other steam-engine : clack'er, n. one who : 
clack ing, imp. : clacked, pp. kiakt. 

clad, v. kldd— see clothe. 

claim, v. kldm (L. clamo, I cry out : F. clamer, to 
call: Dan. klemte, to toll: Gael, glam, to bawl), to 
seek or demand as a right ; to demand as due ; to as- 
sert; to have a right or title to: n. a demand as of 
right ; a right or title to anything ; the thing claimed : 
claim'ing, imp. : claimed, pp. klamd ; claim'ant, n. 
-ant, one who demands anything as his right: claim- 
able, a. -d-bl. 

clairvoyance, n. kldr-voy'dns (F. clair, clear; L. 
darns, and F. voir, to see; L. videre), an alleged 
power of seeing or being cognisant of anything not 
present to the eyes or other of the senses : clairvoy'- 
ant, one who claims the power of seeing or knowing 
what is not present to the eyes or other of the senses. 

clam, n. kldm, a shell-fish of the shape of an oyster, 
but having a shell grooved on the outside like a cockle. 

clam, v. kldm (Swed. klamp, a block : Icel. klambr, 
a lump: Dut. klompe, a clod), to clog or obstruct with 
glutinous matter ; to be moist : clam'ming, imp.: 
clammed, pp. kldmd: clammy, a. -ml, thick; adhe- 
sive ; soft and sticky : clam'nruess, n. state of being 
sticky; tenacity. 

clamber, v. kldm'-b&r (Ger. tammern, to hold fast 
with the hands or claws : D^ ft, klamre, to clamp, to 
grasp), to climb amongst obstructions or with diffi- 
culty: clambering, imp.: clam'bered, pp. -berd. 

clamour, n. kldm'er (L. clamor, a loud noise— from 
clamo, I cry out: F. clameur; Sw. klammer; Gael. 
clamras, uproar, brawl), a great noise or outcry : v. 
to complain noisily ; to talk loudly ; to make impor- 
tunate demands: clam'ouring, imp.: clamoured, pp. 
•ird : clam'ourer, n. one who : clam'orous, a. -o-rus, 
noisy; in words; boisterous: clam'orously, ad. -tt: 
clam'orousness, n. the state of being loud or noisy. 

clamp, n. kldmp (Dut. klampen, to hook things to- 
gether: AS. clam, a bandage, a clasp: Ger. klamni, 
pinching, strait), anything that fastens or binds; a 
piece of iron or other metal used to fasten a corner: 
v. to fasten or bind with clamps ; to join pieces of 
board together with the grain crossing each other: 
clamping, imp. : clamped, pp. kldmpt. 

clan, n. kldn (Gael. Mann, children: L. clientes, 
dependants), a family ; a tribe ; a number of persons 
descended from one common stock under a chief: 
clan'ship, n. : clan'nish, a. -nish, united by feelings 
and prejudices peculiar to clans ; disposed to adhere 
closely: clan'nishly, ad. -tt: clan'nishness, n.: clans- 
man, n. one belonging to the same clan. 

clandestine, a. kldn-dCs'-ttn (L. clandestinus, secret 
—from clam, privately: It. clandestine; F. clandes- 

tin), secret ; hidden ; private — applied to wrong 
actions : clandestinely, ad. -H : clandes'tlneness, n. 

clang, n. kldng (L. clango, I sound: Ger. klang; 
Dut. klank, sound: Gael, gliong, the ring of metal), 
the sharp ringing sound of metallic bodies striking 
together: v. to make a sharp ringing sound by 
striking metallic bodies together : clang'ing, imp. : 
clanged, pp. klangd: clan'gour, n. -ger, a sharp, ring- 
ing, or rattling sound. 

clank, n. kldnk (Dut. klank, sound, rumour— see 
clang), the rattling ringing sound of armour or of 
metallic bodies : v. to rattle and sound, as prisoners 
clank their chains: clanking, imp.: clanked, pp. 

clap, n. kldp (an imitative word : Dan. klappre, 
chatter, as the teeth with cold: Dut. klappen, to 
rattle), a noise made by the meeting of bodies ; a loud 
noise or a burst of sound, as of thunder ; a stroke with 
the open hand : v. to strike quickly together so as to 
produce a sound; to strike gently with the palm 
of the hand; to applaud by striking the palms of 
the hands together; to drive together; to thrust 
hastily: clap'ping, imp.: clapped, pp. kldpt: clap'- 
per, n. one who, or the thing which ; the tongue or 
striker of a bell : claptrap, n. any trick or device to 
gain applause : adj. not genuine : to clap on, to add 
or put on quickly. 

clare-obscure, n. kldr-ob-skur', also written claro- 
obscuro, n. kld'ro-db-sk6'ro (L. clarus, clear, and ob- 
scurus, obscure), light and shade in painting; a 
design of two colours. 

claret, n. kldr'et (F. clairet, a red wine, somewhat 
clear— from L. clarus, clear), French wine of a dark- 
red colour. 

clarify, v. kldr'l-fl (L. clarus, clear, and facio, I 
make : F. clarifier), to make clear ; to render pure and 
bright: clar'ifying, imp.: clarified, pp. -fid: clari- 
fier, n. one who ; that which makes clear : clar'ifica'- 
tion, n. -l-fl-ka'-shun, the act of purifying or refining. 

clarion, n. kldr'-l-6?i{Sp. clarin, atrumpet: F. clair; 
It. chiaro, clear), a trumpet with a narrow tube: 
clarionet, n. -6-n6t, a wind musical instrument— also 
clar'inet, n. 

clary, n. kld'rl (probably corrupted from claret, 
referring to the red tinge of the tops), the plant mea- 
dow and wild sage. 

clash, n. kldsh (an imitative word : Dut. kletse, an 
echoing stroke : Ger. klatschen, imitative of the sound 
produced by striking with the hand against a parti- 
tion or wall : F. glas, noise, knell : Gr. klazo, I clash, as 
arms), a noise made by striking one thing against 
another ; collision ; an opposition of interests ; contra- 
diction : v. to strike one thing against another ; to 
meet in opposition ; to interfere in interests : clash'- 
ing, imp.: adj. interfering; opposite: n. a striking 
against in bodies ; opposition: clashed, pp. klasht: 
clash'ingly, ad. -II. 

clasp, n. kldsp (old Eng. elapse, imitative of the 
sound of a metal fastening: Dut. ghspe, a clasp or 
buckle), a hook for fastening ; a catch ; an embrace 
by throwing the arms around : v. to shut or fasten 
with a hook ; to catch and hold by twining ; to hold 
closely in the hand; to embrace closely: clasping, 
imp.: clasped, pp. klaspt: clasp-knife, n. a knife 
with a folding blade : clasp'er, n. he who or that which. 

class, n. kids (L. classis; F. classe, a class: Icel. 
klasi ; Sw. and Dan. klase, a bunch), a rank of per- 
sons ; a number of persons in society supposed to have 
the same position in regard to means, rank, &c. ; a 
number of students in a college, or pupils in a school, 
engaged in the same course of study ; a distribution 
into groups of creatures or things having something 
in common ; a kind or sort : v. to arrange ; to put 
into sets or ranks ; to distribute into groups ; clas- 
sing, imp. : classed, pp. kldst : classic, klds'slk, or 
clas'slcal, a. -sl-kdl, pert, to authors of the highest 
rank ; chaste ; pure ; refined: clas'sic.n. a writer of the 
first rank ; a standard book ; classically, ad. -II: clas'- 
sicallty, n. -kdl'l-tl: clas'slcalness, n. : class-fellow, 
n. one at school or college attending the same class : 
clas'sicism, n. -sl-slzm, a pretentious affectation of 
the classical character : clas'sics, n. plu. -slks, the best 
anc. Greek and Roman authors ; Greek and Latin lit- 
erature ; authorities or models of the first class : clas- 
sify, v. -slfi (L. classis, a class, and facio, I make: F. 
classifier), to arrange into groups or divisions ; to 
make into classes according to -something common: 
clas'sifying, imp. arranging in sorts or ranks : clas'- 
sified, pp. -fid .- classifier, n. one who : clas'sifica'tion, 

mdte, mdt.fdr, law; mete, mat, Mr; pine, pin; nOte, not, mdve: 




n. -sl-fl-ka'shun, the act of arranging into classes or 
ranks : clas'sifi'able, a. -fl-d-bl, that may be classified : 
clas'sifica'tory, a. -kd'ter-i, forming the basis of clas- 

clathxate, a. kldth'rdt (L. clathri; Gr. klethra, a 
trellis or lattice), in hot., latticed like a grating: 
clathra ria, n. -rd'ri-d, a genus of fossil stems, so 
called from the lattice-like arrangement of the leaf- 
scars which ornament their surface. 

clatter, n. kldt'ter (an imitative word : Dut. klateren, 
to rattle), a rapid rattling noise made by hard bodies 
when brought sharply into contact ; a noise tumultu- 
ous and confused ; rapid noisy talk : v. to make a 
rattling noise by striking hard bodies together ; to 
talk fast and idly ; to clamour : clattering, imp. : 
clat'tered, pp. -terd ; clat'terer, n. one who: clat'ter- 
ingly, ad. -II. 

clause, n. kbxtvz (F. clause, a clause: L. dan turn, 
to shut), a part shut off ; a part or member of a sen- 
tence ; an article in an agreement ; a stipulation in 
a document : clau'sular, a. -zu-ldr, consisting of or 
having clauses. 

clavate, a. kld'vdt (L. clava, a club : Sans, cula, a 
lance or club), in bot., club-shaped ; becoming gradu- 
ally thicker towards the top : cla'vated, a. knobbed ; 
set with knobs. 

clave, v.— see cleave, 

clavicle, n. kldv'l-kl (L. clavis, a key), the collar- 
bone : clavicular, a. kld-vik'ii-ldr, pert, to the collar- 
bone: claviary, n. kld'-vi-er'-l, in music, an index of 
keys: cla'vier, n. -er, the key-board of an organ or 
piano: clavichord, n. kld'-vi-kaurd (L. chorda, a 
chord), a musical instrument like a small pianoforte. 

claw, n. Maw (Dut. klauwe, a ball or claw : oldEng. 
diver, a claw: L. clavus; F. clou, a nail), a sharp 
hooked nail in the foot of a cat, bird, or other ani- 
mal; the whole foot of a bird; in bot., the narrow 
base of some petals corresponding to the petiole of 
leaves : v. to tear or scratch with the nails : clawing, 
imp. : clawed, pp. klawd: claw less, a. 

clay, n. kid, (AS. clazg, sticky earth: Dan. klazg, 
clammy, sticky : Dan. klag, mud), a tenacious, tough, 
and plastic kind of earth ; earth in general ; frailty ; 
liability to decay: v. to cover with clay; to purify 
and whiten with clay, as sugar : claying, imp. : 
clayed, pp. kldd: clay'ey, a. -I, abounding in clay: 
clay ish, a. -Ish, containing clay : elay'-mari, n. -mdrl, 
a whitish chalky clay : clay'-slate, n. roofing slate : 
clay'-stone, n. an earthy felspathic rock, generally of 
a buff or reddish-brown colour. 

claymore, n. kld'mor (Gael, claidheam.h, a sword, 
and mor, great), the Highland broadsword. 

cleading, n. kle'-dlng (Scot., clothing), a covering for 
the cylinder of a steam-engine or for a locomotive to 
prevent the radiation of heat. 

clean, a. Men (AS. clcene, pure: Icel. glan, shine, 
polish : Gael, and W. glan, clean, pure), free from dirt 
or any offensive matter; not foul; free from moral 
impurity ; pure ; neat ; dexterous or adroit : ad. 
perfectly ; wholly ; fully : v. to free from dirt or any 
foulness : clean ing, imp. : cleaned, pp. Mend .- cleanly, 
a. kten'll, free from dirt or foid matter ; neat ; pure : 
cleanly, ad. klen'll: clean'ness, n. -nes : clean'er, n. 
one who: cleanliness, n. kUn'li-nes, purity; neatness 
of dress : cleanse, v. klinz, to purify ; to make clean ; 
to remove dirt or any foid matter ; to purify from 
guilt: clean'sing, imp. : cleansed, pp. klenzd, made 
clean ; purified : clean'ser, n. one who : cleansable, a. 
kUn'zd-bl, that may be cleaned. 

clear, a. kler (L. clarus ; Icel. Mar, clear, pure : F. 
clair), open; free from obstruction; serene; un- 
clouded ; apparent ; evident or manifest ; distinct ; 
plain ; easy to understand ; innocent ; guiltless ; 
free : ad. clean ; quite ; wholly : v. to remove any ob- 
struction ; to separate any foreign or foul matter ; to 
acquit ; to vindicate; to leap over; to make gain or 
profit ; to become free from clouds ; to become fair ; 
to become disengaged : clear'ing, imp. : cleared, pp. 
klerd : clear'er, n. one who or that which : clearly, 
ad. -II: clearness, n.: clear-sighted, a. -slt-Sd, dis- 
cerning ; acute : clear-sightedness, n. : clear'ance, n. 
~&ns, permission by the custom-house for a vessel to 
sail : cleaning, n. justification or defence ; a tract of 
land prepared for cultivation; among bankers, the 
exchange of notes and drafts; among railway com- 
panies, the exchange of tickets and equitable division 
of the money received for them: clearing-house, n. 
the house where the clearing among bankers and 
railway companies is effected : clear-starch, v. to stif- 

fen with starch, and then clear by clapping with the 
open hands : clear-starching, imp. : clear-starched, 
pp.: clear-starcher, n. one who: clear-headed, a. 
having a clear unclouded intellect : to clear a ship, 
to procure the requisite papers at the custom-house, 
and obtain permission to sail: to clear for action, in 
a ship of war, to remove all encumbrances from the 
deck previous to an engagement : to clear the land, 
among seamen, to gain the open sea: clear-story — 
see clerestory, which is the better spelling. 

cleat, n. Met (Dut. kluit, a lump : AS. cleot, a plate, 
a clout), a pteee of wood fastened on the yard-arm of 
a ship to keep the ropes from slipping ; a piece of wood 
to fasten anything to ; a piece of iron worn on shoes 
to render them more durable. 

cleave, v. klev (Ger. kleben ; Dut. kleeven, to stick to, 
to fasten), to adhere to ; to stick to ; to be united in 
interest or affection : cleaving, imp.: cleaved, klevd, 
or clave, kldv, pt. did cleave : cleaved, pp. 

cleave, v. klev (Ger. klieben, to cleave— from Ger. 
kloben, a mass or bundle : Dut. kloue, a cleft), to split ; 
to part or divide by force ; to crack ; to part ; to open : 
cleaving, imp. : clove, klov, or cleft, klfft, pt. did 
cleave: cloven, MOv'n, cleft, kleft, or cleaved, pp. 
klevd, divided by force: cleaver, n. kle'ver, a butcher's 
chopper: cleavable, a. -d-bl, that may be split or 
parted: cleav'age, n. -dj, that structure in many stra- 
tified rocks, such as clay-slate, which renders them 
capable of being split indefinitely into thin plates. 

clef, n. kief (F. clef, a key— from L. clavis, a key), in 
a piece of music, a figure placed at the beginning of 
each stave to tell its pitch, or the degree of elevation 
in which it is to be sung. 

cleft, n. klift (from cleave, which see), a crack ; a 
gap; a crevice. 

cleg, n. Meg, the gleg or horse-fly. 

clematis, n. klem'a-tls (Gr. klematis, a little vine- 
branch, a small twig), a genus of plants, chiefly 
climbers— also called virgin's bower. 

clement, a. kiern'Snt (L. clemens, mild, merciful: It. 
clemente: F. clement), mild; gentle in disposition; 
kind; merciful; tender: clem'ency, n. -S>i-sl, mild- 
ness in temper and disposition; gentleness; mercy; 
disposition to forgive or to spare : clem'ently, ad. -It. 

clench, v. klensh, for clinch, which see: clench- 
bolts, in a ship, those clenched at the ends where they 
come through : clench-nails, those which will drive 
without splitting the board : to clench an argument, 
to place it in a firm and unassailable position. 

clepsydra, n. klep'sl-drd (L.— from Gr. klepto, I 
steal, and (h)udor, water), an anc. instrument in 
which time was measured by the gradual dropping of 
water ; a water-clock. 

clerestory, n. kler'6-stor-l (F. cliristere; by others, 
F. clair, clear, bright, and Eng. story, a flat), an upper 
story or row of windows in a church rising clear 
above the adjoining parts of the buildings : cler'esto'- 
rial, a. -sto'rl-dl, pert. to. 

clergy, n. klcr'jl(F. clergi; L. clericus; Sp. clerigo; 
It. clerico, one of the clergy— from Gr. kleros, a lot), 
the body of men set apart to conduct the service of 
God in a Christian Church ; ministers of the Estab- 
lished Church of a country : cler'gyman, n. a minis- 
ter of a Christian Church: clerical, a. Mer'l-kdl, 
pert, to the clergy or the Church— also cleric, a. -Ik : 
n. a man in holy orders; a clergyman: benefit of 
clergy, an anc. privilege by which clergymen, and 
subsequently all who could read, were in certain cases 
exempted from criminal prosecutions : clergyable, a. 
-d-bl, applied to felonies within the benefit of clergy. 

clerk, n. Mark (L. clericus, a clerk : AS. cleric, a 
clerk, a priest), one engaged to write in an office or 
keep business books ; a clergyman ; a reader of re- 
sponses in the church-service : clerk'ship, n. the office 
of a clerk. 

clever, a. kliv'er (prov. Dan. Merer, clever: Scot. 
gleg, quick of perception: Gael, glac, to seize, to 
catch), skilful; ingenious; smart; not dull; ready; 
clev'erly, ad. -II : clev'erness, n. 

clew, n. Mo (W. clob, a hump: L. glomus, a ball of 
twine : Dut. klouwe, a ball of yarn), a ball of thread ; 
anything that guides or directs in an intricate case 
(usually spelt clue) ; one of the corners of a sail : v. to 
truss up the sails of a ship to the yard : clewing, imp.: 
clewed, pp. kldd .- clew-lines, lines to truss up sails to 
the yards. 

click, n. klik (Dut. Micken, to rattle ; Mick, a slap : 
F. cliquer, to clap), a sharp sound louder than a tick 
and thinner than a clack ; a small piece of iron falling 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, : 


into a notched wheel : v. to strike louder and fuller 
than a tick : clicking, Imp. : clicked, pp. klikt. 

client, n. kli'ent (L. cliens, one who had a patron- 
gen, clientis), one who employs a lawyer; a depend- 
ant : cli entship, n. 

cliff, n. kiif (Ieel. kleyf— from rlivfa, to cleave : 
Ger. klujt, a cavern, a cleft : Dut. kleppe ; Dan. klippe, 
a rock), a steep bank ; a high and steep ruck: cliffy, 
a. -fl, steep, broken, and rugged. 

cliff, in music — see clef. 

clift, n. kllft, same as cleft— which see. 

climate, n. Mi'- mat (Gr. Mimata, slopes, tracts of 
land: F. climat), the condition of a place or country 
with respect to the weather that prevails ; a region or 
district of country: climatic, also climat'ical, a. -mat' 
-l-kdl, pert, to or depending on a climate: clime, n. 
kltiii, poetic for climate; a region; a country: cli'ma- 
tol'ogy, n. -md-tdl'ojl (Gr. logos, discourse), the 
science which treats of the different climates of the 
earth, their causes, products, and peculiarities : cli- 
matolog ical, a. -loj'-l-kdl, pert, to: climatise, v. -tiz, 
to accustom to a new climate : eli'inati 'sing, imp. : 
cli'matised, pp. -tizd. 

climax, n. kli'-mdks(Gr. Mima.v, a staircase, aladder: 
Gr. klimakter, a step), step by step ; ascent ; a figure 
of speech in which the sentences rise as it were step 
by step upwards in intensity: climacteric, n. klliu- 
uk-tir'-lk or Ml-mdk'-tcr-lk, one of the critical steps or 
periods in human life in which some great change is 
supposed to take place in the human constitution : 
adj. also clim'acter'ical, -ter'-l-kdl, pert, to or con- 
nected with ; critical : grand climacteric, the age of 
03 in man, after which the constitution is supposed to 
decline, and old age begin. 

climb, v. kllm (Dut. klemmen, to hold tight, to 
climb: Dan. Jclynge, to cling, to crowd), to mount up- 
wards with the hands and feet, as up a steep hill, pre- 
cipice, or tree ; to ascend with labour, or as a plant by 
means of tendrils: climbing, imp. -inq: climbed, pp. 
kllmd : climber, n. one who ; a climbing plant : 
plu. an order of birds. 

clinandrium, n. Ml-nan'-drl-tim (Gr. Mine, a bed, 
and aner, a man— gen. andros), in hot., that part of 
the column of orchideous plants in which the anther 
lies: clinan'thium, n. -thl-um (Gr. anthos, a flower), 
in hot., a receptacle of flowers which is not of a fleshy 

clinch, v. kllnsh (Dut. klinken, to clink or rivet: 
Dan. Minke, a rivet: Norm. F. clanche; Ger. klinge, 
the latch of a door), to grasp with the hand; to 
fix firmly by folding over; to rivet: n. anything 
which holds both ways : clinching, imp. : n. the fas- 
tening of a bolt or nail by hammering the point so 
as to make it spread: clinched, pp. klinsht: clinch'er, 
a. -er, overlaying or overlapping, like slates on a 
roof— applied to the planking of a ship, as clincher- 
work: n. one who makes a smart or unanswerable 
reply; the reply itself: clincher-built or clinker- 
built, kllngk'er-, applied to a boat or ship whose out- 
side plankings overlie each other like slates on a roof: 
to clinch or clench the fist, to contract the fingers 
firmly and closely into the palm of the hand so as to 
form a ball. 

cling, v. Ming (AS. clingan, to shrink or wither: 
Dan. khjnge, to cluster: Sw. klccnga, to clutch, to 
climb), to adhere closely ; to stick to' firmly, as an in- 
terest ; to hold fast to by entwining or 'embracing, 
as in affection : clinging, imp. : clung, pt. and r>p 

clinical, a. Mln'l-kdl (Gr. Mine, a bed), pert, to a 
bed : clinical lecture, instruction given to medical 
students by a professor at a sick-bed: clinically, ad. 
•II, by the bedside : clinoid, a. kll'-ndyd (Gr. eidos, 
form), in anat., applied to certain processes of bone 
having a supposed resemblance to a couch. 

clink, v. kllngk (Ger. klingen, to tingle : Gael, gliong, 
to ring as metal— clinic, from clang, as expressing a 
shriller sound), to jingle ; to make a small sharp ring- 
ing noise : n. a shirp ring or jingle of small metallic 
bodies, as coins: clinking, imp.: clinked, pp. Mim/kt 
clinker, n. kllngk'er, in min., the black oxide of iron"; 
the slaggy ferruginous crusts that form on the bars 
of engine-furnaces : plu. very hard bricks ; bricks run 
together and glazed over by excessive heat : clinker- 
bar, in a steam-engine, the bar fixed across the top of 
the ash-pit : clink-stone, rock of a greyish-blue colour 
which rings with a metallic sound when struck. 

clinometer, n. kll-nom'-e-ter (Gr. klinein, to incline, 
and metron, a measure), an instrument for measuring 



the dip or angle at which strata incline from the 

Clio, n. kll'o (L.— from Gr. Meio— from Meio, I cele- 
brate), in anc. myth., the muse who presided over his- 

clip, v. klip (a word imitative of the snapping noise 
made by shears: Dan. klippe, to clip or cut: Sw. 
klippa, to wink: Ger. klipp, a clap), to cut off with 
shears or scissors ; to pare ; to cut short : n. a sheep- 
shearing; that which is shorn off the sheep : clip 'ping, 
imp.: n. the part cut off: clipped, pp. klipt; also dipt, 
pt. and pp.: clipper, n. one who ; a last-sailing ship : 
to clip one's wings, to put a check upon one's projects 
or schemes. 

clique, n. kick (F.), persons associated for some dis- 
reputable purpose ; a party; a coterie; a set or 
party : cliquish, a. -Ish, relating to a clique. 

cloaca, n. klo-a'-kd (L. a drain or sewer), that part 
of the intestines of birds, fishes, and reptiles, in which 
the intestinal, ovarian, and urinary outlets terminate: 
cloacal, a. klu-d-kol, relating to or connected with. 

cloak, n. kick (Flem. klocke, a gown : Bohem. kink, 
a woman's mantle), a loose outer garment; that 
which conceals ; a pretext ; an excuse : v. to cover 
with a cloak ; to hide or conceal ; to employ a false 
covering: cloaking, imp.: cloaked, pp. klokt. 

clock, n. M6k(V. cloche; Ger. glocke; Dut. klocke, a 
bell : Gael, clag, to ring), a machine which shows tho 
time of day and strikes the hours : clockmaker, one 
who makes clocks : clock-work, mechanism like a 
clock: o'clock, contraction for "time of, on, or by 
the clock." 

clock, n. klok (Norm. Maeg, a horse-fly), familiar 
name of the common beetle ; also clock'er, n. 

clock, n. klok (an imitative word : Dut. klockcn), the 
cry of the brooding hen— see cluck. 

clod, n. Mod (Dan. Mods; Sw. Mots, a block, a log: 
Dut. klos, a ball), a hard lump of earth of any kind ; 
earth, ground, or turf; a stupid fellow; a dolt: 
cloddy, a. -dl, consisting of clods : clodhopper, n. a 
rustic ; a peasant : clod'dish, a. lumpish ; boorish : 
clod pole, n. a stupid fellow. 

cloff, n. klof, in com., an allowance of two lb. per 
cwt. for the turn of the scale to the wholesale pur- 
chaser of goods. 

clog, n. klog (Gael, ploc, any round mass : Scot. 
clag, to cover with mud), a hindrance; an impedi- 
ment ; anything that hinders motion : v. to load so 
as to hinder or impede motion ; to burden ; to embar- 
rass; to render difficult; to adhere in a cluster or 
mass: clog'ging, imp.: clogged, pp. klogd: clog'gy, 
a. -gl, that has power to clog; thick: clog'giness, n. 

clog, n. klog (Ger. Mots, a log, a clog), a wooden 
shoe ; a shoe with a wooden sole. 

cloister, n. kloy'-ster (Ger. Moster; F. cloitre, a mo- 
nastery—from L. claustrum, an inclosure), an inclosed 
place ; a monastery or nunnery ; a piazza of an in- 
closed court : v. to confine in a monastery ; to shut 
up in retirement : cloi'stering, imp. : cloistered, pp. 
khnj'sh'rd: cloi'steral, a. confined to a cloister; retired 
from the world : cloi'sterer, n. one who. 

clonic, a. kldn'-lk (Gr. klonos, a violent confused 
motion), in med., applied to spasms or convulsions, 
rapidly alternating with relaxation. 

close, a. M6s (L. clausus, shut up : F. clos, closed, 
shut), shut ; having no vent or outlet ; confined ; com- 
pact; solid or dense; concise; brief; very near; private; 
narrow ; crafty; penurious ; warm ; oppressive, as the 
weather: n. in Scot., a narrow passage or entry; a 
courtyard ; an inclosure : adv. closely ; nearly ; se- 
cretly: closely, ad. Mos'-ll: close-bodied, a. fitting 
the body closely ; close-fisted, a. niggardly : close- 
hauled, a. among seamen, close to the wind: close 
quarters, in direct contact; hand to hand: close'- 
ness, n. -tie's, narrowness ; want of ventilation ; com- 
pactness; secrecy. 

close, v. Moz (see above), to shut; to make fast ; to 
end or finish ; to cover ; to inclose ; to come or bring 
together; to unite: n. conclusion; end; a pause; 
cessation : clo'sing, imp. : closed, pp. klozd .- closer, 
n. -zcr, one who or that which : to close with, to 
accede to ; to grapple with. 

closet, n. kloz'&t (dim. of close, an inclosure), a 
small room or apartment for retirement ; a small dark 
room: v. to shut up; to conceal; to take into a private 
apartment for consultation : clos'eting, imp. : clos'- 
eted, pp. 

clot, n. Mot (Sw. Mots, a log: Dut. Mot, a lump; 
allied to clod), fluid matter thickened or coagulated 

mate, mdt, far, law; mete, met, Mr; pine, pin; ?Me, not, mOve; 



into a lump or lumps — clod is applied to earth: v. 
to turn into masses or lumps ; to coagulate or thick- 
en, as milk or blood : clot'ting, imp.: clot'ted, pp.: 
clot'ty, a. 41, full of clots. 

cloth, n. Moth (AS. doth, cloth: Ger. kleid; Icel. 
Jclcedi, a garment: W. clyd, warm), any woven stuff; 
any fabric woven from wool ; the covering of a table : 
cloths, plu. kloths, meaning different kinds : clothe, 
v. kloth, to cover with articles of dress ; to put on 
raiment ; to invest ; to surround ; to spread over or 
to cover: clothing, imp.: n. garments in general; 
dress: clothed or clad, pp. klothd, kldd: clothes, n. 
plu. MOthz, garments or dress for the body: bed- 
clothes, coverings of a bed : clothes-basket, n. : clothes- 
brush, n.: cloth'ier, n. -i-er, a seller of cloths ; a seller 
or maker of clothes ; an outfitter: the cloth, a familiar 
name for the clergy in general, or the clerical profes- 

cloud, n. Moled (old Dut. dote, a cloud— allied to 
clod, being vapours drawn into clods or separate mas- 
ses), a mass of visible vapour floating in the atmo- 
sphere ; a great multitude, in the sense of a diffused 
and indistinct mass : v. to obscure or darken ; to over- 
spread with clouds ; to make of a gloomy or sullen 
aspect ; to sully ; to tarnish ; to become obscure ; to 
grow cloudy: clouding, imp.: clouded, pp.: cloudy, 
a. -I, overcast; obscure; gloomy; dispiriting; semi- 
opaque: cloudily, ad. -li : cloudiness, n.: cloudless, 
a. without a cloud : cloudlessly, ad. -II : cloud-berry, 
n. the mountain bramble, abounding in the High- 
lands of Scotland : cloud-capt, a. extremely lofty; very 
high : cloud-wrapt, a. -rdpt, misty ; obscure : in the 
clouds, beyond the range of the eye— applied to flights 
of fancy, or to confused and obscure representations ; 
absent; not attending to what is going on around. 

clout, n. clcavt (AS. clut, a paten— primary sense, a 
blow: Dut. klotsen, to strike), a patch; a piece of 
cloth or leather to repair a hole or break ; a piece of 
cloth for cleaning or kitchen use ; a flat-headed nail : 
V. to patch ; to mend or repair by putting or sewing 
on a patch: clouting, imp.: clout ed, pp.: a clout on 
the head, a blow or stroke on the head. 

clove, v. klov— see cleave. 

clove, n. klov (Dut. kruyd-naegel, the nail-spice: L. 
Claims, a nail), a kind of spice, consisting of the dried 
unexpanded flowers of a tree of the myrtle tribe: 
clove gillyflower, a beautiful flower having a peculiar 
scent— also called clove-pink, carnation-]) ink. 

clove, n. klov (low Ger. kloven, to cleave: Dut. 
Move, a fissure), a division of a root of garlic; in lot., 
cloves, applied to young bulbs, as in the onion; a 
weight, part of the u-ey, being about 8 lb. 

cloven, v. klov'n (pp. of cleave, which see), parted ; 
divided into two parts : cloven-footed, a. having the 
foot or hoof divided into two parts, as the ox. 

clover, n. klo'ver (AS. claefer; Dut. Waver— from 
low Ger. kloven, to cleave), a common field-herb called 
trefoil, used for the fodder of cattle : to live in clover, 
to live in abundance : clo'vered, a. -verd, abounding 
in clover. 

clown, n. klcnvn (Dut. kloete, a lump, a block: Ger. 
klotz, a log; klotzig, blockish, rustic), a peasant; a 
rustic ; one who has the rough manners of one from 
the country; an ill-bred man ; one who plays the fool 
in a theatre or circus: clownish, a. like a rustic; 
coarse and ill-bred: clownlshly, ad. -II: clownlsh- 
ness, n. rudeness of behaviour; awkwardness. 

cloy, v. kloy (from Eng. clog, a thick mass : F. en- 
clover, to choke or stop up), to fill to loathing ; to sur- 
feit: cloying, imp.: cloyed, pp. kloyd, filled; glutted: 
cloyless, a. 

club, n. klub (W. clnb, a knob : Paiss. kluV, a ball : 
Sw. klabb, a log: Ger. kolbe, a club), a stick with 
one end heavier than the other; a thick heavy stick 
or cudgel for beating or defence; a principal war 
weapon in ancient times, and now in barbarous coun- 
tries ; a number of persons associated for some com- 
mon purpose ; the name of one of the suits of cards : 
v. to unite for some common end ; to pay a share of a 
common reckoning; to beat with a club; to turn up 
and place together the club-ends of a number of rifles : 
club bing, imp.: clubbed, pp. kliibd: clubbist, 
who belongs to a club or association: club-house, n. 
a place of resort for the members of a club : club-law, 
n. brute force: club-foot, n. a deformed foot: club- 
footed, a. having crooked or misshapen feet: club- 
moss, n. a moss-like plant ; the Lycopodium. 

cluck, n. khik (an imitative word: Dut. klocken; F. 
glousser; Sp. cloquear), the call of a hen to her chick- 

ens, or the noise she makes when hatching: v. to call 
or cry as a hen does to her chickens: cluck'ing, imp.: 
clucked, pp. kliikt. 

clue, n. kid (see clew), a key to ; a guide. 

clump, n. Mump (related to club: Icel. klumbr, a 
lump : Dut. klompe ; Ger. klumpen, a clod, a mass), a 
short, thick, or shapeless piece of matter ; a cluster ot 
trees or shrubs. 

clumsy, a. klum'zX (low Ger. klomen; old Eng. clom- 
sid, stiffened with cold: Icel. klumsa, suffering from 
cramp), awkward and inefficient, like one benumbed 
with cold ; unskilful ; slow ; heavy ; ill made : clum'- 
sily, ad. -II: clum'siness, n. 

clung, v. kiting— see cling. 

crunch, n. klunsh (from cling), any tough coarse 
clay ; soft chalk ; the clayey beds of chalk-marl. 

Cluniac, n. klu'-ni-ak, one of a reformed order of 
monks of the Benedictines, so called from Clugni or 
Cluny in France. 

cluster, n. klus'ter (Dut. klissen, to stick together; 
Mister, a cluster), a bunch ; a number of things of the 
same kind growing or grouped together, as a cluster 
of raisins, cluster of bees : v. to unite in a bunch or 
bunches ; to collect into a flock, crowd, or close body : 
clustering, imp. : clus'tered, pp. -ttrcl : clus'teringly, 
ad. -II: clustery, a. -ter-i, growing in clusters. 

clutch, n. Much (Scot, cleik, to snatch : Swiss, klupc, 
claws), a firm grasp or griping with the hands by 
tightening the fingers ; a seizure ; a grasp : v. to seize 
firmly with the hand ; to gripe ; to grasp : clutch'ing, 
imp.: clutched, pp. kh'tcht. clutches, n. plu. claws; 
hands, in the sense of rapacity and cruelty : in the 
clutches, in the power of, in a bad sense. 

clutter, n. kluf-ter (another form of clutter), a noise ; 
a bustle : v. to make a confused noise : clut'tering, 
imp. : clut'tered, pp. -terd. 

clymenia, n. kll-me'nl-a (L. clymene, a sea-nymph), 
in geol., a genus of nautiloid shells. 

clypeate, a. klip'-e-at (L. clypeus, a shield), in hot., 
having the shape of a shield; also clypelform, n. 
■l-fawrm (L. forma, shape). 

clyster, n. klis'ter (F. clystere ; Gr. Muster— from Gr. 
Mtizo, I wash or rinse), an injection into the bowels. 

co, ko (L. cum : Gr. sun, with, together : It. con), 
a form of the prefix con, and means, with ; together ; 
together with ; co is used before a vowel and h, as 
coalesce, cohabit, and is often separated from the 
word by a hyphen, as co-operate, co-partner; in 
math., co is an abbreviation of complement, as co-lati- 
tude, co-sine, co-tangent. Note.— The prefix con as- 
sumes the various forms of co, cog, col, com, cor, 
according to the first letter of the second element of 
the compound ; but, 1, con becomes com before 6 and 
p, as combustion, co??ipel ; 2, con is retained before J 
and v, except in co?Hfort, as conflict, convene ; 3, con 
is retained before t, d, q, g, and s, as content, condole, 
conquest, congeal, consent. 

coach, n. koch (F. coucher; Dut. koetsen, to lie, to 
put to bed ; Dut. koetse, a couch, a coach), a carriage ; 
a four-wheeled vehicle: v. to travel in a coach: 
coaching, imp. : coached, pp. kocht : coach-box, n. the 
seat on which the driver sits : coach ful, n. -fool, enough 
to fill a coach: coachman, n. the driver of a coach. 

coadjutor, n. ko'-ad-jo'ter (L. con, together ; ad, to ; 
jutus, assisted), one who helps another; an assistant: 
co'adju'torship, n. joint assistance: co'adju'trix, n. 
fem. -jd'triks, a female assistant. 

coadunate, a..ko-Ctd'u-7Ult(L. con, together, and adu- 
nave, to unite), in bot., united at the base; cohering. 

coagulate, v. ko-ag'u-lat (L. and It. coagulare, to 
curdle : F. coaguler), to curdle ; to congeal ; to change 
a fluid into a fixed mass; to thicken or turn into 
clots : coag'ula'ting. imp. : coag'ula'ted, pp. : coag - 
ula'tor, n. : coagulant, n. that which: coaglila'tion, 
n. -ICL'shun, the act of changing from a fluid to a fixed 
state: coag'ulable, a. -Id-bl, that may be thickened: 
coagulability, n. -bil'i-tl, the capacity of being thick- 
ened or coagulated: coag'ula'tive, a. -la'tiv, having 
power to coagulate: coagulum, n. -liim (L.), clot of 
blood ; the curd of milk ; a thickened or fixed mass of 
a liquid. 

coal, n. kol (lc.el.kol; Ger. kohle— original meaning. 
fire: Sw. kylla, to kindle), mineralised vegetable 
matter; a hard black mineral used as fuel: v. to 
take in coal for the supply of a steam or sailing vessel : 
coal'ing, imp. : n. taking in of coals, as into a steam- 
ship: coaled, pp. kold: coal'y, a. -J, like coal; con- 
taining coal: coal-black, a. black like coal: coal- 
I field, n. a natural deposit or bed of coal in the earth : 

coiv, boy, foot; pare, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




coal-fish, n. a sea-fish having the upper part of the 
bead and back black: coalsey, n. k6l'-zl, fry of the 
coal-fish : coal-heaver, n. -hev'cr, one who carries coals, 
as into a house, cellar, or ship; a coal-porter: coal- 
mine or coal-pit, n. the place out of which coal is 
dug : coal-whipper, n. one of a gang who unloads a 
ship's cargo when it consists of coal : collier, n. kol' 
yer, one who digs out the coals In a coal-mine ; a ship 
employed in carrying coals : colliery, n. -i, a place 
where coal is dug, and the machinery employed in 
raising it to the surface: coal-measures, n. plu. 
-vidzh'dbrs, in geol., the layers or strata of stone, &c, 
between which the deposits of coal are found: to 
blow the coals, to kindle strife: to carry coals to 
Newcastle, to do something very unnecessary; to 
lose one's labour : to haul over the coals, to call to 
account ; to censure. 

coalesce, v. ko'ddis' (L. coalescere, to grow together 
—from con, and ulescere, to grow up: It. coalizzare: 
F. coaliser), to unite ; to grow together ; to adhere in 
masses ; to assimilate or unite as one, as nations by 
intermarriages : coalescing, imp. ; coalesced', pp. 
-lest': coalesc'ent, a. -les'ent, growing or uniting to- 
gether: coalescence, n. -Sns, the act of growing 
together; union: coaliti'on, n. -Ush'-un, a union of 
persons, parties, or states for a common object ; a con- 
federacy or league : coalitionist, n. -1st, one who. 

coamings, n. plu. kom'lngz, among seamen, raised 
work round the hatches of a ship to prevent water 
getting down into the hold. 

coarse, a. kors (a supposed corrupted form of 
"course," as in the phrase "of course," meaning ac- 
cording to the regular order of events), not refined ; 
rude; rough; gross; impure; indelicate: coarsely, 
ad. -ll : coarseness, n. 

coast, n. kost (L. costa, a rib, a side : It. costa ; F. 
coste, a rib, a coast), the limit or border of a country; 
the sea-shore or land near it : v. to sail near the land 
or in sight of it ; to sail from port to port in the same 
country : coasting, imp. : coasted, pp. : the coast is 
clear, the danger is over; no impediment exists ; no 
enemies or opponents are in sight or at hand : coast'er, 
n. a vessel employed in home-trade only : coast'wise, 
ad. by or along the coast : coasting- trade, n. the trade 
carried on in ships from port to port of the same 
country : coast-guard, body of police for watching the 
sea from the coast : sea-coast, margin of land next 
the sea. 

coat, n. kot (F. cotte ; It. cotta, a coat or frock), a 
man's garment worn above the waistcoat ; an upper 
garment ; an external covering ; a layer of any sub- 
stance: v. to cover or spread over, as paint on a 
wall; to smear; to put on a coat: coat'ing, imp.: 
n. a covering; any substance spread over another: 
coat'ed, pp. : adj. in but., having concentric coats or 
layers: coatee, n. ko-te', a half coat; a very short 
coat : coat of arms, n. the emblazonment of armo- 
rial bearings on an escutcheon : coat of mail, n. a 
piece of armour in the form of a shirt. 

coax, v. koks (old Eng. cokes, a simpleton, a gull : 
F. cocasse, one who says or does laughable or ridiculous 
things), to wheedle or gull one into doing something ; 
to persuade by fondling or flattery : coaxing, imp. : 
coaxed, pp. kokst : coax'er, n. one who : coax ingly, 
ad. -II. 

cob, n. kob (W. cobio, to thump; cob, a knock), the 
top or head; anything in round lumps; a strong 
pony; a foreign coin; clay mixed with straw: v. to 
punish: cobTring, imp.: cobbed, pp. kobd: cob'by, 
a, -bl, stout ; brisk. 

cobalt, n. ko'baTclt (Ger. kobold, the goblin or demon 
of Ger. mines), a brittle, metal of a reddish-grey or 
greyish-white colour, much used in the state of oxide 
to give a blue colour to glass, and to produce enamels 
upon metals and earthenware, &c: cobal'tic, a. -tlk, 
pert, to cobalt: colialtine, n. -tin, arsenical ore of 

cobble, v. kob'bl (frequentative of cob, to knock: 
Dan. kobler, to cobble), to mend by putting on a 
patch; to repair coarsely: cob'bling, imp. -bllng: 
cob'bled, pp. -bid, badly made or mended : cob'bler, 
n. -bh'r, one who ; a mender of boots and shoes. 

cobble, n. kob'bl (Dut. kabbelen, to beat, as water 
against a bank or on the shore), a round water-worn 
stone; a boulder; a small fishing -boat— also spelt 

cobra-de-capello, n. kO'brd-df-kd-pSl'16 (Port, ser- 
pent of the hood), the hooded snake, highly venomous, 
inhabiting the East Indies. 

cobweb, n. kdb'urb (Flem. kop, a spider: Fris. kop, 
a bubble), the network spread by a spider to catch its 
prey; anysnare: adj. slender and feeble: cob'webbed, 
a. -iv6bd, in bot., covered with loose hairs. 

coca, n. ko'ka (Sp.), the dried leaf of a plant, having 
highly narcotic qualities, used by the Peruvians. 

cocagne or cocaigne, n. ko-kdn' (F. a land of milk 
and honey), an imaginary land of idleness, plenty, and 
pleasure ; a name applied to London and its suburbs. 

cocciferous, a. kok-sif-tr-us (Gr. kokkos, a berry, 
and L.fero, I bear), trees or plants that produce ber- 
ries are so called. 

Cocculus Indicus, n. kok'fi-lus-ln'dl-kus (L. Indian 
berry), the fruit of a large tree, possessing narcotic and 
poisonous qualities : Coc cuius Palma'tus, -pal-ma'-tiis, 
the plant from which the C'olumba root is obtained : 
coccus or coe'eum, n. -kits (L. a berry used for dyeing), 
in bot., applied to the closed cells of plurilocular peri- 
carps which separate from each other when ripe : coc- 
cidlum, n. -sld'l-um, in bot., a rounded conceptacle in 
algae without spores, or containing a tuft of spores : 
coccolite, n. kok'6-lU (Gr. lithos, a stone), in min., a 
variety of augite : coccos'teus, n. -kos'te-iis (Gr. osteon, 
a bone), in geol., a fish of the old red sandstone, 
so termed from the berry-like tubercles studding its 

cochineal, n. kdch'-lnel (Sp. cochinilla, a wood-louse), 
a scarlet and crimson dye-stuff consisting of a mass 
of very small insects, natives of the warm countries 
of Central and S. America. 

cochlear, a. kok'le-er (L. a spoon), in bot, a kind of 
aestivation in which a helmet-shaped part covers all 
the others in the bud : coch'lear'iform, a. -dr'l-fawrm 
(L. forma, a shape), shaped like a spoon. 

cochleary, a. kok'le-er-l (L. cochlea, the shell of a 
snail, a screw : Gr. kochlos, a shell-fish with a spiral 
shell), having the form of a screw ; spiral : coch'leate, 
a. -at, also coch'lea'ted, a. spiral ; screw-like. 

cochliodus, n. kdk'll-odus (Gr. kochlias, a cockle, 
and odous, a tooth), fossil shell teeth found among 
mountain limestone, having a cockle-shell-like aspect. 

cock, n. kok (an imitation of the cry : F. coq ; Bohem. 
kokot, a cock), the male of birds, particularly of the 
domestic fowl— fern, hen ; a vane in shape of a cock : 
cock'erel, n. -er-el, a young cock: cock-crowing, n. 
the early dawn; also cock-crow, n.: cock-pit, area 
where cocks fight: cock-and-a-bull, a tedious absurd 
story: mere babble or boasting: every cock on his 
own dunghill, every one fights best at home, or with 
his friends to back him: cock-fight, n. a battle be- 
tween game-cocks : cock-fighting, n. the act or prac- 
tice of pitting cocks against each other. 

cock, v. kok (It. coccare, to snap, to click— a word 
imitative of a quick sudden motion in rising or Start- 
ing up), to stick abruptly up ; to cause suddenly to 
project or stick up ; to set up with an air of pertness, 
as the head or hat ; to set or draw back the part of a 
gun which snaps or clicks ; to strut : n. the part of a 
gun which snaps or clicks ; in a balance, the needle 
which vibrates to and fro between the cheeks ; a 
twined or crooked spout to let out water at will: 
cocking, imp.: cocked, pp. kokt: adj. turned up at 
the sides: cockade', n. -kad' (F. coquarde, a cap worn 
partly on the one side), a knot of ribbons stuck jauntily ; 
on the hat: cockad'ed, a. provided with a cockade: 
cock'atoo, n. -add, a parrot with a tuft of feathers 
on its head : cock er, n. -er, a dog employed to raise 
wild birds: cock-sure, confidently certain. 

cock, n. kok (Fin. kokko, a coniform heap, a hut: j 
Dan. kok, a heap, a pile), a small heap of hay or reaped I 
corn : cock-loft, a room over the garret ; the room j 
next the roof: cock-pit, in a ship of rear, a room 
appropriated to the use of the wounded during an 
action : cocked, a. kokt, thrown into heaps. 

cock, n. kok (It. cocca; Dan. kog; Icel. kuggi, a I 
small boat : Fin. kokka, the prow of a vessel, being j 
the part that sticks up), applied to a small boat : cock- • 
swain, -siv&n, a petty officer who has the command i 
or care of a boat— familiarly spelt coxen, kok'sn. 

cockatrice, n. kok'ddrls (Sp. cocatriz, a crocodile, , 
of which it is a mere corruption), a fabulous animal ; , 
a cock with a dragon's tail, supposed to be hatched by 
a cock from a viper's egg, or from one of its own. 

cockchafer, n. kdk'chd-fer (cock, and AS. cea/or, a ' 
beetle), the May-bug or dorr-beetle. 

cocker, v. kok'er (Dut. kokelen, to pamper— see cock- 
ney), to pamper ; to fondle and spoil, as a child : cock- ' 
ering, imp.: n. fondling indulgence: cock'ered, pp. 

mute, mat, far, law; mete, mSt, Mr; pine, pin; note, not, mCvc; 




cocket, n. kok'et (F. cachet, a seal: contr. of L. 
phrase, quo quietus), an official seal ; a written certifi- 
cate, sealed, given by the custom-house officers to mer- 
chants to show that their merchandise has been pro- 
perly entered. 

cockle, n. kok'kl (F. coquiole; Pol. kakol; Gael, cogal ; 
AS. coccel), a weed that grows among corn ; the corn- 

cockle, n. kok'kl (L. cochlea; Gr. kochlos, a snail, a 
shell-fish : F. coquille), a shell-fish ribbed or grooved on 
both sides: v. to contract into folds or wrinkles: 
cockled, pp. -kid. 

cockney, n. kok'-nl IF. cocagne, a plentiful country: 
F. coqueliner, to cocker, to pamper), an anc. nickname 
for a citizen of London — now applied by way of con- 

cockroach, kok'roch (from cock), a common kind of 
beetle infesting houses and ships. 

cockscomb, n. koks'-kOm (from cock), the red fleshy 
substance on the head of a cock; a plant: coxcomb, 
n. koks-, a fop ; a vain silly fellow. 

cocoa, n. ko'-ko (Port, coco, an ugly mask to frighten 
children, so called from the monkey-like face at the 
base of the nut), the common way of now spelling 
cacao; the nut of the cacao roasted and ground; the 
beverage made of it ; the very large nut of the cocos 

cocoon, n. ko-k6n' (F. cocon— from L. concha, a shell), 
the round silky case in which the silk-worm and many 
other larvae envelop themselves: cocoonery, n. -er-i, 
a building where silk-worms are fed while preparing 
to envelop themselves in cases or cocoons. 

coction, n. kok'shiin(L. coctio, a digestion), the act 
of boiling : coc'tile, a. -til, made by baking or heat. 

cod, n. kod (Flem. kodde, a club— from its large club- 
shaped head), a well-known fish chiefly inhabiting the 
northern seas, and especially the sandbanks around 
Newfoundland : codling, n. a young cod : cod-liver oil, 
n. an oil obtained from the livers of the cod-fish. 

cod, n. kod (Icel. koddi, a cushion : Sw. kudde, a 
sack : \V. cod, a bag), any husk or case containing the 
seeds of a plant; a pod: codded, a. inclosed in a 
cod, as in beans and peas. 

coddle, v. kod'dl (F. cadel, a starveling : h.catulus; 
Prov. cadel, a whelp), to pamper or treat delicately ; 
to parboil ; to soften by means of hot water: codling, 
n. kod'-llng, or codlin, n. -lin, an apple fit for boiling 
or baking. 

code, n. kdd (L. codex, the body of a tree, a book : 
F. code: It. codice), laws collected and arranged, par- 
ticularly if done by authority: codex, ko'deks (L), 
any written document, generally an ancient one ; 
an anc. manuscript: codicil, n. kod'l-sll, an addition 
or supplement made to a will : cod icil'lary, a 
•eri, of the nature of a codicil : codify, v. -i-fl (L. 
facio, I make), to reduce to a code or system : codify- 
ing, imp.: codified, pp. -fid: codifi'er, n. -er, or 
codist, n. ko'-dlst, one who lorms or reduces laws to a 
system or code : codification, n. kod'i-fika'shun, the 
act of reducing laws to a system. 

codeine, n. ko-de'ln (Gr. kodeia, a poppy head), one 
Of the active medicinal principles of opium. 

codger, n. koj'jer (Ger. kotzen, to spit; kotzer, a 
spitting or coughing man or woman), familiarly, a 
term of abuse for an elderly person ; a miser. 

codille, n. ko-dil' (Sp. codillo), a term at ombre, sig- 
nifying that the stake is won. 

codling, n.— see cod and coddle. 

coefficient, n. ko'efftsh'-ent (L. con, together; ex, 
out of ; facxo, I do or make), that which unites with 
something else to produce the same effect; in alg., 
the figure or known number or quantity put before 
the letter or letters that denote an unknown number 
or quantity, or partly known and partly unknown : 
adj. co-operating; acting to the same end: co'ef- 
fici'ency, n. -flsh'en-sl: coefficiently, ad. -int-ll. 

Coehorn, n. ko'-hau-rn (after the inventer Baron 
Coehorn), in mil., a small kind of mortar. 

ccelacanthi, n. plu. se'ldkdn'thl (Gr. koilos, hol- 
low, and akantha, a spine), an extensive group oi 
fossil sauroid fishes. 

coeliac or celiac, a. se~'ll-ak (Gr. koilia, the belly), 
pert, to the intestinal canal; coeliac passion, n. a 
flux or diarrhoea of undigested food. 

ccelorhynchus, n. se'lo-rin'kiis (Gr. koilos, hollow, 
and rhungchos, a beak), a genus of fossil sword-fishes. 

coequal, a. ko-e'kwdl (L. con, together, and equus, 
equal i, of the same rank, dignity, or power: n, one 
who is equal to another: coe'qually, ad. -II. 

coerce, v. koers 1 (L. con, together, and arceo, Idrive), 
to restrain by force; to compel: coer'cing, imp.: co- 
erced', pp. -erst': coer'cer, n. -sir, one who: coercion, 
n. -er'shun, compulsion: coer'cible, a. -sibl, that may 
or ought to be repressed : coer'cive, a. -siv, having 
power to restrain : coer'cively, ad. -II. 

coeternal, a. ko'etir'ndl (L. con, together, and 
aitemus, perpetual, everlasting), equallv eternal with 
another: coeval, a. -e'vdl (L. avum, an age), of the 
same age ; contemporaneous ; beginning to exist at 
the same time: co'exist', v. -egz-ist' (L. existo, I 
exist), to exist at the same time with another: co'- 
exist'ent, a. -ent, having existence at the same time 
with another : n. that which coexists with another : 
co'exist ence, n. -ens : coextensive, a. -eks-tcn'slo 
(L. ex, and tensum, to stretch), having the same ex- 

coflee, n. kof'fl (Ar. kawah; F. and Sp. cafe, 
coffee), a plant, a native of Caffa in Arabia, now ex- 
tensively cultivated in the W. Indies and elsewhere ; 
the seeds roasted and ground, an infusion of which is 
drunk as a beverage: coffee-pot, n. a pot in which 
ground coffee is infused. 

coffer, n. kof-fir (F. coffre ; It. cofano. a chest : 
AS. cof, a receptacle— see coffin), a chest or trunk ; 
a chest for containing money ; a square depres- 
sion between the modillions of a cornice, after- 
wards filled up with some ornament ; a hollow lodg- 
ment or trench across a dry moat : v. to treasure up : 
coffering, imp.: coffered, pp. -fird: coffer-dam, n. 
a wooden inclosure formed in the bed of a river, con- 
sisting of an outer and inner case, with clay packed in 
between them to exclude the water, used in laying 
foundations for the building of piers, &c. 

coffin, n. kof'fln (It. cofano, a chest : Gr. kophinos; 
L. cophinus, a basket: F. cqfin), the chest or box in 
which a dead human body is inclosed previous to 
burial; the conical paper-bag used by grocers ; the hol- 
low part of a horse's hoof ; the wooden frame surround- 
ing the imposing-stone of printers: v. to inclose in a 
coffin: coffining, imp.: coffined, pp. -find: coffin- 
less, a. without a coffin. 

cog, kog, prefix— see co. 

cog, n. kog (Ir. Gael, gogach, nodding, reeling : Sw. 
kugge, a prominence in an indented wheel : It. cocca, a 
notch), the tooth on the rim of a wheel ; a piece of 
deceit ; a trick : v. to furnish with cogs ; to obtain by 
flattering or wheedling ; to wheedle ; to cheat : cog'- 
ging, imp.: cogged, pp. kogd: cog-wheel, n. a wheel 
with teeth on the rim: to cog dice, to load them so 
that they shall fall in a particular direction. 

cog, n. kog (W. cwch, a kind of boat), a wooden 
vessel of a circular form for containing milk, broth, 
4c. ; a little boat. 

cogent, a. ko'-jent (L. cogens, driving together— from 
con, together, and ago, I drive), urgent; pressing on 
the mind; not easily resisted ; convincing: cogently, 
ad. -It: co'gency, n. -jensl, force or pressure on the 
mind; urgency. 

cogitate, v. koj'ltat (L. cogitatum, to think, to muse 
—from con, and agito, I put in motion : It. cogitare), 
to think; to meditate: coglta'ting, imp.: coglta- 
ted, pp.: cogitable, a. -tdbl, capable of being con- 
ceived, as a thought: cogitation, n. -tdshun, act 
of thinking: cogitative, a. -tiv, given to musing or 

cognac, n. kon'-ydk (after a town in France, where 
made), the best kind of French brandy— sometimes 
spelt cog'niac. 

cognate, a. kog'ndt (L. cognatus, connected by 
birth— from con, together, and natus, born: It. cog- 
nate: F. cogn-at), related or allied by blood ; proceed- 
ing from the same stock or family ; having relation 
to; allied : n. a male relation through the mother: 
cognation, n. -nd'-shun, descent from the same origin ; 

cognition, n. kog-nlsh'wx (L. cognitio, knowledge — 
from con, together, and nosco, I know: It. cognizionc: 
F. cognition), knowledge from experience or inspec- 
tion : cognisable, a. kog'nl-zd-bl, or kon'-, that maybe 
heard, tried, and determined, as by a judge ; that falls 
or may fall under notice or observation : cog nisably, 
ad. -til: cognisance, n. kog'nlzdns, or kon'-, judicial 
notice or knowledge ; jurisdiction or right to try ; 
perception ; observation ; knowledge by recollection : 
cognisant, a. kog'-ni zant, or kon'-, having knowledge 
of : cognisee, n. kog'-nl-ze. or kon'-, in law, one to whom 
afineof landis acknowledged : cognisor, n. kog'ni-zor, 
or kon'-, one who acknowledges the right of the cog- 

cow.-, GO~y,fuot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




nisoe in a fine ; the defendant. Note.— The preceding 
words are sometimes spelt with z. 

cognomen, n. kog-no'men (L. cognomen, a surname 
—from con, together, and nomcn, a name), a surname : 
cognom inal, a. -nom'-hndl, pert, to the surname. 

cognosce, v. kog-nos' (h. cognoscere, to examine, to in- 
vestigate— from con, together, and nosccrc, to know : 
It. cognoscere), in Scotch law, to inquire intoa matter ; 
to investigate into the facts of a case : cognoscing, 
imp.: cognosced', pp. -nost': cognosc'ible, a. -l-bl, 
capable of being known or made the object of know- 
ledge : cognosc'ibil'ity, n. -bU'l-tl, quality of being 

cognoscenti, n. plu. kdg'-nds-sSn'H or ko'-nosh-shen'tl 
(It.), persons possessing a knowledge of the essential 
beauties of works of art. 

cognovit, n. kog-nO'-vU (L. he has acknowledged), in 
law, an acknowledgment of the plaintiff's claim by 
the defendant, authorising thereby judgment and 
execution against himself. 

cohabit, v. ko-hdb'tt (L. con, together, and habito, 
I dwell), to live together as husband and wife, usually 
applied to a man and woman without marriage : co- 
hab iting, imp. : n. the act of dwelling together : 
cohabited, pp. : cohab ita'tion, n. -td'shun. 

coheir, n. kodr' (L. con, together, and hceres, an 
heir), one who inherits along with another. 

cohere, v. ko-her 1 (L. cohcerere, to be connected— 
from con, together, and hocreo, I stick or cleave ; 
ficesum, to stick), to stick together; to be well con- 
nected; to depend on; to agree or suit: cohering, 
imp.: cohered', pp. -herd': cohe'rent, a. -he- rent, 
sticking together ; related in some form or order ; 
consistent ; having a due agreement of parts : cohe- 
rently, ad. -li: coherence, n. -reus, or cohe'rency, 
n. -rin-sl, union of parts of the same body; the 
uniting of two bodies by attraction ; consistency : 
cohesion, n. -he'-zhun (F. cohesion), the act of sticking 
together; that power of attraction which unites the 
particles of matter and preserves the forms of bodies : 
cohesive, a. -zlv, that has the power of sticking: 
cohe'sively, ad. -II: cohe'siveness, n. the quality of 
being cohesive or sticking together. 

cohort, n. ko'hort (L. cohors, a place inclosed, a com- 
pany of soldiers— gen. cohortis: It. corte: F. cour), 
among the anc. Rom., a body of soldiers varying 
from 420 to 600 ; a body of soldiers. 

coif, n. kdyf (F. coiffe, a hood or cap: It. cuffia: 
mod. Gr. skouphia; Ax. kuflyah, a head-kerchief), a ^caul 
or cap ; a cap to cover a baldness ; the distinguishing 
badge of a sergeant-at-law : v. to cover or dress with 
a coif: coifing, imp.: coifed, pp. kdyft: coiffure, n. 
kifpf-wr, a head-dress. 

coil, n. kdyl (It. cogliere; Sp. coger; L. colligere, to 
gather), a rope gathered into a circular heap : v. to 
gather or wind into a circular heap, as a rope or ser- 
pent: coiling, imp. : coiled, pp. kdyld. 

coin, n. ko'yn (L. cuneus, a wedge,' the steel die -with 
which money is stamped, probably from the stamp- 
ing having once been effected by a wedge: Sp. cuna, 
a wedge; cuno, a die for coining: F. coin, a wedge, 
a die), a piece of gold, silver, or copper stamped ; 
money : v. to make money of metal ; to make, as to 
coin a word; to forge or fabricate: coining, imp. : 
n. the act of making money out of a metal : corned, pp. 
koynd : adj. stamped as coin: coin'er, n. one who ; a 
maker of base money: coin'age, n. -aj, the money 
coined ; the metallic currency ; new production ; in- 

coincide, v. ko'ln-svl' (L. co, and incidere, to fall 
into— from in, in or on, and cado, I fall : F. coincider), 
to fall or meet in the same point ; to concur or agree : 
co'inci'ding, imp. : co'inci ded, pp. : co inci'der, n. 
one who : coincident, a. -sl-d6nt, falling on or meet- 
ing at the same point ; concurrent ; agreeable to : 
coin'cidence, n. -si-dens, the falling on or meeting of 
two or more lines, surfaces, or bodies at the same 
point ; concurrence ; agreement ; a happening at the 
same time : coin'cidently, ad. -II. 

coir, n. kwdyr (Tamil, cuyer, a rope of any kind), 
cocoa-nut fibre for ropes or matting. 

coit, kdyt—see quoit. 

coition,' n. ko-lsh'-tln (L. coitio, a coming or meet- 
ing together— gen. coitionis— from con, and itum, to 
go), a going or coming together ; sexual intercourse. 

coke, n. kok (old Eng. colke, the core of an apple, the 
remnant of a thing when the virtue is taken out of it : 
Gael, caoch, empty), coal charred or half burnt in kilns 
or ovens— see charcoal: v. to char or half burn: co- 

king, imp.: coked, pp. kokt: coke-oven, n. a building 
of brick or clay in which coals are charred or made 
into coke. 

col, kol, one of the forms of the prefix con, which 

colander, n. kul'dn-dcr (L. colons, straining or filter- 
ing), a vessel of tin or earthenware with a perforated 
bottom ; a sieve : also spelt cullender. 

colchicum, n. kol'chi-kum (L.), a plant called mea- 
dow-saffron, whose seeds and underground stem are 
used in medicine : col'chicine, n. -sin, also col'chica, 
-kd, a peculiar principle obtained from colchicum. 

colcothar, n. kol'kothcr (new L.), the brown-red 
peroxide of iron, produced by calcining sulphate of 
iron, used for polishing glass, &c. 

cold, a. kohl (Goth, kalds, cold : Icel. kala, to blow 
cold : Ger. kalt, cool), not warm or hot ; frigid ; indif- 
ferent ; without zeal ; without affection ; wanting in 
animation : n. the sensation or feeling produced by 
the want or loss of heat ; a disease contracted from 
improper exposure of the person to atmospheric 
changes ; a shivering or chilliness : colded, pp. a. 
kold'ed, affected with cold: coldish, a. -ish, some- 
what cold: coldly, ad. -II, with indifference; not 
warmly: cold'ness, n. : cold-shoulder, n. neglect: 
cold-biooded, a. without feeling or concern; in zooL, 
applied to all animals below the class of birds : cold- 
hearted, a. wanting feeling or passion. 

cole, n. Ao7(AS. caicl; Dan. kaal, cole— fromL. caulis, 
the stem of a plant), the cabbage kind in general: 
cole-wort, -ivurt (AS. wyrt, root, plant), young cab- 

coleoptera, n. kol'e-op'ter-d (Gr. koleos, a sheath, 
and pteron, a wing), a class of insects having an out- 
side horny covering or sheath, as among the beetles : 
col'eop'teral, a. pert, to; also coleopterous, a. -&s: 
col'eorhi'za, n. -orl'zd (Gr. rhiza, a root), the sheath 
which covers the young rootlets of monocotyledonous 

colic, n. kdl'-lk (L. colicus; Gr. kolikos, pert, to the 
colic — from Gr. kolon, the largest of the intestines), a 
severe pain in the stomach or bowels : adj. affecting 
the bowels: colicky, a. kol'i-kl, pert. to. 

Coliseum, n. kol'l-se'-um, also Col'osse'um, kdl'os- 
(L. colosseus, of a gigantic size), the amphitheatre of 
the Emperor Vespasian at Rome ; a large building for 

collaborator, n. kol-ldb'd-rd'ter (F. collaborateur 
— from L. con, together, and laborare, to labour), 
one who assists in labour, usually literary or scien- 
tific ; frequently used in the F. form, collaborateur', 

collapse, n. kol-ldps' (L. collapsus, fallen in ruins— 
from con, together, and lapsus, fallen), a falling in or 
together ; extreme depression of the bodily energies : 
V. to fall inwards or together; to close by falling to- 
gether: collapsing, imp.: collapsed', pp. -lapst'. 

collar, n. kol'ler (L. collum, the neck: It. collo), 
something worn round the neck; that part of the 
harness which goes round the neck of a horse or other 
animal used as a beast of burden; in arch., a ring: 
v. to catch hold of one by anything round the neck; 
to roll up flesh meat and bind it with cord : collaring, 
imp.: collared, pp. -lerd: adj. seized by the collar; 
rolled together, as beef or pork : collar-bone, n. bone 
on each side of the neck ; the clavicle. 

collate, v. kol-ldf (L. collatus, brought or carried 
together— from con, and latas, carried), to bring or lay 
together for the purpose of comparison ; to bring to- 
gether and compare MSS. or books ; to bestow a bene- 
fice on a clergyman ; to gather and place in order; to 
place in a benefice, said of a bishop: collating, imp. : 
colla'ted, pp.: collator, n. one who: colla'table, a. 
■td-bl : colla'tion, n. -Id'shiin, the comparing of MSS. 
or books with others of the same kind for correction 
of errors. &c; presentation to a benefice by a bishop ; 
a repast between full meals : colla'tive, a. -la'/iv, pert, 
to an advowson ; able to confer or bestow : collateral, 
a. -Idt'&r-dl, side by side, or on the side ; running 
parallel ; happening or coming together in connection 
with an event, as collateral circumstances; in addi- 
tion to, or over and above ; not direct or immediate; 
descended from a common ancestor or stock — opposed 
to lineal: collaterally, ad. -li: collat'eralness, n. 

colleague, n. kol'leg (L. collega, a partner in office: 
Icel. lag, society: It. collega: F. colleguc), a partner or 
associate in the same office or employment— never 
used of partners in trade or manufactures : v. kdl-leg", 
to join or unite with in the same office or for the same 

mdte, m&t.fdr, law; mete, met, Mr; pine, pin; nCte, n6t, mCve; 




purpose : colleagu'ing, imp. : colleagued', pp. -Ugd': 
col'leagueship, n. 

collect, n. kol-lekt (L. collecta, a contribution; col- 
ledum, to gather together— from con, together, and 
tectum, to gather, to select), a short prayer adapted 
for a particular occasion: v. kol-lekt', to gather sepa- 
rate persons or things into one body or place ; to as- 
semble or bring together ; to gain by observation or 
research ; to infer as a consequence ; to recover from 
surprise: collec ting, imp. : collec'ted, pp.: adj. cool ; 
self-possessed: collectible, a. -Uk'-ti-bl, that may be 
gathered : collection, n. -shun, the act of gathering; 
an assemblage or crowd; a contribution; a sum 
gathered for a charitable purpose ; a book of extracts ; 
a selection of works in painting or scidpture not large 
enough to form a gallery ; a selection of prints with- 
out regard to number: collec'tedly, ad. -II: collec'- 
tedness, n. a composed state of mind ; recovery from 
surprise : collec tive, a. -tiv, gathered into a mass, 
sum, or body ; aggregate ; expressing a number or 
multitude united as one: collectively, ad. -B: col- 
lec'tiveness, n. : collec'tor, n. -lek'ter, one who collects 
or gathers : collec'torship, n. the office ; also collec- 
torate, n. -at: to collect one's self, to recover from 
surprise or embarrassment. 

college, n. kol'-lej (L. collegium, persons united by 
the same calling — from con, together, and lego, I 
choose : It. collegio : F. college), an assemblage or so- 
ciety of men possessing certain powers and rights, and 
engaged in some common employment or pursuit ; a 
number of persons engaged in literary studies ; the 
building where they meet or reside ; a university : 
colle'gian, n. -le'-jl-dn, a member of, or student in, a 
college : collegiate, a. -at, containing a college ; in- 
stituted after the manner of a college: collegiate 
church, a church built and endowed for a corporate 
body, having dean, canons, prebends, &c, like a cath- 
edral, but not a bishop's see; in Scotland, a church 
with two ministers of equal rank. 

collenchyma, n. kol-len'-kl-md (Gr. kolla, glue, and 
engchuma, a tissue), in hot., the substance lying be- 
tween and uniting cells. 

collet, n. koi'let (F. collet, a collar— from L. collum, 
the neck), the part of a ring in which a precious stone 
is set ; the neck or part of a plant that lies between 
the root and stem. 

colletio, a. kol-ldt'-lk (Gr. kolletikos; L. colleticus, 
sticking— from Gr. kolla, glue), having the property 
of gluing. 

collide, v. kollld' (L. collidere, to dash together — 
from con, together, and kedere, to strike forcibly: It. 
collidere), to strike or dash against each other: col- 
li'ding, imp. : collided, pp. : collision, n. kol-lizh'un, 
which see. 

collier, n. kol'-yer (from coal, which see). 

colligate, v. kol'll-gdt (L. colligatus, bound together 
—from con, together, and ligo, I bind), to bind or tie 
together: col liga'ting, imp. : colligated, pp. : col'li- 
ga'tion, n. -ga'shun, act of binding together ; that pro- 
cess in inductive philosophy by which a certain num- 
ber of facts are brought together for generalisation. 

collimation, n. k6l-ll-md'-shun{L. collineare, to direct 
In a straight line— from con, together, and linea, a line : 
F. collimation), the line of sight in the direction of any 
object; in the telescope, the line of sight passing 
through the centre of the object-glass and the centre 
of the cross-wires placed in the focus : collima tor, 
n. an instrument for determining the zenith-point. 

collision, n. kol-lizh'-un (L. collision, to dash to- 
gether—see collide), the act of striking together of two 
I hard bodies ; opposition ; interference. 

collocate, v. kol'-lo-kat (L. collocatum, to put or set 

i in a place — from con, together, and loco, I set or place : 

1 It. collocare: F. colloquer), to set or place; to station : 

collocating, imp. : collocated, pp. : collocation, n. 

' •ka'shiin, the act of placing. 

collodion, n. kol-lo'-dl-on (Gr. kolla, glue, and eidos, 
I resemblance), a solution of gun-cotton in ether : col'- 
loid, n. -lol/d, in chem., an inorganic compound hav- 
ing a gelatinous appearance: adj. resembling glue 
! or jelly. 

collop, n. kdl'lop (Dut. Hop; It. colpo, a blow: a 
lump representing the sound of a blow on a flat sur- 
face: Scot. Uad, a lump), a small slice of meat: 
mince-collops, n. plu. meat cut into very small 

colloquial, a. kol-lo'-kroi-dl (L. colloquium, a conver- 
sation, a discourse— from con, together, and loquor, I 
speak: It. colloquio: F. collogue), pert, to ordinary 

conversation: collo'quially, ad. -II: colloquialism, 
n. -izm, a form of expression in common use : col'lo- 
quist, n. kol'-lo-kivlst, a speaker in a dialogue : collo- 
quy, n. -kwi, conversation between two or more ; a 
conference ; dialogue : collo quialise', v. -dl-lzf, to ren- 
der colloquial. 

collude, v. kol-lOd' (L. colludere, to play or sport to- 
gether—from con, together, and ludere, to play, to 
mock: It. colludere: F. colluder), to play into each 
other's hands ; to conspire in a fraud ; to act in con- 
cert : collu'ding, imp. : colluded, pp. : collu'der, n. 
one who: collusion, n. -lo'zhun (L. collusum, to sport 
or play together), a secret agreement between two or 
more persons for some evil purpose, as to defraud any 
one: collusive, a. -zlv, deceitful; fraudulent: collu - 
sively, ad. -It, in a manner to defraud secretly: collu- 
siveness, n. : collu'sory, a. -zer-l, carrying on fraud 
by secret agreement. 

collum, n. kol'lUm (L. the neck), in tot., the part 
where the stem and root join, and termed the neck 
of a plant. 

colocynth, n. kdl-o-slnth (Gr. kolokunthis, the wild 
or purging gourd), the bitter apple of the druggists ; 
the fruit of a plant common in many districts of Asia 
and Europe : col ocyn'thine, n. -thin, the active medi- 
cinal principle of colocynth. 

cololites, n. plu. kol-6-llts (Gr. kolon, one of the in- 
testines, and lithos, a stone), in geol., a name given to 
certain intestinal-like masses and impressions. 

colon, n. ko'lon{L. colon; Gr. kolon, the largest of 
the intestines, a member: It. and F. colon), the 
largest of the intestines ; in writing or printing, the 
mark (:) chiefly used to separate theperfect clauses of a 
sentence, and which indicates a longer pause than a 
semi-colon (;), but a shorter one than a period (.). 

colonel, n. ker'-nel (F. colonel: It. colonnello: for- 
merly coronet— from L. corona, a crown), the chief 
officer of a regiment : lieutenant-colonel, the second 
officer in a regiment : colonelcy, n. -si, or colonel- 
ship, n. -ship, the rank or commission of a colonel. 

colonnade, n. kol'onad' (F.— from F. colonne; L. 
columna, a column: It. colonnata), a series or range of 
columns placed at certain intervals. 

colony, n. kdl'6-nl (L. colonia, an abode or dwelling: 
It. colonia: F. colonie), a body of persons sent out 
from their native country to a distant district, or a 
new country, in order to settle and cultivate it ; the 
country thus settled or planted: colonial, a. ko-lo- 
nl-dl, pert, to a colony: colonist, n. kol'-O-nist, an in- 
habitant of a colony: colonise, v. -nlz, to settle or 
plant a colony in ; to remove and settle in a country : 
col'oni'sing, imp. : colonised', pp. -nlzd': col'onisa'- 
tion, n. -nl-zd'shun, the act of planting with inhabi- 

colophon, n. kol'-o-fon (Gr. kolophon, summit, finish- 
ing-stroke), the device which formerly marked the 
conclusion of a book, and which contained the place 
and year of its publication. 

colophony, n. kol'-o-fon -l (first brought from Colo- 
phon in Ionia: Gr. kolophonia), a dark-coloured resin 
obtained from turpentine. 

colosseum, n. kol'os-si'-um,saxa<i as coliseum, which 

colossus, n. kd-los'-sfis (L. colossus; Gr. kolossos, a 
gigantic statue at Rhodes at the entrance of the port : 
It. colosso: F. colosse), a statue of gigantic size : colos'- 
sal, a. very large ; gigantic : colossean, a. col'ds-se'dn, 

colour, n. kiil'-er (L. color, colour: F. couleur: It. 
colore), the hue or appearance that a body presents to 
the eye; dye or tinge ; anything used to give or im- 
part colour to a body ; a paint ; appearance to the 
mind ; false show : plu. a flag, standard, or ensign : v. 
to alter or change the outward appearance of any body 
or substance ; to tinge ; to dye ; to give a specious 
appearance to ; to make plausible ; to blush : col'our- 
ing, imp.: n. the art of dyeing ; a specious appearance ; 
the manner of applying colours : coloured, pp. -erd : 
adj. shewing colour ; of African descent : coloureror 
col'ourist, n. one who: colourable, a. -d-ol, specious; 
plausible: col'ourably, ad. -Mi: colourless, a. desti- 
tute of colour; transparent: water-colours, colours 
mixed with gum-water or a size, and not with oil: 
colourman, one who prepares and sells colours : col- 
our-blindness, a disease or defect in the eyes through 
which individuals are unable to distinguish colours. 

colportage, n. kol'-por-tdj, also -tazh (F.— from L. 
collum, the neck, and portare, to carry), the trade of 
a hawker ; the system of distribution by colporteurs : 

cdto, bo~y,/obt; pure, Itud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




colporteur', n. 4tr* (F. ), <a hawker or pedlar ; in Fran re, 
a hawker of books and pamphlets ; one who travels 
about to distribute and sell religious books, 
colt, n. kolt (Sw. kult, a young boar, a stout boy), a 

young horse, usually limited to the male ; a young 
foolish fellow: colt'ish, a. -Ish, frisky: colt'ishly, ad. 
-II: colt's- foot, a medicinal herb. 

colter or coulter, n. kol'tir or h~>l'-ter (L. culter, a 
knife, the cutting part : akin to Sans, krit, to split : 
It. coltro: old F. coultre), the iron part in front of a 
plough with an edge that cuts the earth or sod. 

colubrine, a. kol'-il-brln (L. coluber, a serpent or 
adder: It. colubro), relating to serpents; cunning. 

Columbian, a. ko-lum'-bl-an (from Columbus, the 
discoverer of Amer.), pert, to the U.S. or to America : 
colum'bite, n. -6?/, a mineral of a greyish or brownish- 
black colour occurring in single crystals and in small 
crystalline masses, first discovered in Amer. : colum- 
bic, a. -bik, pert, to or produced from the metal co- 
lum'bium, -bl-um: colum'bate, n. -bat, a salt of co- 
lumbic acid. 

columbine, a. kdl'um-b'm (L. columba, a dove), pert, 
to a pigeon or dove ; dove colour : n. name of a plant ; 
the heroine in a pantomime, mistress of harlequin : 
col'umbar'y, n. -ber'-l, a pigeon-house. 

column, n. kol'um (L. columna, a round pillar: It. 
colonna -. F. colonne), a pillar or shaft used to adorn or 
support a building; any body pressing downwards 
perpendicularly on its base and of the same diameter 
as the base, as a column of water, air, or mercury ; a 
body of troops drawn up in deep files ; a division of the 
page of a book ; a perpendicular line of figures ; in 
hot., the solid body formed by the union of the styles 
and filaments in some plants : col'iimel'la, n. -&l'ld, in 
tot., the central axis round which the carpels of some 
fruits are arranged ; the central column in the spor- 
angia of mosses : columnar, a. ko-lurn'ner, formed in 
columns : n. the central pillar round which a spiral shell 
is wound ; in anat., the central part of the cochlea of 
the ear: columned, a -umd, adorned or provided 
with columns. 

colures, n. plu. ko-l6rs' (Gr. kolouros, dock-tailed— 
from kolouein, to cut, and oura, the tail), in astron., 
the two circles which pass through the four cardinal 
points of the ecliptic— the equinoctial and solstitial 

colza, n. kol'zd (F. colza, wild cabbage— from cole, 
which see), a variety of cabbage or rape whose seeds 
yield an oil, called colza-oil. 

com-, kom-, prefix, another form of con, which see. 

coma, n. ko'ma (Gr. koma, a deep sleep), lethargy ; 
a dozing ; a kind of stupor or propensity to sleep in 
certain diseases: comatose, a. kom'-a-toz', also com'- 
atous, a. -tus, excessively drowsy; dozing without 
natural sleep ; lethargic. 

coma, n. ko'md (Gr. tome, a head of hair), the stem 
of a plant terminating in a tuft or bush ; the hairy 
appearance that surrounds a comet : co'mate, a. -mat, 
hairy ; of a bushy appearance. 

comb, n. kOm (Icel. kambr; Ger. kamm), an instru- 
ment with teeth for arranging or cleansing the hair, 
also for preparing and cleaning wool or flax ; the crest 
of a cock ; the top or crest of a wave : v. to adjust, 
arrange, or clean with a comb : comb'ing, imp. : 
combed, pp. kornd .- comb'er, n. one who dresses wool ; 
among seamen, the crest of a wave, breaking with a 
white foam : comb'less, a. wanting a comb or a crest : 
combmaker, n. one who makes combs. 

comb, n. kom (AS. comb ; W. civm, a hollow, a val- 
ley), the collective mass of cells in which bees store 
their honey: comb, combe, or coomb, an upland 
valley, generally narrow and without a stream of 

combat, n. kiim-bdt (F. combattre, to fight— from L. 
con, together, and F. battre, to beat), a fight ; a contest 
by force ; a battle, conflict, or strife : v. to fight ; to 
struggle or contend with, for, or against: to act in 
opposition ; to oppose or resist : com 'bating, imp. : 
com'bated, pp.: com'batant, n. -tdnt, any person who 
fights ; a duellist ; a controversialist : com'bative, a. 
-tlv, disposed to fight or contend: comTjativeness, n. 
disposition or inclination to fight. 

combine, v. kom-bin' (F. combiner— from L. con, to- 
gether, and bini, two by two, double), to unite or join 
together two or more things ; to link closely together; 
to cause to unite or bring into union ; to unite, agree, 
or coalesce; to league together: combining, imp.: 
combined', pp. -bind': combiner, n. one who : combi'- 
nable, a. -nd-bl, that may or can be united : com'bina- 

mdte, mat, far, law; mete, met, 

tion,n. -M-nd'shun, close union or connection ; an inti- 
mate union of two or more persons or things to effect 
some purpose ; a union of particulars : chemical com- 
bination, the tendency of certain substances to unite 
and form a new substance. 

combustible, a. kdm-bus'tl-U (L. combustum, to 
wholly consume — from con, together, and ustum; 
Sans, ush, to burn : F. combustible), that will take 
fire and burn ; having the property of catching fire : 
n. a substance that will take fire and burn: com- 
bus'tibil'ity, n. -bil'l-tl, the quality of taking fire and 
burning; capacity of being burnt; combust'ion, n. 
-bi'ist'-ijun, a burning; the action of fire on bodies cap- 
able of being burnt ; the chemical combination of two 
or more bodies generally producing heat, and some- 
times both heat and light. 

come, v. kiim (AS. cuman; Ger. kommen, to come : 
Dut. komen, to come, to fall, to please), to draw near ; 
to move towards ; to arrive or reach ; to happen or 
fall out ; to advance and arrive at some state or con- 
dition; to sprout; to spring: com'ing, imp.: came, 
pt. kam, did come: come, pp.: com'er, n. one who: 
come'ly, a. -li, suitable; fitting; graceful; decent: 
adv. handsomely; gracefully: come'liness, n. fitness; 
suitableness ; beauty which excites respect : to come 
about, to fall out ; to happen ; to change : to come 
and go, to flicker; to change: to come at, to reach; 
to gain : to come in, to yield ; to become the fashion ; 
to obtain ; to accrue, as from an estate or from trade : 
to come near, to approach : to come of, to proceed, 
as from ancestors, or as an effect from a cause : to 
come off, to escape ; to get free ; to take place, as a 
race : to come on, to approach ; to make progress : to 
come out, to be made public ; to be introduced into 
general society ; to publish : to come over, to run 
over, as a liquid ; familiarly, to get the better of any 
one : to come round, to recover; to revive : to come 
short, to be insufficient : to come to one's self, to re- 
cover, as one's senses : to come to pass, to happen : 
to come up to, to amount to; to rise: to come upon, 
to invade; to attack: all comers, all persons indif- 
ferently. . 

comedy, n. kom'S-dl (L. comcedia; Gr. komoidia, a 
■village song— from Gr. komos, a merry-making, and 
ode, a poem : F. come'die), a representation by actors 
in a theatre of the light and trivial everyday occur- 
rences of life : come'dian, n. -e'dl-dn, an actor or player 
in comedy ; a writer of comedy. 

comely, a.— see come. 

comestible, a. kom-es'tl-M (F. comestible— from L. 
comestum, to eat, to consume), eatable: n. an article 
of solid food : comestibles, n. plu. eatables. 

comet, n. kom'et (L. cometes; Gr. kometes— from 
Gr. kome, hair: F. comtte: It. cometa), a hairy star; a 
celestial body accompanied with a train or tail of 
light : com'etary, a. -er-l, relating to a comet : comet- 
a'rium, n. -a'ri-iim, an instrument for explaining the 
revolutions of a comet: comet-like, a.: com'etog'ra- 
phy, n. -et-or/'rd-fi (Gr. grapho, I describe), a treatise 
about comets : com'etol'ogy, n. -St-61'o-ji (Gr. logos, 
a discourse), a discourse about comets. 

comfit, n. kiim -fit (F. conflt— from L. confectum, to 
prepare), a sweetmeat, generally restricted to a cara- 
way, coriander-seed, or almond, and suchlike, coated 
with sugar. 

comfort, n. kiim'fert (F. conforter, to comfort, to 
strengthen— from L. con, together, and fortis, strong), 
ease or rest either to body or mind ; support ; consola- 
tion; moderate enjoyment with ease: v. to console ; 
to strengthen; to encourage: com'forting, imp.: 
com'forted, pp.: comforter, n. -er, the person who, 
orthing which ; the Holy Spirit : com'fortable, a. -d-bl, 
being in a state of ease or moderate enjoyment; giv- 
ing comfort ; placing above want : com'fortably, ad. 
-bit: com'fortable'ness, n. -d-bl-nSs, the state of en- 
joying comfort : com'fortless, a. -16s, without any- 
thing to support or solace under misfortune or dis- 
tress : com'fortlessly, ad. -II : com'fortlessness, n. 

comic, a. kom'lk, also comical, a. -i-kdl(F. continue 
—from L. comicus, pert, to comedy— see comedy), 
relating to comedv ; raising mirth ; droll ; diverting : 
comically, ad. -II: com'icalness, n. : comicality, 
n. -kdl'l-ti, that which is comical or ludicrous. 

coming, a. kum'ing (see come), future; expected: 
n. arrival ; approach ; act of sprouting. 

comitia, n. plu. kdm-lsh't-d (L.), assemblies of the 
people in anc. Rome : comitlal, a. -al, relating to the 
popular assemblies of Rome. 

comity, n. kom'l-tl (F. comitd— from L. comitas, 

Mr; pine, pin; note, ndt, mCve; 




kindness, affability), courtesy; civility: in interna- 
tional law, acts of courtesy between nations and 

comma, n. kom'md (Gr. komma, a part cut off— from 
kopto, I cut), in written or printed compositions, the 
point (,) which is used to separate or point off phrases 
and imperfect clauses, and generally the simpler parts 
of a sentence, and which marks the shortest pause in 

command, n. kom-mdnd', or -mdnd' (L. con, and 
mando, I order), right, power, or authority over : an 
order or message with authority ; a naval or military 
force under the authority of a particular officer : v. to 
bid, order, or charge with authority; to govern or 
direct ; to have power over ; to have within the obser- 
vation of the eye: commanding, imp.: adj. fitted to 
impress or influence ; authoritative ; overlooking : 
command'ingly, ad. -II: commanded, pp.: comman- 
dant, n. kom-mdn'ddnt (F.), one in command of a fort 
or a body of troops: comman'dable, a. -dd-bl: com- 
man'datory, a. -dd-tir'l, having the force of a com- 
mand : commander, n. -der, one who ; the captain of 
a ship of war under a certain size, or an officer who 
ranks next above a lieutenant : command'ment, n. a 
law ; a precept ; one of the precepts of the Decalogue : 
comman'dery, n. -dert, the body of knights of any 
military order ; the estates and revenue of such order: 
commander-in-chief, in Great Britain, the military 
officer who has the command and direction of the land 
forces ; a generalissimo. 

commeasurable, a. kom-mezh'dbr-d-bl (L. con, and 
metior, I measure), having a common measure. 

commemorate, v. kom-rii&in'Orat (L. and It. com- 
memorare, to keep in mind — from L. con, together, 
and rnemor, mindful), to call to remembrance by a 
special act ; to do honour to the memory of an indi- 
vidual or some act of his ; to celebrate with honour 
some past event: commem'ora'ting, imp. : commem'o- 
ra'ted, pp.: commem'ora'tion, n. ->-d'shun, the act of 
calling to remembrance by some special act or solem- 
nity ; the act of honouring the memory of a person or 
an event : commem'ora tive, a. -tlv, also commem'o- 
rator'y, a. -rd-ter'i: serving or tending to preserve 
the remembrance of: commem'orable, a. -bl, worthy 
to be remembered. 

commence, v. kom-mSns' (F. commencer; It. comin- 
ciare, to begin), to begin ; to originate or enter upon ; 
to begin to be ; to perform the first act or part : com- 
menc'ing, imp.: commenced', pp. -menst': commence'- 
ment, n. -mint, beginning, rise, or origin ; first exist- 
ence; the great annual day at Cambridge on which 
degrees are conferred and prize essays read, &c. ; the 
similar day at Oxford is called "The Commemora- 

commend, v. kom-me'nd" (L. commendare, to commit 
to one's favour— from con, and mandare, to commit, 
to consign : It. commendare : F. commender), to praise ; 
to represent as worthy or suitable ; to speak in favour 
of; to intrust or give in charge: commending, imp.: 
commended, pp.: commend'er, n. one who : commen'- 
dable, a. -dd-bl, worthy of praise or approbation; 
laudable : commen'dably, ad. -bll : commen'dable- 
ness, n. -bl-nCs : com'menda'tion, n. -dd'shun, appro- 
bation or praise ; declaration of regard; eulogy: corn- 
men dator'y, a. -ter'-l, serving to commend ; contain- 
ing praise. 

commendam, n. kom-min'-ddm (L.— from commendo, 
I commit or intrust to), a vacant church living in- 
trusted to the charge of a qualified person till it can be 
supplied with an incumbent ; the holding of a vacant 
"benefice, or the intrusting of its revenues to another 
for a time : com'menda'tor, n. -da'-tir, one who holds 
a benefice for a time: commen'dator'y, a. -dater'l, 
holding in commendam. 

commensurate, a. kdm-mSn'sii-rat (L. con, and 
mensura, a measure), equal ; proportional ; having 
equal measure or extent : commensurate ly, ad. -ll: 
commen'surate'ness, n. : commen'surable, a. -su-rd-bl, 
having a common measure or extent ; reducible to a 
common measure : commen'surably, ad. -bit : com- 
men'surability, n. -rd-bll'i-tl, the capacity of being 
compared with another in measure, or of having a 
common measure : commen'sura'tion, n. -su-ra'shun, 
proportion in measure. 

comment, n. kom'-ment (L. commentare, to form in 
the mind, to ponder— from L. mens, the mind ; akin to 
Sans, root, man, to think), a note or remark intended 
to illustrate a writing, or explain a difficult passage 
in an author; that which explains or illustrates: v. 

kom-me'nt' or kom'-, to write notes to explain and 
illustrate the meaning of an author; to expound or 
explain: commenting, imp. : commented, pp. : com- 
mentary, n. kom'-men-ter'-i, an explanation or illus- 
tration of a difficult or obscure passage in an author ; 
a book of comments or notes ; a familiar historical 
narrative : commentate, v. kom'mentdt, to write com- 
ments or notes upon : com'menta'ting, imp. : com'- 
menta ted, pp. : com'menta'tor, n. -ta'-tor, one who 
writes notes to explain an author; an expositor or 
annotator : commen'tato rial, a. -td-to'riul, having 
or exhibiting the character of a commentator. 

commerce, n. kom'mers (L. commercium, trade, 
traffic— from con, and merx, goods, wares: It. com- 
mercio: F. commerce), trade; traffic; an interchange 
of productions and manufactures between nations or 
individuals; intercourse: commercial, a. kom-mir- 
shut, pert, to commerce or trade : commer'cially, ad. 

commination, n. kdm'mina'-shun (L. comminatio 
a threatening— from con, and minor, I threaten : F. 
commination), denunciation of punishment or ven- 
geance ; an office in the Church of England contain- 
ing a recital of God's threatenings, used only on Ash- 
Wednesday: commin'atory, a. -min'-d-ter-l, threaten- 

commingle, v. com-mlng'gl (L. con, and mingle), to 
mix together into one mass. 

comminute, v. kom'-ml-nut (L. comminutum, to 
separate into small parts— from con, and minuo, I 
lessen), to make small or fine ; to lessen in extent or 
duration ; to pulverise by pounding, &c— not applied 
to liquids : comminuting, imp. : com'minu'-ted, pp. 
made small ; reduced in amount or extent : com'minu'- 
tion, n. -shun, the act of reducing or lessening. 

commiserate, v. kvm-mlz'-er-at (L. commiseratns, 
commiserated, pitied— from con, and miseror, I pity : 
It. commiserare, to pity), to pity ; to have compassion 
on ; to sympathise with in distress ; to be sorry for : 
commis'era'ting, imp.: commiserated, pp.: commis'- 
era tor, n. one who pities : commiseration, n. -d'shiin, 
pity ; compassion ; sorrow for the distress of others : 
commis'era'tive, a. -a'-tlv, piteous; compassionate: 
commis'era'tively, ad. -II. 

commissary, n. kd7n'-mlsser'l{F. commissaire— from 
L. con, and missus, sent), one to whom is committed 
some duty or office ; a delegate ; an officer who has 
the charge of providing provisions, clothing, tents, 
transports, &c, for an army : com'missar'yship, n. the 
office of: com'missa'riat, n. -sd'ridt, in an army, the 
department or office of a commissary : com 'missa rial, 
a. pert, to a commissary : commissary-general, n. a 
chief officer of the commissariat department. 

commission, n. kom-mish'tln (L. commissiim, that 
which is intrusted — from con, and missum, to 
send: It. commissione; F. commission, a message, 
a commission), the act of doing or committing any- 
thing ; the state of acting by authority for another ; 
the fee allowed and paid to an agent for the sale of 
property or goods ; one or more persons appointed to 
perform certain duties ; a written warrant or autho- 
rity for exercising certain powers ; an order ; autho- 
rity given: v. to empower; to give authority to; to 
depute : commissi'oning, imp. : commissi'oned, pp. 
-und: commissi'oner, n. -un-ir, one who holds autho- 
rity for the doing of something: commission mer- 
chant, n. one who transacts business in buying and 
selling the goods of others, receiving for his re- 
muneration a certain rate per cent: to put a ship 
into commission, in the navy, to prepare a ship and 
put it into active service : to put the great seal into 
commission, to place it in the hands of certain per- 
sons till the appointment of a new lord chancellor. 
Note.— Any important secular office is placed in com- 
mission by intrusting certain persons with the dis- 
charge of its duties till a new appointment be made. 

commissure, n. kom-mlsh'oor (L. commissura, a 
knot, a joint— from con, and missus, sent: F. commis- 
sure: It. commessura), a joint or seam; the place 
where two bodies or their parts meet and unite; 
the point of union between two parts: commissural, 
a. kom-mtsh'db-rdl, pert to. 

commit, v. kom-mW (L. committere, to bring together 
in a contest, to trust— from con, and mittere, to send : 
It. commettere ; F. commettre, to commit), to intrust ; to 
put into the hands or power of another ; to send for 
confinement ; to deposit, as in the memory ; to do or 
effect ; to perpetrate ; to engage or pledge ; to refer, 
as to a committee: committing, imp.: committed, 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




pp.: commit'ter, n. one who: commit'tal, n., also 
commit'ment, n. a sending to prison ; an order for 
confinement in prison ; the act of referring to or in- 
trusting to; a doing or perpetration ; the act of pledg- 
ing or engaging: committee, kom-mlt'-te, a number 
of persons chosen to consider and manage any mat- 
ter: committeeship, n. : committee, n. kom'mlt-te", 
the person to whom the custody of an idiot, or a luna- 
tic, or his estate, is committed by the Lord Chancellor, 
who is called the committor. 

commix, v. kom-mlks' (L. commixtitm, to mingle to- 
gether—from con, and mixtum, to mix), to mingle or 
blend: commixture, n. -tilr, state of being mingled ; 
union in one mass ; incorporation. 

commode, n. kom-mod' (F. — see commodious), a 
small sideboard with drawers and shelves; a head- 
dress formerly worn by women ; a convenient article 
of bedroom furniture. 

commodious, a. kom-mo'dl-us (L. commodus, com- 
plete, suitable— from con, and modus, a measure, a 
manner : It. comodo : F. commode), convenient ; 
suitable; useful: commo'diously, ad. -ft: commo- 
diousness, n. convenience; suitableness for its pur- 
pose: commodity, n. kdm-mod'l-ti, anything that is 
useful; any object of commerce; anything that can 
be bought or sold, animals excepted ; goods ; wares ; 

commodore, n. kom'mo-dor' (Port, commcndador; 
F. commandeur, a governor or commander), the 
commander of a squadron or detachment of ships ; the 
senior captain of two or more ships of war cruising in 
company ; the leading ship in a fleet of merchantmen. 
common, a. kdm'-mon (L. communis, that which is 
common— from con, and munis, performing service 
or duty: It. commune: F. commun), belonging equally 
to more than one ; serving for the use of all ; usual or 
ordinary; without rank; not distinguished by supe- 
rior excellence; in gram., applied to nouns that are 
both masc. and fern. : n. a tract of ground belonging 
to no one in particular or open to the use of all : 
com'monly, ad. 41, usually : commonness, n. : in com- 
mon, in joint possession or use : common-law, unwrit- 
ten law binding by usage : common-sense, exercise of 
the judgment in relation to common or everyday 
matters, unaided by any art or system of rules : out 
of the common, unusual ; not common : common- 
council, the governing body of a city or corporate 
town: common-looking, a. having a plain ordinary 
appearance : commonplace, ordinary ; neither new 
nor striking: common place-book, a book in which 
things wished to be remembered are recorded and ar- 
ranged under general heads for ready reference: 
common measure, in arith., a number which will 
divide each of two or more numbers exactly: com- 
mon prayer, the liturgy of the Church of Eng- 
land: Common Pleas, -plez, one of the high courts 
of law held in Westminster Hall: com'monable, a. 
-d-bl, held in common: com'monage, n. -dj, the 
right of pasturing on a common ; the right of using 
anything in common with others: commonalty, 
n. -dl-tt, the common people; all classes and condi- 
tions of people below the rank of nobility: com- 
moner , n. -er, one under the rank of nobility ; a mem- 
ber of the House of Commons; a student of the 
second rank in the University of Oxford : com'mons, 
n. plu. -mom, in Great Britain, the lower House of 
Parliament whose members are elected by the people ; 
food provided at a common table : short-commons, 
insufficient fare ; stinted diet: Doctors' Commons, in 
London, a college for the professors of the civil law 
having a great registry of wills : com'monty, n. -mon- 
tl, in Scots law, land belonging to two or more per- 
sons, generally heath or moorland : common-weal, n. 
•wel (L. communis and weal), the public good : com- 
monwealth, n. -welth, the country in which a free and 
popular government exists; the whole body of the 
people in a country ; in Eng. Hist., the form of govern- 
ment established under Oliver Cromwell. 

commotion, n. kom-mo'shun (L. commotum, to put in 
violent motion— from con, and motum, to move : It. 
commovere), agitation ; disturbance ; tumult of people ; 
confused excitement ; disorder of mind. 

commune, n. kom'mun (F.— see common), in France, 
the name for a district of country: communal, a. 
kom-mu'ndl pert, to a commune. 

commune, v. k6m-mun'(lt. communicare, to impart, 
to share together: It. communicare; F. communi- 
quer—see common), to talk with particularly ; to con- 
verse with familiarly and intimately ; to confer ; to 

milte, mat, far, law; mite, mSt, 

have intercourse with one's self in meditation : com- 
mu'ning, imp. : communed', pp. -mund': communion, 
n. -mun'-yun (L. communio, mutual participation), 
familiar intercourse between two or more persons ; 
intimate intercourse or union ; concord ; a body of 
Christians who have the same tenets of belief and 
forms of worship ; the celebration of the Lord's Sup- 
per, or the partaking of it: commu'nicant, n. -ni- 
kdnt, one who partakes of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper : communicate, v. kom-mu'-nlkat, to impart ; 
to give to another; to reveal; to give, as informa- 
tion, &c; to partake of the Lord's Supper; to have 
a passage or entrance from one place to another; 
to have intercourse by words, &c. : commu'nica'ting, 
imp. : commu'nica'ted, pp. : communicator, n. one 
who : commu'nica'tion, n. -ka'shun, the act of impart- 
ing or making known ; intercourse by words, letters, 
or messages ; correspondence ; means of passing from 
one place to another: commu'nica'tive, a. -kd'tlv, dis- 
posed to impart or reveal ; unreserved : commu'nica'- 
tiveness,n. : communicatory, a. -ka'ter-l, imparting 
knowledge : commu'nicable, a. -kd-bl, capable of being 
imparted from one to another: commu'nicably, ad. 
■bll : commu'nicableness, n. : commu'nicabil'ity, n. 

communism, n. kom'mu-nlzm (F. commun, com- 
mon—see common), a state of things in which no 
separate rights of property exist, all property and 
substance being held in common ; socialism : com- 
mu'nist, n. one who advocates that all things should 
be common property: communistic, a. -nls'-tik, pert, 
to communism. 

community, n. kom-mu'nl-tl (L. communis, com- 
mon, ordinary— see common), a body of persons hav- 
ing common rights and privileges, or common inte- 
rests—generally limited in its application to the in- 
habitants of a city, town, or district, or to a society or 
profession ; the whole body of the people. 

commute, v. kom-mut' (L. commutare, to alter 
wholly— from con, together, and muto, I change : It. 
commutare), to put one thing in the place of another ; 
to mitigate ; to change a penalty or punishment to one 
less severe : commuting, imp. : commu'ted, pp. : 
com'muta'tion, n. -td'-shun, the giving of one thing for 
another ; the substitution of a less penalty or punish- 
ment for a greater: commu'table, a. -mu'ta-bl, that 
may be exchanged : commu tabil'ity, n. -bll'-l-ti, the 
capability of being exchanged one for another: com- 
mu'tative, a. -fd-tlv, relating to exchange : comma'- 
tatively, ad. -It 

comose, a. ko'-m6z{L. coma, hair), in bot., furnished 
with hairs, as the seeds of the willow ; hairy. 

compact, a. kom-pdkt' (L. compactus, pressed— from 
con, and pactus, driven in, agreed upon : It. compatto : 
F. compacte), firm; close; solid; dense; not diffuse: 
v. to press closely together ; to join firmly ; to make 
close: compacting, imp.: compac'ted, pp.: compac'- 
ter, n. one who : compac'tion, n. -pdk'shun, the act of 
making an agreement : compac'ture, n. -tur, a close 
union of parts : compactly, ad. -II : compact'ness, n. 
close union of parts ; firmness ; density: compac'tedly, 
ad. -ft: compac'tedness, n. : compact, n. kom-pdkt, &n 
agreement ; a mutual contract ; any agreement or 

company, n. kiim'pd-nl (F. compagnie, company: 
It. compagno, a comrade— from L. con, and panis, 
bread), a large or small number of persons met to- 
gether ; a party of persons assembled for social inter- 
course ; fellowship ; a number of persons united for 
the purposes of trade, &c. ; a firm ; the crew of a ship, 
including officers ; a division of soldiers in a foot regi- 
ment under a captain : to bear company, to go with ; to 
attend: to keep companywith.toassociate with; to go 
with as an intimate friend frequently or habitually : 
companion, n. kom-pan'yun, one who goes with an- 
other habitually as a friend ; an associate ; a comrade : 
compan'ionless, a. without a companion: compan- 
ionship, n. fellowship ; company : companionable, a. 
-d-bl, sociable ; agreeable ; having the capacity of 
being agreeable in company: compan'ionably, ad. 

compare, v. kom-pdr' (L. comparare, to couple things 
together for judgment—from con, and par, equal, 
like: It. comparare: F. comparer), to set or bring 
things together in order to ascertain wherein they 
agree and wherein they differ— the objects to be com- 
pared may be thought of or be actually present; to liken; 
to refer to as similar for the purpose of illustration ; 
to inflect an adjective: compa'ring, imp.: compared', 

her; pine, pin; note, not, mdve; 




pp. -pdrd': compa'rer, n. one who: comparable, a. 
kOiit'-jidr-d-bl, that may be compared: comparably, 
ad. -d-bli: comparative, a, kOm-par'-a-tlv, not positive 
or absolute; estimated by comparison; having the 
power of comparing ; in gram., an adjective inflected, 
expressing more or less: comparatively, ad. -ll: com- 
parison, n. -l-son, the act of comparing ; a considera- 
tion of the relations between persons or things in 
order to discover wherein they agree and wherein 
they differ; the inflection of an adjective to express 
more or less: comparates, n. kom'pd-ruts, in logic, 
the two tilings or objects capable of being compared. 

compartment, n. kom-pdrt'-mint (F. compart iim.tit 
—from L. con, together, and liars, a part or division), 
a division or separate part of a general design ; one of 
the divisions of a carriage, room, &c. 

compass, n. kum'pds IF. compos, a compass, around 
— from L. con, and passus, a step), grasp ; reach; space; 
extent ; the limit or boundary of anything— applied 
to anything that can be measured or limited ; a cir- 
cuit ; a circumference ; the magnetic needle or mari- 
ner's compass ; a guide ; a direction : com'passes, n. 
plu. -ez, an instrument with two legs for describing 
circles, &c. : v. to stretch roimd ; to inclose ; to encircle 
or surround ; to go or walk round ; to grasp or em- 
brace ; to accomplish; to plot; to contrive: com- 
passing, imp.: compassed, pp. -past: com'passless.a. 
without a guide : mariner's compass, so called because 
it goes through the whole circle of possible variations 
of direction between the points N. S. E. and W. : to 
compass an object, to go about it or to contrive it: to 
fetch a compass, to depart from the right line ; to ad- 
vance indirectly. 

compassion, n. kom-pdsh'-iin (It. compassione ; F. 
compassion, compassion— from L. con, and passus, 
suffered), sorrow excited by the distress or misfor- 
tunes of _ another; pity; sympathy; fellow-feeling: 
compas'sionate, a. -shim-at, inclined or disposed to 
compassion ; merciful ; pitiful ; having a tender heart : 
V. to pity; to commiserate: compassionating, imp.: 
compassionated, pp. : compas sionless, a. ; com- 
passionately, ad. -ll. 

compatible, a. kom-pdt'-l-bl (F. compatible; It. com- 
patibile, suitable, compatible— from L. con, and po- 
tior, I suffer), that may exist with ; suitable ; fit ; con- 
sistent with : compatibility, n. -bU'-l-tl, consistency; 
suitableness ; agreement : compatibly, ad. -l-bll. 

compatriot, n. kom-pa'-trlot (It. comjxitriota, com- 
patriot—from L. con, and patria, one's native coun- 
try), a fellow-patriot : adj. of the same country ; of 
like interests and feelings. 

compear, v. kom-per' (F. comparoir, to appear in 
law— from L. con, and pareo, I appear), in Scots law, 
to appear in a court by order, either in person or by 
counsel : compearing, imp. : compeared , pp. -perd" : 
compearance, n. -dns. 

compeer, n. kom-per' (Norm. F. compere— from con, 
and pa?-, equal), an equal; a companion or colleague. 

compel, v. horn-pel' (L. compellere, to drive or force 
together— from con, and pello, I drive : It. compellere), 
to force ; to oblige ; to constrain : compelling, imp. : 
compelled', pp. kompeld'.- compel ler, n. one who: 
compel lable, a. -la-bl, that may be forced: compel la- 
bly, ad. -la -bit. 

compendium, n. kom-pin'-dl-iim, also compend, n. 
kdm'-pend (L. compendium, a shortening: It. com- 
pendia: F. compendium), an abridgment; a sum- 
mary ; a book containing the substance of a larger 
work: compen'dious, a. -dials, short; concise; 
abridged: compen'diously, ad. -It; compendious- 
ness, n. 

compensate, v. kdm-pSn'-sdt (L. comimisatum, to 
counterbalance— from con, and penso, I weigh out 
carefully: It. compensare: F. compenser), to give 
equal value to ; to recompense ; to make amends for : 
compensating, imp. : compensated, pp. : compen- 
sation, n. kom'-pen-sa'-shun, amends; recompense; 
what is given to supply a loss or make good a defici- 
ency; satisfaction: compen'sative, a. -sd-tiv, also 
compensatory, a. -sd-ter'-l, making amends. 

compete, v. hdm-pef (L. competere, to strive after— 
from con, and peto, I seek: It. competere: F. corn- 
peter), to seek or strive for the same thing or position 
as another ; to strive to be equal : compe'ting, imp. : 
competed, pp.: competitor, n. -pet'-l-tor, one who 
competes: competition, n. kom'-pe-tlsh'xin, rivalry; 
strife for superiority; emulation: competitive, a. 
kom-pet'-l-tlv, in the way of competition; emulous: 
competitor y, a. -ter'-l, acting in competition : com- 

petent, a. hom-pi-tint (L. competent, fit, suitable), fit; 
suitable ; adequate ; able or qualified : in law, having 
power or right : competence, -tens, also competency, 
n. -ten'-sl, fitness; suitableness ; sufficiency; legal 
right or power : competently, ad. -ll. 

compile, v. kom-plV (F. compiler— from L. compil- 
are, to plunder, to rob— from con, and pilo, I pillage • 
It. compilare), to write or compose ; to select and put 
together for publication ; to collect and rearrange : 
compiling, imp. : compiled', pp. -pild' ■. compiler n 
one who : compilation, n. konvpl-la'shiui, a book com- 
piled; a selection from an author, or from different 

complacent, a. kom-pla'-sint (L. complacere, to be 
pleasing to several at the same time— from con, and 
placeo, I please : It. compiacere : F. complaire), civil ; 
agreeable ; having a desire or disposition to please : 
compla cence, n. -sins, also complacency, n. -sin-si, 
pleasure; satisfaction: cause of pleasure : compla- 
cential, a. kom'-pl&sihirSftfU, marked by complacence: 
com'placen'tially, ad. -ll, in an accommodating man- 
ner: complacently, ad. -pla-sent-ll, softly; in a com- 
placent manner. 

complain, v. kom-pldn' (F. complaindre— from L. 
con, and plangere, to beat one's breast in agony, to 
lament aloud), to utter expressions of grief, censure, 
resentment, uneasiness, or pain ; to murmur ; to find 
fault; to present an accusation against: complain '- 
ing, imp. : n. expression or act of complaint : com- 
plained', pp. -pland': complain er, n. one who: com- 
plainant, n. in toe, a prosecutor or plaintiff: com- 
plaint', n. -plant', expression of grief, regret, &c; mur- 
muring; fault-finding; a bodily ailment; a charge 
against any one or a thing, &c. : complain'ingly, ad. -ll. 

complaisant, a. kom'-pldzdnt' (F. complaisant, 
affable, courteous— from L. con, and placeo, I please, 
I delight), pleasing in manners ; courteous ; civil ; 
polite: com plaisant'ly, ad. -ll: com'plaisance', n. 
-zuns', desire of pleasing; civility. 

complement, n. kOm-plemint (L. complementum, 
that which fills up or completes— from con, and 
pleo, I fill: It. complemento: F. compliment), a filling 
up or completing ; that which is wanted to complete 
or fill up some quantity or thing; something added 
by way of ornament: com'plemen'tal, a. -min'-tal, 
also com'plemen'tary, a. -men'-ter-l, supplying a de- 
ficiency : com'plementlng, n. 

complete, a. komplet' (L. completum, to fill up— 
from con, and pleo, I fill : It. completo; F. complet, 
complete, entire), without a flaw ; perfect; not defec- 
tive ; finished ; concluded : v. to finish ; to perfect ; 
to accomplish : completing, imp. : comple'ted, pp. : 
comple'tion, n. -ple'-shun, act of completing; fulfil- 
ment: completely, ad. -ll: completeness, n. com- 
pletory, a. kom-ple'-ter-l. fulfilling: n. the evening; 
the compline of the Rom. Cath. Church. 

complex, a. kom'-pleks (L. complexus, entwined, en- 
circled—from con, and plexus, plaited, interwoven), 
intricate ; composed of two or more parts or things ; 
not simple ; difficult : complexly, ad. -ll: complexity, 
n. kom'pleks'-l-tl, state of being intricate. 

complexion, n. kom-plek'-shun (L. complexio, a com- 
bination, a connection : F. complexion, temper, dis- 
position), the hue or colour of the skin, particularly of 
the face ; colour of the whole skin ; natural tempera- 
ment or disposition of the body: complex lonal a 
pert, to : complexlonally, ad. -dill : complex'ioned) 
a. -shund, having a certain hue of skin or natural tem- 

compilable, compliant, &c— see comply. 

complicate, v. kom'-pll-kat (L. complicatum, to fold 
together— from con, and plico, I fold : It. complicare: 
F. compliquer), to fold and twist together ; to involve ; 
to entangle ; to make intricate ; to confuse : com'pli- 
ca'ting, imp. : complicated, pp. -ka'ted: com'plica'- 
tion.n. -ka-shun: complicate, a. intricate ; confused: 
com'plicately, ad. -ll: complicacy, n. -ka-sl, state of 
being intricate: com plica' tive, a, -ka'-tlv, tending to 
involve: complicity, n. k6m-plls'-l-tl, state of being 
an accomplice or sharer in guilt. 

compliment, n. kom'-pll-ment (L. complere, to fill up : 
It. complire, to accomplish : F. compliment), an ex- 
pression of civility, respect, or regard— used in this 
sense generally in the plu., as, my compliments to a 
friend; a present or favour bestowed : v. to flatter; 
to praise ; to congratulate ; to address with expres- 
sions of approbation, esteem, or respect : com'pli- 
men'ting, imp. : complimented, pp. : com'plimen'- 
ter, n. one who : com'plimen'tal, also com'plimen'- 

co~w, bo~y,foit; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




tary, a. -men'ter-X, containing or expressing civility, 
respect, or praise : com'plimen'taliy, ad. -tdl-ll. 

compline or complin, n. kom-plm (L. complere, to 
fill up or complete), the last division of the breviary 
of the R. Cath. Ch. ; the last prayer at night, so called 
because it fills up or closes the services of the day. 

comply, v. kom-pli' (F. compiler, to bend to: It. 
complire, to accomplish, to complete — from L. con, 
andpteo, I fill), to yield to; to fulfil or complete; to 
accord with ; to be obsequious to : comply'ing, imp. : 
adj. obsequious ; yielding : complied', pp. -plld' : 
compiler, n. one who: compilable, a. -d-bl: compli- 
ance, n. -tins, act of yielding; submission: compli- 
ably, ad. -till: compli'ant, a. -Ant, bending; yield- 
ing ; disposed to yield : compliantly, ad. -II, in a 
yielding manner. 

component, n. kom-pO'nSnt (L. componens, placing 
or laying together — from con, and pono, I place), a 
constituent part; an elementary part of a compound: 
adj. constituent ; helping to form a compound. 

comport, v. kom-port' (F. comporter, to bear, to 
behave— from L. con, and porto, I bear or carry), to 
agree with ; to suit ; to behave or conduct : comport'- 
ing, imp. : comported, pp. : comport'able, a. -d-bl. 

compose, v. kom-poz' (F. composer, to compose— 
from L. con, and positus, placed or set : It. composto, 
composed), to form one entire body or thing by join- 
ing together several individuals, things, or parts ; to 
write as an author ; to calm ; to quiet ; to place or dis- 
pose in proper form ; to set up types ; to form a piece 
of music : compo'sing, imp. : composed, pp. kom- 
pozd': adj. calm; sedate; tranquil; formed; contrib- 
uted: compo'sedly, ad. -II, sedately; calmly: com- 
po'sedness, n. : compo'ser, n. -po'-z&r, one who : com- 
position, n. kom'po-zlzh'-iin, the act of composing; 
the thing composed; any mass or body formed by 
combining together two or more substances; com- 
bining ideas or thoughts, arranging them in order, 
and committing them to writing ; a book written by 
an author ; any union, combination, or disposition of 
parts ; the payment of a part only of a debt in lieu of 
the full debt ; the sum so paid ; synthesis as opposed 
to analysis: composing-stick, n. a small instrument 
in which types are set : composite, a. kom'-poz-it, made 
up of parts; compound; in hot., having the struc- 
ture of the compositaj : composite order, in arch., the 
last of the five orders of columns, so called from its 
capital being made up of parts borrowed from the 
others: composite number, a number that can be 
measured or divided by other numbers greater than 
a unit or one: compositive, a. kom-poz'-l-tlv, able or 
tending to compound : compositor, n. -ter, among 
printers, one who sets types, and puts them into pages 
and forms. 

composite, n. plu. kom-poz'-X-te (L. compositus, put 
together, compounded), in bot., the largest natural 
order of plants, having their flowers arranged in dense 
heads, as in the daisy, the dandelion, the asters, <&c. 

compost, n. komtyost (L. con, and positus, put or 
placed : It. composto, a mixture), a mixture or com- 
position of various substances for fertilising land ; a 
kind of plaster or cement. 

composure, n. kom-po'-zhobr (see compose), a set- 
tled state of the mind; calmness; tranquillity; se- 

compound, n. kom'-pdivnd (L. componere, to set or 
place together— from con, and pono, I set or put : 
probably L. co?i, and pondus, a weight, a mass), a 
body formed by the union or mixture of two or more 
substances or parts: adj. composed of two or more 
substances; composed of several parts : compound, v. 
kom-pownd' , to mix or unite two or more substances 
into one body or mass ; to unite or combine ; to adjust ; 
to discharge, as a debt by composition; to come to 
terms: compounding, imp.: compounded, pp. : com- 
pound'er, n. one who discharges a debt by certain 
fixed payments, or by several payments: compound- 
able, a. -d-bl. 

comprehend, v. kom-prS-hBncl' (L. comprehendere, 
to lay or catch hold of— from con, and prehendo, I 
seize or grasp: It. comprendere -. F. comprendre), to 
comprise or include ; to contain in the mind ; to con- 
ceive; to understand: comprehend ing, imp.: com'- 
prehend'ed, pp. : com'prenen'sion, n. -hen'-shun, 
capacity of the mind to understand ; power of the 
understanding to receive ideas: com'prehen'sible, a. 
-hBn'-sl-bl, intelligible; that may be comprehended: 
com'prehen'sibly, ad. -sl-bll: com'prehen'sibleness, 
-sl-bl-nBs: comprehensive, a. -hen'-slv, embracing 

much; large; full; com'prehen'sively, ad. -slv-ll: 
comprehensiveness, n. 

compress, n. kom'-prSs (L. compressus, pressed to- 
gether — from con, and pressus, pressed, kept under : It. 
compresso), folds of soft linen cloth used to cover the 
dressings of wounds, &c, or to keep them in their 
proper place and defend them from the air : v. kom- 
pres', to crush or force into a smaller bulk ; to press 
together ; to bring within narrow limits ; to squeeze : 
compres'sing, imp. : compressed', pp. -prist: adj. in 
bot., flattened laterally or lengthwise: compressi'on, 
n. -presh'-un, the act of forcing into a narrower 
compass: compres'sible, a. -pres'-sX-bl, that may be 
squeezed into smaller bulk: compres'sibil'ity, n. 
-bil'l-ti, the quality of yielding to pressure : compres'- 
sive, a. -siv, having the power to compress: compres'- 
sor, n. -sir, that which serves to compress : compres- 
sure, n. -presh'-dbr, the act or force of bodies pressing 

comprise, v. kom-prlz' (F. compris, included— from 
L. comprehendere, to comprise, to include), to include 
within itself; to comprehend ; to contain or embrace: 
comprising, imp.: comprised', pp. -prizd': compri'sal, 
n. -prl'-zdl, the act of comprising. 

compromise, n. kom'-prO-miz' (F. compromis, agree- 
ment, treaty— from L. con, and promissus, a promise), 
an agreement between persons having a dispute, to 
settle their differences by mutual concessions; an 
arrangement of differences in a dispute : v. to arrange 
and settle differences by mutual agreement ; to agree ; 
to pledge or engage ; to put to hazard by some pre- 
vious act not to be recalled, as to compromise the 
honour of a nation : com promising, imp. : compro- 
mised', pp. -mlzd' -. com'promi'ser, n. -zer, n. one who. 

comptrol, v. kon-trol' (same as control, which see): 
comptroller, n. kon-trol'-ler, a regulator ; a superin- 
tendent ; a supervisor. 

compulsion, n. kom-pul'-shun (L. compulsus, driven 
together— from con, and pulsus, driven— see compel), 
the act of driving or urging by some kind of force ; 
constraint of will or action ; the state of being com- 
pelled: compulsive, a. -siv, able to compel; having 
power to compel or constrain by force : compulsively , 
ad. -It: compul'siveness, n.: compul'sory, a. -ser-i, 
not of choice ; not voluntary ; having the power to 
compel : compul'sorily, ad. -II. 

compunction, n. kdm-pungk'-shun (L. compunctio, a 
pricking— from con, and punctus, pricked or stung : 
It. compunzione : F. componction), grief, anguish, or 
remorse from a consciousness of guilt ; the sting of 
conscience ; repentance : compunc tionless, a. : com- 
punc'tive, a. -tlv, causing remorse : compunc'tious, a. 
■shiis, repentant ; full of remorse. 

compurgation, n. kom'- piir-gd'- shun (L. compurgo, I 
purify completely— from con, and 2Jurgo, I make clean), 
the practice of confirming any man's veracity by the 
testimony of another : com'purga'tor, n. one who. 

compute, v. kom-put (L. computare, to sum up, to 
reckon— from con, and putare, to think or reckon : It. 
comptdare -. F. compter), to number ; to count or 
reckon ; to throw together several sums or particulars 
in order to ascertain their collective value; to esti- 
mate; to calculate: computing, imp.: compu'ted, 
pp. : computer, n. one who : computable, a. -td-bl, that 
can be numbered or reckoned : com'puta tion, n. -id- 
shun, the act of computing or numbering ; the pro- 
cess by which the sum, quantity, or result of any num- 
ber of particulars may be ascertained. 

comrade, n. kom'-rdd (F. camerade, a companion: 
Sp. camerada), a mate ; an intimate companion ; an 
associate in occupation. 

con, kon (L. cum, with), a prefix, meaning together, 
with ; cow assumes the various forms of co, cog, col, 
com, cor, according to the commencing letter of the 
other part of the word of which it forms the prefix- 
see CO. 

con, k6n (a shortened form of the L. contra, against), 
the negative side of a question ; against ; used in 
the phrase pro and con, for and against. 

con, v. kon (AS. cunnan ; Goth, kunnan, to know : 
Sw. kunna, to be able), to fix in the mind by frequent 
repetition: con'ning, imp.: conned, pp. kond. 

concatenate, v. kon-kdt-B-ndt (L. con, together, and 
catenatus, chained, fettered; catena, a chain), to link 
together ; to unite in a series or chain, as links of a 
chain, or ideas in the mind depending on each other: 
concat'ena'ting, imp.: concat'ena'ted, pp.: concate- 
nation, n. -nd'shun, a series or successive order of 
things connected with or depending on each other. 

mdte mdt,Jdr, law; mCte, mBt, her; pine, pin; note, not, mQve; 




concave, a, kon'kav (L. concavus, completely hol- 
low— from con, and cavus, hollow : It. concuvo: F. con- 
cave), hollow : n. a hollow place scooped out ; the 
inner surface of any rounded or spherical body— the 
inside is called the concave surface, the outside the 
convex surface: concavity, n. -kdv'4-tl, the inner 
surface of a rounded hollow body ; the hollow place 
or part in any body: concavo-concave, a. -ka'-vo, 
concave on both sides: concavo-convex, a. concave 
on one side and convex on the other : con'cavous, a. 
-kti-viis, hollow ; without angles : con'cavous'ly, ad. -II. 

conceal, v. kon-sel' (L. con, and celare, to hide), to 
keep out of sight ; to keep secret ; to cover ; to dis- 
guise; to dissemble: conceal'ing, imp.: concealed', 
pp. -seld': concealer, n. one who: conceal'able, a. 
-a-bl, that may be hid or kept close : conceal ment, n. 
a keeping close or secret ; the act of hiding or with- 
drawing from sight ; a place of hiding ; a secret place. 

concede, v. kon-sed' (L. concedere, to depart, to 
yield — from con, and cedere, to yield : It. concedere -. 
F. conceder), to yield ; to admit as true, just, or pro- 
per; to surrender: conce'ding, imp.: conceded, pp. 

conceit, n. kon-set' (It. concetto; F. concept, an imagi- 
nation, anything conceived : L. conceptual, to perceive, 
to jjecome pregnant), an opinion; a pleasant fancy; 
an affected expression or forced allusion; an imagina- 
tion of one's own importance: conceited, a. vain; 
full of self-esteem : conceitedly, ad. -li : conceit'ed- 
ness, n. vanity ; the state of being filled with too high 
an opinion of self : conceive, v. kon-sev', to form in 
the mind ; to imagine ; to understand or comprehend ; 
to think ; to receive into the womb ; to breed : con- 
ceiving, .imp. : conceived', pp. -seed' : conceiv'er, n. 
one who : concep tion, n. -sep'-shiin, the act of con- 
ceiving or being conceived ; image or idea in the 
mind; view, sentiment, or thought : conceivable, a. 
-a-bl, that may be understood or believed : conceiv- 
ably, ad. -bll: conceiv'ableness, n. 

concentrate, v. kon-sen'-trat or kOn'- (It. concen- 
trare ; F. concentrer, to meet in one centre— from L. con, 
and centrum, the middle point), to bring to one point ; 
to bring to a common centre ; to cause to come nearer 
to a common point or centre ; to increase the weight 
or specific gravity of a body: concentrating, imp.: 
concen'trated, pp.: con'centra'tion, n. -tra'shun, the 
act of bringing nearer together ; collection into one 
point or centre ; the act of reducing to a smaller bulk: 
concen'trative, a. -tlv, tending to condense or hold to- 
gether: concen'trativeness, n. in phren., one of the 
organs of the brain : concentre, v. kon-sen'-ter, to 
come to a point ; to bring to a centre : concen'tring, 
imp.: concen'tred, pp. -terd: concen'tric or concen- 
trical, a. -trlk or -trl-kdl, having a common centre, 
as circles or circular layers within each other : con- 
centriclty, n. -tris'-i-H. 

concept, n. kon'-sept (L. conceptum, the thing con- 
ceived—see conceit), object conceived by the mind ; 
mental representation: concep'tive, a. -sep'tlv, cap- 
able of conceiving ; active in conceiving : concep- 
tualism, n. -tu-al-lzm, in mental phil., the doctrine 
that conceptions are the only universals : concep- 
tualist, n. -a-llst, one who maintains that conceptions 
are the only universals. 

conception, n. k6n-s6p'-$hiin—see under conceit. 

conceptacle, n. kon-sep'-td-kl (L. concept aculum, that 
which serves for receiving), that in which anything is 
contained; in bot, a hollow sac containing a tuft or 
cluster of spores. 

concern, n. kon-serrt (F. concerner; It. concernere, 
to concern— from L. con, and cernere, to see, to sepa- 
rate), that which relates or belongs to one ; business, 
interest, or affair ; anxiety ; careful regard ; a busi- 
ness or those connected with it : v. to relate or belong 
to ; to interest or affect ; to be of importance to ; to 
take an interest in: concerning, imp.: concerned', 
pp. -serad'.- concernment, n.: concernedly, ad. -Sd-ll: 
concern'ing, prep, in regard to ; about ; relating to. 

concert, v. kon-sirt (It. concerto; F. concert, con- 
cert, agreement : L. con, and sertum, to join together, 
to interweave), to contrive and settle by mutual agree- 
ment ; to strive in union for a common purpose : con- 
certing, imp.: concert'ed, pp.: adj. planned by per- 
sons acting in union : con'cert, n. the union of two or 
more in effecting a common design or plan ; agree- 
ment in a scheme ; a number of performers playing or 
singing the same piece of music in harmony ; a musi- 
cal entertainment : con'cert-pitch, the elevation of a 
given note of an instrument, by which the other notes 
are regulated: concerto, n. (It), a musical composi- 

tion written for one principal instrument, with ac- 
companiments for a fidl orchestra: concertina, n. 
kon'-ser-te'-nd, a musical instr., so called from the har- 
monious richness of its tones. 

concession, n. kon-sesh'-un (L. concessio, an allow- 
ing, a granting— from con, and cessus, yielded: It. 
concessione : F. concessio?i), the act of yielding or con- 
ceding ; the thing yielded ; a grant ; acknowledgment 
by way of apology: concessionary, a. -er'-l, giving 
way to by indulgence; yielding: concessi'onist, n. 
one favourable to concession: conces'sive, a. -sis'-siv, 
implying concession: concessively, ad. -slv-ll: con- 
cessory, a. -ser-l, conceding; yielding. 

conch, n. kongk (L. concha, a shell : Gr. kongche : It. 
conca: F.conqut), a shell: conchifer.n. kong'-ki-fir (L. 
fcro, I bear or carry), an animal covered with a shell ; 
a bivalve : conchifera, n. plu. kongkif'er-a, or con - 
chifers, n. plu. an extensive class of bivalve shell-fish, 
including the oyster, the mussel, the cockle, and the 
scallop : conchif'erous, a. -its, producing or having 
shells: conchite, n.kong'-kxt, a fossil shell: conchitlc, 
a. -klt'Ui, composed of shells; containing shells in 
abundance : conchoi'dal, a. -koy'-dal (Gr. eidos, form), 
shell-like— applied to that peculiar fracture of rocks 
and minerals which exhibits concave and convex sur- 
faces resembling shells : conchoid, n. kong'-kdyd, a 
mathematical curve of a shell-like form : conchom'"eter, 
n. -kdm-6-ter (Gr. metron, a measure), an instrument 
for measuring the angle of the spires of shells : con- 
cho-spiral, a kind of spiral curve as seen in shells: 
conchol'ogy, n. -kol'-o-jl (Gr. logos, a discourse), the 
natural history of shells and their inhabitants : con- 
chol'ogist, n. -6-jlst, one who : con'chologlcal, a. 
■ko-loj'-i-kdl, pert, to: conchylaceous, a. kong-kl-ld' 
shiis, of or pert, to shells. 

concierge, n. kon'-sl-erj' (F.), a housekeeper; keeper 
of a prison or a palace. 

conciliate, v. kon-sll'-l-dt (L. conciliatum, to join 
together, to unite : It. conciliare: F. concilier), to win 
or gain, as the affections or goodwill ; to reconcile or 
bring to a state of friendship persons or parties for- 
merly at enmity or variance : concil la ting, imp. : 
conciliated, pp.: concil la'tor, n. one who: concil- 
ia'tion, n. -a'-shun, the act of gaming back favour, 
esteem, or affection : conciliatory, a. -ter'-i, tending 
to conciliate. 

concise, a. kon-sis' (L. concisus, cut off, brief— from 
con, and cacdo, I cut), brief; short ; comprehensive ; 
containing few words: concisely, ad. -li: concise- 
ness, n. brevity in speaking or writing: concision, n. 
-sish'-un, a cutting off; the Jews in the N. T. who ad- 
hered to the rites of the law. 

conclave, n. kon'klav (L. conclave, a room, a cham- 
ber—from con, and clavis, a key : It. and F. conclave), 
that which is locked up ; the meeting of cardinals for 
the election of a pope when they are shut up for that 
purpose ; any close assembly. 

conclude, v. kon-klOd' (L. concludere, to shut up; 
conclusus, shut up— from con, and claudo, I shut: It. 
concludere: F. conclure), to infer; to decide or deter- 
mine ; to close or finish ; to end ; to form an opinion : 
conclu'ding, imp : adj. final ; closing : conclu'ded, pp.: 
conclu'sion, n. -klo'-zhun, end ; close ; inference or 
consequence; final determination or judgment: con- 
clu'sive, a. -zlv, final; decisive: conclusively, ad. -II: 
conclu'siveness, n. the quality of being decisive. 

concoct, v. kon-kokt' (L. concoctio, digestion— from 
con, and coctum, to prepare by fire, to cook: F. con- 
coction), to digest, as food in the stomach ; to purify ; 
to refine ; to form and mature in the mind ; to plan 
or devise, as a scheme : concoc'ting, imp.: concocted, 
pp. : concoc'tion, n. ■kok'shun, the change which food 
undergoes in the stomach ; maturation by heat ; the 
process of purifying: concoc'ter, n. one who plans: 
concoc'tive, a. -tlv, having the power of digesting. 

concomitant, a. konkom'-l-tdnt (L. concomitans, 
attending— from con, and comitans, following, attend- 
ing: F. concomitant: It. concomitante), conjoined with; 
accompanying : n. an attendant ; that which accom- 
panies; a person or thing collaterally connected: con- 
comitantly, ad. -II: concomitance, n. -i-tdns, also 
concomltancy, n. -tdn-sl, the being conjoined with 
another thing. 

concord, n. kong'-kaurd (L. concordia, agreement — 
from con, and cor, the heart : It. concordia : F. Con- 
corde), agreement ; harmony ; union ; peace ; agree- 
ment or proper relation of words in a sentence ; har- 
mony of two or more sounds in music : concordance, 
n. -kor'ddns, an index or dictionary of the words and 

edit', bo~j,foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




phrases, and sometimes of passages, of the Scriptures, 
with the book, chap., and verse in which they occur: 
concor'dant, a. agreeing ; corresponding : concor- 
dantly, ad. -II: concor'dancy, n. -dan-si: concordat, 
n. kon-kor'-ddt, a treaty or compact between a sove- 
reign and the pope ; a convention. 

concourse, n. kong'-kOrs (L. concursus, a meeting 
together— from con, and cursum, to run : It. concorso : 
F. concours), a running together ; confluence ; an 
assembly of men or things. 

cdncrescence, n. kon-kres'Sns (L. concrescere, to grow 
strong— from con, and crescere, to grow), growth or 
increase; the act of growing by the spontaneous 
union of separate particles: concres'cible, a. -l-bl, 
capable of congealing. 

concrete, a. 'kong'kret{L. concretus, grown together, 
hardened— from con, and cretum, to grow: It. con- 
creto: F. concret), united in growth ; formed by mass- 
ing several things together; having a real existence ; 
not abstract, but applied to a subject— as white, ab- 
stract, tohiti -siit/nr, concrete: n. acompound; any mass 
formed of lime, sand, pebbles, &c. : v. kon-kret', to 
unite or form into one mass ; to congeal or grow hard : 
concre'ting, imp. : concre'ted, pp. : concretely, ad. 
•II: concrete'ness, n. : concre'tion, n. -kre'-shun, the 
act of growing together ; a mass formed by the union 
of various parts adhering to each other : concre'tive, 
a. -kre'-tlv, causing or tending to concrete: concre- 
tional, a. -kre-shun-dl, also concre'tionary, a. -shun- 
er-i, pert, to ; made up of concretions : concretionary 
deposits, in geol, chemically formed deposits, gener- 
ally arising from calcareous and silicious springs: 
concrete number, a number applied to a particular 
object — as three men, six months. 

concubine, n. kong'-kil-bln (L. concubina, a concu- 
bine—from con, and cubo, I lie down : It. concubina : F. 
concubine), a woman who lives with a man without 
being married ; an inferior wife : concu'binage, n. 
-bl-ndj, living together without marriage : concu'binal, 
a. -bl-ndl, pert. to. 

concupiscence, n. kon-kii- pis -sens (L. conr.upiscens, 
longing much for— from con, and cupio, I desire : It. 
concupiscenza ; F. concupiscence, lust), desire for un- 
lawful pleasure : concupiscent, a. lustful. 

concur, v. kon-ker 1 (L. concurrere, to run together — 
from con, and curro, I run : It. concorrere : F. concourir), 
to meet in the same point ; to agree or unite in action 
or opinion ; to combine ; to coincide : concurring, imp.: 
concurred', pp. -kurd': concur rent, a. -kur'rSnt, act- 
ing in conjunction; conjoined; united; associated: 
n. that which concurs ; contributory cause : concur- 
rently, ad. II: concurrence, n. -Sns, agreement or 
union in action or opinion ; consent. 

concussion, n. kon-kiish'-un (L. concussio, a shaking 
—from con, and quassum, to shake: It. concussione), 
the shock caused by two bodies coming into sudden 
and violent contact; state of being shaken ; agitation: 
concus'sive, a. -kus'siv, having the power or quality of 
shaking: concussed', pp. a. -kiist', shaken or driven. 

condemn, v. kdn-dSm' (L. condemnare, to condemn, 
to blame— from con, and damnare, to bring damage 
or loss upon: It. condennare: F. condamner), to pro- 
nounce guilty; to censure ; to blame; to sentence to 
punishment ; to declare to be unfit for use or service : 
condemning, imp. -dim'-lng-. condemned', pp. -demd': 
condem'nable, a. -nd-bl, that may be condemned; 
blamable : con'demna'tion, n. -na'-shun, the act of 
condemning; the act of declaring one guilty; the 
cause or reason for condemning: condem'natory, a. 
■nd-ter-l, tending to, or containing something worthy 
of censure. 

condense, v. kon-cUns' (L. condensare, to condense 
—from con, and densus, close, thick : It. condensare : 
F. condenser), to make more close, thick, or compact ; 
to make close by pressure ; to compress or reduce into 
a smaller compass; to grow or become thick: adj. 
thick ; close : conden'sing, imp. : condensed', pp. 
-de~ns?: condense'ly, ad. -II: conden'sity, n. -sl-tl: 
conden'ser, n. -sir, he or that which ; a vessel for con- 
densing vapour: conden'sable, a. -sd-bl, capable of 
being condensed : condensation, n. kon'-dSn-sd'shun, 
the act of making more, dense or compact. 

condescend, v. kon'-dc-sind' (L. con, and descendere, 
to descend : It. condescendere ; F. condescendre, to 
condescend), to do some act of courtesy or kindness 
to an inferior as if an equal ; to stoop or descend ; to 
submit; to yield: con'descend'ing.imp.: condescend - 
ed, pp. : con'descen sion, n. -sen-shim, a voluntary re- 
linquishment of rank ; courtesy : condescend ingly, 

mate, mdt,fdr, law; mete, met, 

ad. -IX: con'descen'dence, n. -dens, in Scot, law, a 
distinct written statement of the facts in dispute, to 
be laid before the court ; a written pleading. 

condign, a. kon-dm' (L. condignus, wholly deserv- 
ing: F. condigne, appropriate), deserved; merited — 
applied to punishment : condign'ly, ad. -II -. condign' - 
ness, n. : condig'nity, n. -dlg-ni-ti, merit ; desert. 

condiment, n. kon'-dl-ment (L. condimentum, sea- 
soning: It. condimento: F. condiment), seasoning for 
food; sauce; pickle. 

condition, n. kon-dlsh'-un (L. conditio, external 
position, situation : F. condition), a particular mode 
or state of being; a disposition of body or mind; order, 
rank, or quality ; terms of agreement ; something laid 
down as essential: conditi'onal, a. -un-dl, containing 
or depending on certain terms ; not absolute : con- 
ditionally, ad. -li: conditi'onal'ity, n. -dl'-l-H, the 
quality of being conditional or limited : conditioned, 
a. -und, having certain qualities— preceded by such, 
words as good, xuell, bad; in meta., having conditions 
or relations. 

condole, v. kon-dol' (L. con, and dolere, to grieve), 
to grieve with another in distress or misfortune ; to 
sympathise: condoling, imp. : condoled', pp. -dold': 
condo'lator'y, a. ld-ter'-i, expressing condolence : con- 
do'ler, n. one who: condole'ment, n. : condo'lence, 
n. -lens, grief or pain of mind excited and expressed 
by the distress or misfortunes of another. 

condor, n. kon-dor (Sp. condor), a large bird of prey— 
the vulture of S. Amer. 

conduce, v. kon-dus' (L. conducere, to bring or lead 
together— from con, and ducere, to lead : It. conducere : 
F. conduire), to lead or tend to ; to contribute : condu- 
cing, imp.: conduced', pp. -dusd'-. condu'cible.a. -sl-bl, 
leading or tending to: condu'cibly, ad. -bli: condu'- 
cibleness, n.: conducive, a. kon-du'-slv, that may con- 
tribute; having a tendency to promote: condu'cive- 
ness, n. the quality of tending to promote. 

conduct, n. kon'-dukt (L. conductum, to lead together 
—from con, and ductum, to lead: F. conduite, beha- 
viour), personal behaviour ; mode of life ; manage- 
ment ; guidance ; escort : v. kon-dukf, to bring along 
or guide ; to behave, as one's self ; to direct ; to 
point out the way ; to manage ; to lead or command ; 
to transmit : conducting, imp. : conduc'ted, pp. 
conduc'tor, n. masc, conduc'tress, fem. one who: 
conduc'tion, n. -shun, transmission through a con- 
ductor : conduc'tor, n. a body that receives and com- 
municates to another body electricity or heat ; a 
lightning-rod; conduc'tibil'ity, n. -ti-bil'-i-ti, capacity 
of receiving and transmitting : conduc'tive, a. -tiv, 
leading ; transmitting : conduc'tory, a. -ter-i, used in 

conduit, n. kun'-dlt or Icon', (F. conduit— from L. 
con, and ductum, to lead or conduct), a canal or pipe 
for the conveyance of water ; a channel ; a surface- 

conduplicate, a. kdn-du'-pU-kdt (L. con, and du- 
plico, I double), doubled ; folded upon itself. 

condyle, n. kon'-dil (Gr. kondulos, a knuckle, a 
knob), a rounded projection at the end of a bone ; a 
knuckle : con'dyloid, a. -dl-ldyd (Gr. eidos, form), re- 
sembling a condyle— generally applied to the projection 
by which the lower jaw is articulated with the head : 
condylope, n. kon'-dl-lop, also condylopod, n. kon-dll' 
o-pod (Gr. pous, a foot— gen. podos), articulated ani- 
mals with jointed legs, as a crab, a spider, a fly, &c. 

cone, n. k6n (L. conus, a figure like a sugar-loaf: Gr. 
konos: It. cono: F. cone), a figure broad and round at 
the bottom, gradually lessening in circumference, like 
a sugar-loaf; the fruit of the fir, pine, &c. : conic, a. 
kon'-lk, also conical, a. kon'-l-kal, having the form of a 
cone; cone-shaped: con'ically, ad. -II: conies, n. plu. 
kon'-lks, that part of geometry which treats of the pro- 
perties of conical figures and the curves which arise 
from their sections : conic sections, the curves formed 
by the intersections of a plane and a cone— viz., the 
parabola, the hyperbola, and the ellipse: coniferous, 
a. ko-nif'-er-us (L. fero, I carry), in bot., bearing cones : 
conifer, n. kon'-i-fer; plu. coniferse, kd-nif-er-e, trees 
or shrubs bearing cones, including the pine, fir, and 
juniper : coniform, a. kon'-l-fawrm (L. forma, a. 
shape), shaped like a cone : conoid, n. ko'-no~yd (Gr. 
eidos, a form), that which resembles a cone ; in math., 
a solid formed by the revolution of a conic section 
about its axis : adj., also conoi'dal, a. -ndy'-ddl, pert, 
to a conoid ; nearly conical : conoi'dic, a. -dlk, also 
conoi'dical, a. -dl-kdl, pert, to or like a conoid. 

coney, n. ko'-nl— see cony. 

her; pine, pin; note, not, mCve; 




confabulation, n. kon-fdb'-u-la'shun (L. con, and 
fabidor, I converse, I chat), familiar and easy con- 
versation: confabulate, v. -lot, to talk in an easy- 
unrestrained manner ; to chat : confab ula'ting, imp. : 
confab ula'ted, pp. : confab ulator'y, a. -ld-tir'-l, hav- 
ing the character of an easy ami familiar conversation : 
confab, n. kon-fdb', a familiar contraction of confabu- 

confect, v. kon-fekt' (L. confectio, a preparing, a 
composing— from con, and factum, to make), to pre- 
serve with sugar; to form into sweetmeats: n. kon' 
fekt, a sweetmeat : confecting, imp.: confec'ted.pp.: 
confec'tion, n. -fSk'-shun, anything prepared with 
sugar; a sweetmeat: confectioner, n. -er, one who 
makes sweetmeats : confec'tionery or -ary, n. -er-l, 
sweetmeats ; the art of preparing them. 

confederate, v. kdn-fid'er-at (L. con, and fide ratus, 
leagued together, confederate : F. confede'rer), to 
ally; to unite together in a league with others: n. a 
person or a nation united in a league with others ; 
an ally ; an accomplice : adj. united in a league ; allied 
by treaty: confederating, imp.: confederated, pp. 
confed'era'tion, n. -a'-shun, an agreement for mutual 
support ; a league ; an alliance : confederacy, n. -d-sl, 
persons, states, or nations united by a league ; a com- 
bination for any unlawful purpose. 

confer, v. kon-fer' (L. conferre, to bring or carry to- 
gether—from con, and ferre, to carry, to bring : It. 
conferire: F. conferer), to give or bestow; to consult 
together ; to converse ; to bring to or contribute : 
conferring, imp.: conferred, pp. kon- f era": con- 
ference, n. kdn'fer-fns, the act of conversing on any 
important subject ; a discussion between two or more 
for mutual instruction, as committees or delegates: 
confer'rer, n. one who. 

conferva, n. kon-fer'-vd, phi. confer'vse, -ve (L. con- 
ferva, a medicinal water-plant— from confervere, to 
boil up), in bot., fresh -water plants, consisting of 
slender-jointed green filaments : conferva ceous, a. 
-va'shus, pert, to the confervas : confer void, a. -wyd, 
in bot., formed of a single row of cells; having articu- 
lations like the conferva? : confer'vites, n. plu. -vlts, 
in geol., fossil plants, apparently allied to the aquatic 

confess, v. kon-fds' (L. confessus, fully or entirely 
acknowledged— from con, und fateor, I confess, I own: 
F. confesser; It. confessare, to confess), to admit or 
own ; to acknowledge, as a crime or fault ; to disclose 
or avow ; to admit or assent to as true ; to hear the 
confession of another, as a Roman Catholic priest does: 
confessing, imp. : confessed, pp. -fist' : adj. avowed; 
undenied; clear: confessi'on, n. -fesh'un, anything 
disclosed or acknowledged: confessedly, ad. -sed-li: 
confes'sant, n. one who confesses to a priest: confessi'- 
onal, n. -fesh'-un-dl, the place where a priest sits to 
hear confessions : confes'sor, n. a priest who hears con- 
fessions ; one who has borne persecution for his pro- 
fession of Christianity — one who suffers death for his 
religion is a martyr: confessi onary, a. er-l, pert, to 
confession to a priest. 

confide, v. kon-fid' (L. confidere, to trust confidently 
—from con, a,nd fidere, to trust: It. conjidare: F. con- 
fier), to trust ; to rely on ; to commit to the charge of; 
to believe in ; to deliver into the possession of another 
for safe keeping : confi'ding, imp. : adj. trusting; dis- 
posetfto put confidence in : confi'ded, pp. : confidence, 
n. kdn'-fi-dens, trust; reliance; security; boldness; 
courage; con'fident, a. -dewr, having full belief; trust- 
ing ; relying on one's own ability; positive ; impudent : 
n. one intrusted with secrets or important matters, as 
a servant or friend: confidant', n. masc, confidante', 
n. fem. -ddnt' (F.), a bosom-friend, chiefly in love affairs 
and the lighter matters of life : confidently, ad. -dent- 
il: confidential, a. -den'-shdl, spoken or written in 
confidence; trusty; faithful: con'fiden'tially, ad. -II: 
confi'der, n. -der, one who : confidingly, ad. -II. 

configure, v. kon-fig'-ur (L. configurare, to form in 
accordance with — from con, and figura, a form or 
shape : It. configurare), to dispose or form in a certain 
figure or shape : config'uring, imp. : config'ured, pp. 
-urd: config'ura'tion, n. -u-rd'-shmi, external form; 
shape or outline of a body ; aspects of the planets. 

confine, v. kon-fin' (L. confinis.- It. confine, border- 
ing on— from L. con, and finis, a boundary or limit : F. 
confiner. to restrain within a place), to restrain within 
limits; to imprison ; to shut up ; to be much at home 
or in retirement; to tie or make fast ; to bind : con- 
fining, imp. : confined, pp. kon-flnd' -. confiner, n. 
one who : confi'nable, a. -nd-bl, that may be limited : 

confine, a. kon 'fin, bordering on; adjacent: con'fineg, 
n. plu. joint limits ; adjacent parts ; boundaries : con- 
fine ment, n. restraint within limits; imprisonment; 
seclusion ; voluntary restraint in any way ; restraint 
by sickness— applied to a woman in childbirth. 

confirm, v. kon-ferm' (L. confirmare, to establish — 
from con, and firmare, to strengthen: It. confirmare: 
F. confirmer), to add strength to ; to fix or settle ; to 
assure or ratify ; to admit to full Christian privileges 
by the laying on of hands : confirming, imp. : confirm- 
ingly, ad. 41, in a manner to strengthen or make firm : 
confirmed', pp. -fermd': confirm'ator'y, a. -d-ter'-l, 
serving to confirm; affording additional proof: con- 
firm'er, n. one who: confirm'able, a. -d-bl, that may 
be established or made more firm: confirmation, n. 
kdn'-fer-md'-shiin, the act of fixing, settling, or making 
more certain; evidence; proof; convincing testimony; 
admission to full Christian communion by laying on 
of the hands of the bishop: confirmative, a. -d-tlv, 
having the power of confirming : confirm'atively, ad. 
-II: con'firma tor, n. -nutter, he that affirms or attests. 

confiscate, v. kon-f}s'kdt (L. coyifiscare, to transfer 
to the state treasury— from con, and fiscus, a basket, 
a money-bag: It. confiscare: F. confisquer), to for- 
feit to the public treasury, as the goods or estate of 
a rebel or traitor: confis'cating.imp. : confis'cated, 
pp. : con'fisca'tor, n. one who : confiscable, a. -kd-bl .- 
confiscation, n. -kd'shiin, the act of forfeiting or ad- 
judging to the public treasury: confiscatory, a. -fls- 
ka-ter'-l, having the character of confiscation; con- 
signing to forfeiture. 

conflagration, n. kon'-fld-grd'shun (L. conftagrare, 
to be on fire— from con, and fiagrare, to blaze : It. 
conftagrare), a great fire ; a burning of any great mass, 
as houses or a forest : con'flagra'tive, a. -tlv, causing 

conflict, n. kon'fiikt (L. conflirtus, a striking of one 
thing against another— from con, and flictus, a strik- 
ing or dashing against: It. conflitto: F. confiit), a 
dashing or striking together of two bodies ; acbntest ; 
a battle; strife; contention; distress; agony: v. kon- 
fllkt', to strike or dash against ; to strive or struggle 
together; to contend ; to fight: conflic'ting, imp.: 
conflic'ted, pp. : conflic'tive, a. -fiik'-tlv, tending to 

confluent, a. kon-flijd-ent (L. confluens, a flowing to- 
gether — from co?i, and fluens, flowing: It. confluente: 
F. confluent), flowing together; meeting; joining; 
running into each other and spreading: confluence, 
n. -ins, the junction or meeting together of two or 
more streams of water; the running together or 
crowding of people in a place : conflux, n. -fluks (L. 
fluxus, flowing, fluid), a flowing together; a crowd ; a 
multitude collected. 

conform, v. kon-fawrm' (L. conformare, to form, to 
shape— from con, and forma, shape : It. conformare : 
F. conformer), to comply with or yield to ; to act ac- 
cording to ; to comply with ; to make similar or like ; 
to reduce to a like form or shape ; to make agreeable 
to: conforming, imp.: conformed', pp. -fawrmd' : 
conformer, n. one who : conform'able, a. -d-bl, like; 
resembling ; corresponding ; suitable ; compliant ; 
in geol., applied to strata or groups of strata lying 
one above another in parallel order: conform 'ably, 
ad. -bll: conformation, n. kon'for-md'-shun, the act of 
conforming ; the particular make or construction of a 
body : conformist, n. one who conforms ; a member 
of an Established Church, as distinguished from a dis- 
senter or nonconformist : conformity, n. -l-tl, re- 
semblance ; correspondence or agreement in form or 
manner ; compliance with established forms, &c. 

confound, v. kon-foTvnd' (L. confundere, to mingle, 
to blend — from con, and fundere, to pour out : F. con- 
fondre: It. confondere), to mingle different things so 
that they cannot be distinguished ; to mix or blend ; 
to confuse or perplex ; to astonish or stupefy ; to cast 
down; to terrify; to dismay: confounding, imp.: 
confound'ed, pp. : confound'er, n. one who : con- 
foundedly, ad. -II, in familiar language, hatefully ; 

confraternity, n. kon'-frd-ter'-nl-tl (L. con, and fra- 
ternitas, brotherhood: It. confraternita: F. confra- 
ternite), a brotherhood ; a society or body of men— 
generally a religious one. 

confront, v. icon -f runt' (L. con, and frons, the fore- 
head, front : It. confrontare : F. confronted), to stand 
face to face; to set face to face; to oppose; to bring 
into the presence of: confronting, imp.: confront'ed, 
pp. : confront'er, n. one who. 

ccw, boij.fdbt; pure, Md; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




confuse, v. kon-ftiz' (L. confusus, disordered— from 
con, and fusus, poured out, diffused: It. confuso : F. 
con/us), to mix or disorder tilings so that they cannot 
be distinguished ; to render indistinct ; to perplex; to 
throw into disorder ; to agitate by surprise or shame : 
confu'sing, imp.: confused', pp. kon-fuzd' : confu'- 
sedly, ad. -Ju'-zid-ll: confu'sedness, n.: confu'sion, n. 
-fu'zhun, disorder; indistinctness; astonishment; 
distraction of mind. 

confute, v. kdn-filt' (L. confutare, to cool down, to 
repress— from con, and futum, a vessel to sprinkle 
water: It. confutare: F. confuter), to prove to be 
■wrong or false ; to convict of error by argument or 
proof: confuting, imp. : confuted, pp. : confu'ter, n. 
one who: confutable, a. -td-bl: con'futa'tion, n. 
-fd-td'shun, the act of disproving: confu'tant, n. one 
who confutes or undertakes to confute. 

conge, n. kong'zhd (F. leave), leave ; farewell ; part- 
ing ceremony ; bow : v. to take leave by a bow or 
other mark of civility or respect : con'geed, pp. -zhdd: 
conge d'elire, -dS-ler' (F. cong*, leave ; dire, to choose), 
the sovereign's permission to a dean and chapter to 
choose a bishop. 

congeal, v. kon-jel' (L. congelare, to congeal— from 
con, and gelu, frost: It. congelare: F. congeler), to 
change from a fluid to a solid state, as by cold or loss 
of heat ; to fix or stagnate ; to produce a sensation of 
cold or shivering by some external cause : congeal- 
ing, imp. : congealed', pp. -jeld': congeal'able, a. -d-bl, 
that can be thickened or made solid: con'gela'tion, 
n. -je-la'shiin, the act of converting a fluid into a solid, 
as by cold. 

congener, n. kon-je'ner (L. congener, of the same 
species or kind — from con, and genus, a kind: It. con- 
genere: F. conghiere), one of the same origin or kind: 
congen'erous, a. -jSn'er-us: con'gener'ic, a. -ji-ner'-ik, 
of the same kind or nature. 

congenial, a. kon-je'nl-dl (L. con, and genialis, jovi- 
al, genial ; genius, fondness for good living), adapted ; 
suitable; kindred; similar; belonging to the nature: 
congenially, ad. -II: conge 'nial'ity, n. -i-ti, suitable- 
ness ; state of being congenial. 

congenital, a. kdn-j&ri-l-tdl (L. congenitus, born to- 
gether—from con, and genitus, brought forth, pro- 
duced: It. congenita), of the same birth; born with 
another; existing from birth, as a disease or some de- 

conger, n.k$ng'ger(L. conger : It. congro : V.congre), 
■ a kind of sea-eel. 

congeries, n. plu. kon-je'ri-ez' (L. a heap, a pile— 
from con, and gero, I bear or bring), a collection of 
small particles or bodies forming one mass. 

congest, v. kdn-jgsf (L. congestus, pressed together— 
from con, and gestum, to carry: It. congestione ; F. 
congestion, congestion), to gather into a mass: con- 
jesting, imp. : congested, pp. : adj. containing an 
unnatural accumulation of blood: congestion, n. -yiin, 
a collection of blood or matter in any part of an 
■mimal body hardened into a mass or tumour : conges- 
tive, a. -tiv, tending to congestion. 

conglobate, a. kon'glo-bdt (L. conglobatum, to gather 
into a ball— from con, and globus, a ball : It. conglo- 
bare), formed or gathered into a ball; in anat., glob- 
ular: v. to form into a ball or hard round substance: 
con'globa'ted, pp. : con'globa'tion, n. -bd'shun. 

conglomerate, a. kon-glom'er-dt (L. conglomeratum, 
to roll together— from con, and glomerare, to wind into 
a ball: It. conglomerare: F. conglomerer), gathered 
together, as a ball of thread ; gathered into a mass : 
n. a sort of coarse rough rock composed of various 
substances, as pebbles of quartz, flints, &c — also 
called pudding-stone : v. to collect into a round mass : 
conglom'era'ting, imp. : conglomerated, pp. : con- 
glomeration, n. -d'shun, collection of various par- 
ticles of bodies into a mass. 

conglutinate, v. kon-glo'tl-ndt (L. conglutinatum, 
to unite firmly together— from con, and gluten, glue : 
It. conglutinare: F. conglutiner), to glue together; to 
heal a wound by uniting the parts by a tenacious 
substance ; to unite : conglu'tma'ting, imp. : con- 
glu'tina'ted, pp.: conglu'tina'tion, n. -nd'-shun: con- 
glu'tina'tive, a. -na'-tiv, having the power of uniting 
by means of a gluey substance: conglu'tina'tor, n. 
that which. 

congo, n. kong'gO, also congou (Chinese), a fine va- 
riety of black tea from China. 

congratulate, v. kon-grdt'-u-ldt (L. congratulates, 
wished joy warmly— from con, and gratulor, I wish 
joy: It. congratulare : F. congratuler), to profess one's 

joy to another on account of some event deemed 
happy or fortunate; to wish joy to another: congrat- 
ulating, imp. : congrat'ula ted, pp. : congrat'ula'- 
tion, n. -Id'-shun, the act of expressing joy or good 
wishes to another — commonly used in plural: con- 
grat'ula'tor, n. one who: congrat'ulator'y, a. -Id-ter'-l, 
expressing joy for the good fortune of another. 

congregate, v. kong'-gr6-gdt (L. congregatum, to col- 
lect into a flock — from con, and grex, a flock, a herd), to 
collect separate persons or things into one place ; to 
bring into a crowd; to assemble; to meet: congre- 
gating, imp. : congregated, pp. : congregation, n. 
■gd'shiin, an assembly of persons; a number of per- 
sons met for divine worship: con'grega'tional, a. 
-shiVii-i'tl, pert, to an assembly of persons : con'grega- 
tionalism, n. -izm, the system of church government 
in which each church or congregation claims com- 
plete control of its own affairs : con'grega'tionalist, 
n. -dl-ist, one who holds to the complete independ- 
ence of each church. 

congress, n. kong'grgs (L. congressus, a friendly 
meeting together— from con, and gressus, a step, a 
course: It. congresso F. congres), a meeting; an 
assembly of persons for the settlement of affairs 
between different states or countries ; the legislature 
of the United States of America : congressional, a. 
-gre^h'un-dl, pert, to a congress: congres'sive, a. 
-gres'-siv, coming together. 

congruent, a. kon'-groo-ent (L. congruentia, agree- 
ment, harmony: It. congruenza), suitable; agreeing; 
harmonious: con'gruence, n. -grdo-ens, agreement: 
con'gruous, a. -groo-us, accordant ; suitable ; consist- 
ent: con'gruously, ad. -li: congruity, n. kdn-grd'-l-tl, 
the relation of agreement between things; fitness; 

conia, n. ko-ni'-d, also coneine, n. kc'ne-in' (L. 
co?iium, hemlock), the poisonous alkaloid of the plant 

conic, con'ics, coniferous, &c— see under cone. 

conirosters, n. plu. kon'i-ros'ters (L. conus, a cone, 
and rostrum, a beak), a family of birds having strong 
bills more or less conical: con'iros'tral, a. -ros'-trdl, 
having a thick conical beak, as a crow. 

conjecture, n. kon-jek'tur (L. conjectura, an infer- 
ence, a conclusion — from con, and jactum, to throw : 
It. conjectura: F. conjecture), a guess; a supposition; 
an opinion formed on very slight evidence : v. to form 
an opinion by guess or on very slight evidence ; to 
surmise : conjee' turing, imp.: conjee tured, pp. -turd: 
conjec'turer, n. -tu-rer, one who : conjec'tural, a. -rdl, 
depending on a guess or on slight evidence : conjec- 
turally, ad. -li: conjec'turable, a. -tu-rd-bl. 

conjoin, v. kon-jdyn' (F. conjoindre, to conjoin— 
from L. con, and jango, I join or fasten), to unite ; to 
connect or associate : conjoining, imp. : conjoined', 
pp. -jo~ynd': conjoint', a. -joynt', united; connected: 
conjointly, ad. -II: conjoint'ness, n. 

conjugal, a. kon'joo-gdl (L. conjugalis, relating to 
marriage— from con, and jugum, a yoke or bond : It. 
conjugate: F. conjugal), pert, to marriage; matrimo- 
nial ; connubial : conjugally, ad. -li. 

conjugate, v. kon'job-gat (L. conjugatum, to unite — 
from con, and jugum, a yoke : It. conjugare), to unite; 
to exhibit a verb in all its principal parts ; to inflect a 
verb : n. a word agreeing in derivation with another 
word: adj. in bot., a pinnate leaf composed of a'single 
pair of leaflets: conjugating, imp. : con'juga'ted, pp: 
conjugation, n. -gd'-shun, in gram., the exhibition of 
the principal parts of a verb; in phys., the simplest 
form of reproduction, in which the union of two in- 
dividuals takes place : conjugate diameter, a diame- 
ter parallel to a tangent at the vertex of the primi- 
tive diameter. 

conjunct, a. kdn-junkf (L. conjunctum, to join 
together, to unite— from con, and junctum, to join, 
to couple), conjoined; united: conjunct'ly, ad. -II: 
conjunction, n. -jungk'shiin, union; connection; in 
astron., the meeting of two or more planets in the 
same part of the heavens, or in the direct line of the 
eye, as the moon with the sun at new moon ; in gram., 
a joining or connecting word: conjunc'tive, a. -tiv, 
serving to unite: conjunc'tively, ad. -ll: conjunc- 
tiveness, n. : conjuncture, n. -tur, a joining to- 
gether ; a combination or union, as of caiises ; an oc- 
casion ; a crisis. 

conjure, v. kon-j6r' (L. conjurare, to combine to- 
gether under an oath— from con, and jurare, to swear: 
F. conjurer), to call on or summon by a sacred name ; 
to implore solemnly : conju'ring, imp. : conjured', pp. 

mate, mdt,fdr, law; mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




-j6rd': conjure'ment, n.: con'jura'tion, n. -job-rd'shun, 
the act of using certain words or ceremonies in order 
to gain the assistance of a superior power ; the act of 
summoning in a sacred name : conjurer, n. konjo'-rer, 
one who summons in a sacred name : conju'ror, n. -jo- 
ror, one bound by oath with others: conjure, v. kiin' 
jer, to act in some manner by supernatural influence ; 
to practise magic arts : conjuring, imp. : con'jured, 
pp. -jerd: con'jurer, n. -er, one who pretends to the 
secret art of performing things supernatural ; a jug- 
gler ; a man of sagacity. 

connascence, n. kon-nds'sens (L. con, and nascens, 
being born, springing up; natus, born), a common 
birth or origin; act of growing together: connate, 
a. kon'ndt, born with another ; in but., applied to two 
leaves united by their bases: connat'ural, a. -ncit'-u- 
r&l, connected by nature or birth ; inherent : connat'- 
urally, ad. -ll. 

connect, v. kon-nekf (L. connectere, to bind or 
fasten together — from con, and necto, I tie, I bind), 
to tie or link together ; to knit or fasten together ; 
to join or unite ; to combine or associate ; to have 
a close relation: connecting, imp.: connected, 
pp. : connec'tedly, ad. -li: connective, a. -tiv, able to 
connect: n. that which joins: connection or con- 
nexion, n. -nek'-shiin, state of being joined or fasten- 
ed together ; union by an intervening substance ; rela- 
tion by blood or marriage ; a religious sect : n. plu. 
acquaintances ; business friends. Note. — By most 
writers the spelling connection (L. con, necto, I tie) 
and connexion (L. con, nexus, tied) are used indiffer- 
ently. As derived from the English verb connect and 
the Latin necto, the spelling connection should be pre- 
ferred to that of connexion. If, however, both forms 
are preserved, their application ought to be restricted, 
and they ought not to be made identical in significa- 
tion. As suggested by Dr Latham, the form (1) con- 
nection should be used when a link or bond of unio7i 
is meant; and (2) connexion when the object which is 
linked is signified— thus (1) connection, n. konnek' 
shiin, state of being fastened together; act of fastening 
together; junction by an intervening substance or 
medium; just relation to something precedent or 
subsequent ; coherence : (2) connexion, n. kon-nek'- 
shun, a relation by marriage or blood ; a religious sect 
or communion ; circle of persons with whom any one 
is in contact. 

connive, v. kon-nlv" (L. connivere, to wink or shut 
the eyes : F. conniver), to close the eyes upon the faults 
or wrong-doings of another ; to pretend ignorance of 
the faults of another ; to overlook a wrong act : con- 
ni'ving, imp.: connived', pp. -nlvd': conni ver, n. one 
who : conni'vance, n. -ni'vans, pretended ignorance of, 
or blindness to, the faults of others. 

connoisseur, n. kon'-nls-ser' {¥.), a good judge inthe 
fine arts; a knowing or skilful critic, especially ap- 
plied to painting and sculpture, &c. : con noisseur - 
ship, n. the office of. 

connote, v. kon-not' (L. con, and noto, I mark), to 
imply; to include; to betoken: connoting, imp.: 
conno'ted, pp.: connotation, n. kon'-nO-td'shun, the 
act of designating with something; implication; in- 
ference: conno'tative, a. -no'td-tlv, attributive. 

connubial, a. kbn-nu'-bl-dl (L. connubialis, pert to 
wedlock— from con, and nubo, I marry), pert, to mar- 
riage; nuptial. 

conoid and conoidal— see cone. 

conquer, v. kong'-ker (L. conquirere, to seek after 
earnestly — from con, and qucerere, to seek: It. con- 
quidere; F. conquerir, to conquer), to overcome by 
physical force, as an enemy in battle ; to vanquish ; 
to defeat ; to subdue by argument or by moral influ- 
ence ; to gain by perseverance or effort : con'quering, 
imp. : conquered, pp. -kerd : con'queror, n. one who 
has obtained a victory: con'querable, a. -d-bl, that 
may be overcome: con'quest, n. -kwest (old F. con- 
queste, conquest : L. conquisitus, sought out, selected), 
the act of overcoming by physical or moral force ; suc- 
cess in arms; the thing conquered. 

consanguineous, a. fedn'sdng-gtuin'i-us (L. consan- 
guineus. related by blood — from con, and sanguis, 
blood: It. consanguineo: F. consanguin), related by 
birth or blood; descended from the same parent or 
ancestor: con'sanguin'ity, n. -l-ti, relationship by 
blood ; descent from the same ancestor. 

conscience, n. kon'shens (L. conscientia, a knowing 
along with others— from con, and sciens, knowing: 
It. conscienza : F. conscience), self-knowledge or judg- 
ment of right and wrong; the power or faculty by 

which we judge of the rectitude or wickedness of our 
own actions ; justice ; real sentiment ; truth ; candour ; 
scruple : conscienceless, a.: con scien'tious, a, -shl-in'- 
shiis, regulated by conscience; scrupulous or exact, 
as in word or deed: conscientiously, ad. -li: con- 
scien'tiousness, n. a scrupulous regard to the decis- 
ions of conscience: conscious, a. -shiis (L. conscius, 
privy to), possessing the power of knowing one's own 
thoughts and actions ; having knowledge of anything 
without extraneous information; aware; sensible": 
consciously, ad. -ll: consciousness, n. the know- 
ledge of what passes in one's own mind : con scion- 
able, a. -shund-bl, according to conscience; reason- 
able; just: con'scionably, ad. -clbll: con scionable- 
ness, n. -db'l-nes. 

conscription, n. kon-skrip'shun (L. conso-iptio, a 
writing— from con, and script us, engraved or written: 
F. conscription), a forced enrolment of all males 
above a certain age for naval or military service, 
adopted in France and other Continental countries : 
conscript, n. kon'-skript, one drawn by lot from the 
enrolled list : adj. enrolled : conscript-fathers, sena- 
tors of anc. Rome. 

consecrate, v. kon'-sS-krdt (L. consecratum, to dedi- 
cate or devote to a deity— from con, and sacer, sacred : 
It. consecrare: F. consacrer), to make or declare sa- 
cred ; to set apart or dedicate to the service and wor- 
ship of God ; to render venerable or make respected : 
con'secra'ting, imp.: consecrated, pp.: con'secra- 
tor, n. one who : consecration, n. -krd'shi'tn, a sepa- 
ration from a common to a sacred use; the act of 
dedicating to the service of God : con'secra tory, a. 
-tcr-l, making sacred : con'secra tedness, n. 

consecution, n. kon'sekii'shun (L. consecutio, a con- 
sequence — from cow, and secutus, followed), a train 
of consequences from premises ; succession ; series 
of things that follow each other: consecutive, a. 
■sek'ii-tiv, following one another in regular order ; 
succeeding: consec utively, ad. -ll: consec utiveness, 
n. -n6s. 

consent, n. kon-slnf (L. consentire, to agree— from 
con, and sentii-e, to think, to feel : It consentire : F. 
consentir), a yielding of the mind or will to the pro- 
posals or conditions of another ; a conceding what 
may be withheld ; concurrence ; agreement : v. to 
yield ; to agree in mind and will ; to permit : con- 
sent ing, imp. : consent'ed, pp.: consent'er, n. one 
who : consen'tane ity, n. -td-ne'l-tl, mutual agree- 
ment: consentaneous, a.kon'-sen-td'nl-iis, agreeable; 
consistent with: consentaneously, ad. -li: consen- 
ta'neousness, n. : consentient, a. kon-sen'shl-ent, 
agreeing in mind : consent'ingly, ad. -Ing-ll. 

consequent, a. kon'-si-ku-ent (L. consequentia, a con- 
sequence—from con, and sequens, following : It. con- 
sequente; F. consequent, consequent), following as a 
natural effect: n. that which follows a cause; an 
effect : con'sequence, n. -kwens, that which naturally 
follows an effect ; an event or effect resulting from 
some preceding act or cause ; result or issue ; import- 
ance; influence; moment: con'sequently, ad. -li: 
consequential, a. -kwen'shdl, following as the ef- 
fect ; important ; conceited ; pompous : con'sequen'- 
tially, ad. -ll: in consequence, by means of; as the 
effect of. 

conserve, n. kon'serv (L. conservare, to keep thor- 
oughly — from con, and servare, to keep, to preserve : 
It. conservare: F. conserver), fruit crushed and pre- 
served among sugar ; jam ; any fruit or vegetable pre- 
served by sugar : v. koti-serv' to keep in sound or safe 
state ; to defend from injury ; to preserve fruits, &c, 
by means of sugar: conserving, imp.: conserved', 
pp. -s6rvd': conserVer, n. one who: conser'vable, a. 
-vd-bl, that maybe preserved from injury: conserva- 
tion, n. kon -ser-va'-sh fin , the keeping of a thing in a safe 
or entire state : conser vant, a. preserving ; having 
the power of preserving from decay : conser'vancy, 
n. -vdn-sl: conservative, a. -vd-tlv, able to preserve 
from loss, decay, or injury: n. that which preserves; 
in politics, one opposed to unwarranted or hasty 
changes in the state: conservatively, ad. -ll: con- 
ser'vativeness, n.: conser'vatism, n. -tizm, the prin- 
ciples and opinions of conservatives : con'serva'tor, 
n. -va'tor, an individual who has the charge of pre- 
serving anything, as the public peace, a museum, &c: 
conser vatory, n. -vd-ter-i, a place where anything is 
kept as nearly as possible in its natural state, as plants 
in a greenhouse, &c. ; a greenhouse : adj. having the 
quality of preserving from loss or decay : conserva- 
toire, n. kon-ser'va-twdr (F.), a public school of music. 

>,bo~y,fdot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, there, zeal. 




consider, v. kon-sld'er (L. considerare, to look at 
carefully: F. considcrer: It. considerare), to fix the 
mind on ; to think on with care ; to ponder ; to medi- 
tate on; to reflect; to deliberate : considering, imp. : 
considered, pp. -erd: consid'erable, a. -tr-d-bl, that 
may be considered ; important J valuable ; moderately 
large: consid'erably, ad. -d-bll: consid'erableness, n. 
db-l-nes: considerate, a. kon-sid'tr-dt, thoughtful; 
careful ; prudent ; having regard to : consid'erate'ly, 
ad. -II: consid'erate'ness.n.: consideration, n. -d- 
shun, mature thought ; reflection ; regard ; claim to 
notice ; that which induces to an agreement, as in a 
contract or bargain : considering, a. deliberative ; 
reflective : prep, taking into account ; making allow- 
ance for— as in the sentence, " It is not possible to act 
otherwise, considering the weakness of our nature " : 
consid'eringly, ad. -II. 

consign, v. Hon- sin' (L. consignare, to put one s seal 
to— from con, and signum, a seal or stamp : It. con- 
signare; F. consigner, to consign), to send, transfer, 
or deliver ; to commit or intrust to ; to intrust goods 
to another for sale : consigning, imp. : consigned', 
pp. -slnd' : consign'er, n. one who : consignment, n. 
the act of sending or committing for safe keeping or 
management ; goods sent for sale : consignee, n. kon- 
sl-ne", the person to whom goods are intrusted or 
sent for sale; afactor: consignor or -er, n. kon-sl'ner, 
he who consigns goods to others for sale, &c. 

consist, v. kon-slsf (L. consist ere, to make to stand 
—from con, and sistere, to cause to stand : It. con- 
sistere: F. consister), to be composed of ; to be _ made 
up of; to stand or be in: consisting, imp.: consisted, 
pp.: consistent, a. uniform; not contradictory or 
opposed"; "agreeing: consis'tently, ad. -II: consis'- 
tence, n. -sis' tens, also consistency, n. -ten-sl, degree 
of density or firmness of a body ; agreement or har- 
mony in all parts ; conduct in harmony with profes- 
sion : to consist with, to agree ; to be in accordance 

consistory, n. kon-sls'-ter-l (see consist), a spiritual 
court ; the court held by a bishop in his diocese for 
the trial of ecclesiastical causes ; the college of Cardi- 
nals at Rome ; a council or assembly of ministers and 
elders: con'sisto'rial, a. -to'ri-dl, pert, to: con'sisto'- 
rian, a. -to'rl-dn, relating to an order of Presbyterian 

console, n. kon'sol (F. console— from L. con, and 
solidiis, solid), an ornamental bracket carved in wood 
or stone for supporting a cornice ; an ornament, as on 
the key-stone of an arch ; a small fancy side-table. 

console, v. kon-sol' (L. consolari, to comfort greatly 
—from con, and solari, to comfort : It. consolare : F. 
consoler), to comfort ; to cheer the mind in distress or 
depression; to soothe: consoling, imp.: adj. adapted 
to console or comfort : consoled', pp. -sold': consoler, 
11. -Mr, one who: conso'lable, a. -ld-bl, that may be 
comforted : con'sola'tion, n. -Id'- shun, the act of com- 
forting, cheering, or soothing the mind ; refreshment 
of mind or spirits : consol'atory, a. -sol'd-ter-l, tend- 
ing to soothe or impart comfort. 

consolidate, v. kon-sol'-i-ddt (L. consolidatum, to 
make very solid— from con, and solidus, solid : It. 
consolidare: F. consolider), to form into a compact 
mass ; to make dense and firm ; to unite or combine 
into one ; to bring together separate parts, as of a 
broken bone ; to grow firm and hard : consolidating, 
imp. : consolidated, pp.: consolidation, n. -dd'-sh tin, 
the act of making firm or solid ; the act of uniting 
two or more parts or things into one : consolldant, 
n. -ddnt, a medicine that unites the parts of wounded 
flesh and heals: adj. having the quality of uniting 
wounds or forming new flesh : consollda'tive, a. -dd- 
tlv, having the quality of healing or rendering com- 

consols, n. phi. kon-solz' or kon'- (contr. from con- 
solidate), most of the large sums of money borrowed 
by the nation at various times on different terms con- 
solidated or brought together into one scheme, bear- 
ing the same rate of interest, 3 per cent, for which 
an act was passed in 1751— the whole public debts of 
the nation are called stocks. 

consonant, a. kon'sO-ndnt (L. consonans, a con- 
sonant—from con, and sono, I sound : It. consonante: 
F. consonnant), agreeing; according; consistent; 
suitable : n. a letter which cannot be sounded without 
a vowel: con'sonantly, ad. -II: consonance, n. -ndns, 
and con'sonan'cy, n. -ndn'sl, accord or agreement in 
sounds ; agreement ; consistency : con'sonants, n. 
plu. the letters of the alphabet which cannot he 

sounded, or but imperfectly, without the aid of the 
letters a, e, i, o, u, sometimes w, y, called vowels: 
con'sonous, a. -nus, agreeing in sound : con'sonan'tal, 
a. -ndn'tdl, pert, to a consonant. 

consort, n. kon'sort (L. consors, having an equal 
share with another— from con, and sors, lot, condi- 
tion : It. consorte ; F. consorts, partners), a companion 
or partner ; a wife or husband— applied to those in 
exalted station; union; one ship keeping company 
with another : v. kon- sort' ', to associate ; to keep com- 
pany with: consort'ing, imp.: consort'ed, pp.: con- 
sortship, n. 

conspicuous, a. kon-splk'u-us (L. conspicuus, that is 
or comes in view, visible— from con, and specio, I see : 
It. conspicuo), easy to be seen by the eye ; obvious to 
the mind; prominent; eminent: distinguished: con- 
spicuously, ad. -u-us-ll: conspic'uousness, n. open- 
ness to view ; extensively known and distinguished. 

conspire, v. kon-splr' (L. conspirare. to blow to- 
gether—from con, and spirare, to breathe, to blow: 
It. conspirare: F. conspirer), to band together to 
commit crime ; to plot ; to hatch treason ; to combine 
for an unlawful purpose ; to concur to one end : con- 
spi'ring, imp.: conspired', pp. -splrd': conspir'acy, n. 
-spir'u-sl, a plot; two or more persons engaged to- 
gether for an unlawful or evil purpose : conspirator, 
n. -ter, one who engages in a conspiracy: conspi'- 
ringly, ad. -spl'rlng-ll. 

constable, n. kiin'std-bl (L. comes stabuli, the atten- 
dant or count of the stable— hence master of the horse, 
whose duty it was to preserve public order: It. con- 
testabile, a constable), once a high officer of the Crown, 
now a peace-officer ; a policeman : con'stableship, n.: 
constablery, n. kon'std-bler'-i, the body or jurisdiction 
of constables : con'stablewick, n. -ivlk, the district to 
which a constable is limited : constabulary, a. -stdb; 
u-ler-l, pert, to or consisting of constables : n. the 
body of constables in a district : high constables, a 
standing body of citizens invested with special powers 
for preserving order: special constables, a body of 
citizens appointed to act on special emergencies. 

constant, a. kon'stdnt (L. constans, standing firm— 
from con, and stares, standing: It. costante: F. con- 
stant), firm; fixed; unchanged; steadfast; unchange- 
able, as in mind, purpose, affection, or principle ; de- 
termined; invariably the same: n. that which re- 
mains unchanged : constantly, ad. -II : constancy, 
n. -stdn-sl, fixedness ; unshaken determination ; last- 
ing affection. 

constellation, n. kon'sfel-ld'shiin (L. constellatio, a 
group of stars— from con, and stella, a star : F. constel- 
lation), a cluster or group of stars called by a particu- 
lar name ; an assemblage of beauties or excellencies. 
consternation, n. kdn'ster-na'shiin (L. consternatio, 
dismay, alarm — from con, and sternere, to throw 
clown, to prostrate: It. coster nazione: F. consterna- 
tion), amazement that produces confusion and terror; 
a state of horror that unfits for action ; excessive 
wonder or surprise. 

constipate, v. kon'stl-pdt (L. const 'ipatwn, to press 
closely together— from con, and stipare, to stuff or 
cram : It. costipare : F. constiper), to cram into a nar- 
row compass; to thicken; to crowd the intestinal 
canal; to make costive : con'stipa'ting, imp. : consti- 
pa'ted, pp. : con'stipa'tion, n. -pd'shun, the act of 
crowding or pressing anything into a smaller compass : 

constituent, a. kon-stlt'-u-gnt (L. constituens, putting 
or placing together— from con, and statuens, setting 
up: It. constituente : F. constituant), necessary or 
essential; elemental: n. an essential or component 
part: that which constitutes or composes; a voter 
for a member of Parliament: constituency, n. -en-st, 
the whole body of electors within certain limits, as a 
town or county : constitute, v. kon'stl-tut, to set up 
or establish ; to make ; to appoint ; to empower : con - 
stitu'ting, imp.: con'stitu'ted, pp.: constitutor, n. 
one who: con'stitu'tion, n. -tu'shiin, the natural 
frame of body of any human being or any animal ; the 
peculiar temper of the mind, passions, or affections ; 
the peculiar character or structure of anything, as of 
air; the established form of government in a country; 
a particular law or regulation : con'stitu'tional, a. -dl, 
inherent in the natural frame of the body or mind; 
legal ; relating to the constitution of a country : n. in 
linn i/inr hun/uaae, a brisk walk taken for preserving 
bodily Jiealth : constitutionally, ad. -II: constitu- 
tionalist, n. -dl-lst, a friend to an existing constitu- 
tion or government ; the framer or friend of a new 

mate, mdtffdr, law; mete, mSt, her; pine, pin; note, not, m6ve; 




constitution ; also con'stitu'tionist, n. : constitutive, 
a. -tu'-tlv, that constitutes or forms ; having power to 
enact : con'stitutively, ad. -II. 

constrain, v. kon-strdn' (L. const ringere, to drawer 
bind together— from con, and stringere, to bind, to 
strain : It. costringere ; F. contraindre, to constrain), to 
force or compel ; to press or urge with a force suffi- 
cient to produce a desired effect : constrain ing, imp.: 
constrained', pp. -strand': constrain edly, ad. -ed-ll : 
const rain 'able, a. -clbl, that may be forced or re- 
pressed : constraint', n. -strdnt', any force or power, 
physical or moral, that compels to do or keeps from 
doing; urgency. 

constrict, v. kon-strlkf (L. constrictus, drawn or 
bound together— see constrain), to draw together ; to 
bind ; to draw into a narrow compass : constricting, 
imp. : constricted, pp. : adj. tightened or contracted : 
constrictor, n. that which contracts or draws to- 
gether ; a large species of serpent, as the boa constric- 
tor: constric'tion, n. -strik-shun, a contracting or 
drawing together. 

constringe, v. kdn-strlnf (see constrain), to con- 
tract ; to force into a narrow compass : constring'ing, 
imp.: constringed', pp. -strlnjd': constringent, a. 
-strln'-jent, having the property of contracting or 
drawing together. 

construct, v. kon-strukf (L. constructio, the building 
of anything— from con, and structum, to pile up, to 
build: It. costruzione -. F. construction), to form or 
build ; to compose and put in order ; to make ; to in- 
vent: constructing, imp.: constructed, pp.: con- 
structor, n. one who: construc'tion, n. -striik'shun, 
the thing formed or built; the proper arrangement 
and connection of words in a sentence; the sense, 
meaning, or interpretation, as of the words of another, 
&c. ; the manner of drawing figures or diagrams in 
mathematics: construc'tional, a. -ell, pert, to: con- 
structive, a. -tlv, not exactly expressed but inferred: 
constructively, ad.-ll: construc'tiveness, n. inphren., 
the faculty of the mind that produces a desire to con- 
struct or form. 

construe, v. kon'-str6 (L. construere, to construct, to 
make : F. and It. co7istruire—see construct), in a dead 
or foreign language, to arrange words in their natural 
order and to translate them ; to interpret ; to explain ; 
con'struing, imp. : con'strued, pp. -strdd. 

constuprate, v. kon'-stu-prdt (L. const upratum, to 
violate— from con, and stupro, I ravish), to violate 
the person of; to ravish: con'stupration, n. -prd- 

consubstantial, a. kon'-sub-stdn'-shal (L. consubstan- 
tialis—from con, and substantia, substance or matter), 
having the same substance, essence, or nature: con- 
substantially, ad. -It: con'substan'tiate, v. -shl-dt, to 
unite in one common substance or nature : con 'sub- 
stantiating, imp. : con'substan'tia'ted, pp. : con'- 
substan'tia'tion, n. -shl-a'-shiin, according to the fol- 
lowers of Luther, a substantial though mysterious 
union of the body and blood of our Lord with the 
bread and wine of the sacrament after consecration ; 
con'substan'tial'ity, n. -shi-dl'-l-tl, the existence of 
more than one in the same substance : con'substan'- 
tialist, n. -ist, one who. 

consuetude, n. kon'-stve-tiid (L. consuetudo, habit, 
use— from con, and suetum, to be accustomed, to be 
wont), custom; usage: con'suetud'inary, a. -tud'-i- 
ner-X, customary; derived from use and wont; from 
time immemorial. 

consul, n. kon'-sul (L. consul — from consulo, I con- 
sider, I deliberate : It. console ; F. consul, a consul), in 
anc. Rome, a person elected to exercise sovereign 
power in the state— there being two of them chosen 
annually ; a person chosen to represent a sovereign in 
a foreign state, and to look after the interests of his 
country in that state: con'sular, a. -su-ldr, pert, to 
the power or dignity of a consul : consulship, n. the 
office: con'sulate, n. -su-lat, the office, jurisdiction, 
or residence of a consul : con'sulage, n. -laj, a duty laid 
on imports and exports by the consul of a port. 

consult, v. kon-sulf (L. consultary to consider 
maturely: It. consultare : F. cvnsulter), to seek the 
opinion of another; to ask advice of; to seek for in- 
formation in, as in books ; to have regard to, in acting 
or judging: consult'ing, imp. : consult'ed, pp. : con- 
suiter, n. one who : con'sulta'tion, n. -td'-shun, a 
meeting of two or more persons for deliberation on 
some matter: consul tative, a. -td-tlv, having the 
privilege of consulting. 

consume, v. kon-sum' (L. consumere, to consume — 

from con, and sumere, to take: It. consumare: F. con- 
sumer), to destroy by separating the parts ; to eat or 
devour ; to squander or waste ; to spend idly, as time ; 
to become wasted ; to bring to utter ruin : consu- 
ming, imp.: consumed', pp. -siimd': consu'mer, n. one 
who: consumable, a. -ift-'md-W, that may bedestroyed, 
wasted, or dissipated, as by fire : consumption, n. 
kon-sum'-shun (L. con, and sumptum, to take), the act 
of consuming ; a wasting away of the body by disease, 
generally understood of the lungs ; the use of the pro- 
ducts of industry: consumpt, n. kon'-siimt (contr. of 
consum2)tion), the use of any product of industry, as 
the consumpt of grain, of tea, &c. : consumptive, a. 
-sum'-tlv, wasting; exhausting; affected with disease 
of the lungs: consumptively, ad. -II: consumptive- 
ness, n. 

consummate, a. kdn-siim'-mdt (L. consummare, to 
accomplish, to finish— from con, and summa, the sum- 
mit, completion: F. consommer), complete; perfect; 
finished: v. kon'-sum-mdt or kon-sum'-, to complete; 
to finish; to effect a purpose : con summating, imp.: 
consummated, pp.: consum'mately, ad. -ll: con- 
summation, n. -md'shu7i, completion; end of the 
present system of things ; end of life. 

contact, n. kon'-takt (L. contactus, touch, contact— 
from con, and tact us, touched: It. contatto: F. con- 
tact), the touching or close union of bodies ; touch. 

contagion, n. kon-td'-jun (L. contagio, contact, 
touch— from con, and tangere, to touch: It. conta- 
gione: F. contagion), the communication of a disease 
by contact or touch ; the subtile or virulent matter 
proceeding from the bodies of diseased persons im- 
parting the same diseases to others— the latter strictly 
applies to infection, and the former to contagion ; that 
^vhich propagates evil or mischief: conta'gious, a. 
-jits, producing disease by contact or near approach ; 
containing that which may be propagated, as mis- 
chief or some affection of the mind: conta'giously, 
ad. -II: conta'giousness, n. : conta'gionist, n. one 
who believes in the contagious character of certain 

contain, v. kon-tdn' (L. continere, to hold or keep 
together— from con, and tenere, to hold), to be able to 
hold ; to have capacity ; to comprehend ; to hold 
within limits; to include; to embrace; to inclose: 
contain'ing, imp. : contained', pp. -tdnd': contain- 
able, a. -aid, that may be contained. 

contaminate, v. kon-tdm-i-ndt (L. confaminatum, 
to defile: It. contaminare: F. contaminer), to pollute 
or defile; to render impure; to sully; to taint: adj. 
corrupt by base mixture: contaminating, imp.: 
contam'inated, pp.: contamination, n. -na-shun, 
pollution; defilement: contam'ina'tive, a. -na-tiv, 
tending to make impure. 

contankerous, a. kon-tang'-ker-us (originally a 
slang word), querulous; very contentious; perverse; 
more frequently spelt cantankerous. 

contemn, v. kon-tem' (L. contemnere, to value little 
—from con, and temnere, to despise: It. contennere), 
to look upon as mean and despicable; to treat with 
scorn; to despise; to reject with disdain: contemn'- 
ing, imp.: contemned', pp. -Umd': contemn'er, u. 
-tem'-cr, one who. 

contemplate, v. kon-tem'-pldt (L. contemplatus. 
viewed attentively— from con, and tern-plum, a place 
for observation on every side: It. contemplare; F. 
contender, to contemplate), to view with continued 
attention; to study; to meditate on or ponder over; 
to intend or design ; to muse : contem'plating, imp.: 
contem 'plated, pp.: contem'plator, n. one who: 
contem'platist,n. one who: contemplation, n. -pld- 
shun, study; meditation; the act of considering any- 
thing attentively : contem'plative, a. -pld-tiv, given 
to study and reflection ; thoughtful : contempla- 
tively, ad. -II : contem'plativeness, n. 

contemporaneous, a. kon-tem'-po-rdhil-us, also co- 
tem pora'neous, a. ko- (L. contemporaneus, a contem- 
porary—from con, and temjjus, time), living or being 
at the same time : contem'pora neously, ad. -II .- con- 
tem'pora'neousness, n., also contem'porane'ity, n. 
-po-rd-ne-i-ti, state of being contemporaneous: con- 
temporary, a. -po-rer-%, also cotem'porary, a. being 
or existing at the same time : n. one who lives at 
the same time with another. Note.— In the spelling 
of these words, usage is now in favour of con rather 
than co. 

contempt, n. kon-temtf (L. contemptus, despised— 
from con, and temnere, to despise), the act of despis- 
ing ; the act of viewing or treating as utterly mean, 

cow, boy, foot; pure, bud; chair, game, jog, shun, thing, tliere, zeal. 




vile, and worthless ; disobedience or disrespect to a 
court;, or to a constituted authority ; disgrace; shame: 
contemp tible, a. -tem'tl-bl, worthy of scorn or disdain ; 
mean; vile; despicable: contemptibly, ad. -ti-bli: 
contemp'tibleness, n. -bl-nes : contemptuous, a. 
-Um'-tu-us, showing or expressing contempt or disdain; 
haughty; insolent: contemptuously, ad. -II: con- 
temp'tuousness, n. 

contend, v. kon-tind' (L. contendere, to strain vio- 
lently—from con, and tendere, to stretch : It. conten- 
dere), to strive ; to struggle in opposition; to dispute 
earnestly ; to debate ; to strive to obtain ; to quarrel : 
contending, imp. : contend ed, pp. : contender, n. 
one who : contention, n. -tin' shun (L. con, and ten- 
turn, to stretch, to strive), strife ; violent struggle or 
effort to obtain something; quarrel; strife in words: 
conten'tious, a. -shiis, quarrelsome ; given to angry 
debate; litigious: conten'tiously, ad. -li: conten- 
tiousness, n. 

content, a. kon-tSnt' (L. contentus, contented, satis- 
fied—from con, and tentus, held, kept within limits : 
It. contento: F. content), held or contained within 
limits ; quiet ; having a mind easy or satisfied : n. rest 
or quietness of mind ; satisfaction and ease of mind ; 
acquiescence ; measure or capacity: v. to make quiet ; 
to satisfy the mind ; to please ; to gratify : content'- 
ing, imp.: content'ed, pp.: content'edly, ad. -li: 
content'edness, n. : content'ment, n. -mint, quiet; 
satisfaction of mind : content'less, a. dissatisfied : 
content' and non-content', words used by the Lords 
in their House of Parliament to express— the former 
approval, and the latter disapproval,— the former being 
equivalent to ay or yes, and the latter to no : con- 
tents, n. plu. kon-tents' or kon', that which is held or 
contained within a limit ; the heads of a book ; an 

contention, contentious, &c— see under contend. 

conterminous, a. or coterminous, a. kon- or ko-ter' 
ml-nus (L. conterminus, bordering upon— from con, 
and terminus, a limit or border), bordering upon; 
touching at the boundary ; contiguous : conter'minal, 
a. bordering upon. 

contest, v. kon-tSsf (L. contestari, to call to witness 
—from con, and testis, a witness: It. contestare; F. 
contester, to contest), to dispute ; to struggle or strive 
earnestly ; to litigate ; to oppose ; to emulate : n. 
kon'tSst, struggle ; conflict ; dispute : contest'ing, 
imp. : contest'ed, pp. : adj. disputed : contestable, 
a. -tes'td-bl, that may be called in question or dis- 
puted: con'testa'tion, n. -ta'shun, joint testimony: 
contes'tingly, ad. -li. 

context, n. kon'Ukst (L. contextus, connection— from 
con, and textus, woven: It. contesto : F. contexte), the 
parts in a discourse or book immediately preceding 
or following the sentence quoted; in Scrip., the 
verses coming before or after a verse or text by 
which its sense may be determined or affected : con- 
tex'ture, n. teks'-tur, the composition of the parts of 
anything ; the character of the component parts of a 
body ; constitution : contex'tural, a. -tu-ral, pert, to 
the contexture : contex'tured, a. -turd, woven. 

contiguity, a. kon'tl-gu'l-tl (L. contiguus, very 
near— from con, and tango, I touch: It. contiguo: F. 
contigu), actual contact of bodies ; nearness of situa- 
tion orplace: contiguous, a. -tlg'-u-us, touching; close 
together; neighbouring; adjoining: contiguously, 
ad. -II: contig'uousness, n. -us-nSs. 

continent, a. kon'tl-nent (L. continens, that restrains 
his passions— from con, and tenens, holding: It. con- 
tinente: F. continent), restrained; moderate; tem- 
perate; chaste: con'tinently, ad. -II: con'tinence, n. 
■n&ns, also con'tinency, n. -n&n-sl, restraint imposed 
upon desires and passions— applied to men, as chas- 
tity to women. 

continent, n. kon'tl-nSnt (L. continens, the main- 
land—from con, and tenens, holding: It. continente; 
F. continent, the mainland), a large extent of land 
containing many countries ; the mainland ; the coun- 
tries of the mainland of Europe, especially as dis- 
tinguished from the British Islands : con'tinen'tal, a. 
-tdl, pert, to a continent; pert, to the countries of the 
mainland of Europe. 

contingent, a. kon-tln'je'nt (L. contingent, touching 
on all sides— from con, and tangere, to touch : It. con- 
tingere, to happen, to fall out), depending on some- 
thing else ; uncertain ; incidental ; casual : n. a quota ; 
a suitable share ; proportion ; a fortuitous event : 
contin'gence, n. -jins, also contingency, n. -jen-sl, 
an unforeseen event ; an accidental possibility ; casu- 

alty : contingently, ad. -jSnt-li, accidentally ; without 

continual, continuance, &c— see continue. 

continue, v. kon-tin'-u (L. continuare, to join one 
thing to another in uninterrupted succession— from 
con, and tenere, to hold : It. continuare : F. c.on- 
tinuer), to abide or remain in a state or place; to 
endure ; to extend from one thing to another ; to pro- 
tract ; to persevere in : contin'uing, imp. : contin'ued, 
pp. -iid: contin'uer, n. -u-er, one who: contin'ua'tor, 
n. -a'tor, one who continues or keeps up a series or 
succession: contin'uable, a. -u-d-bl, capable of being 
continued: contin'uedly, ad. -udll, without ceasing: 
contin'uous, a. -u-us, uninterrupted; joined without 
intervening space : continuously, ad. -U: continuity, 
n. -nu'-i-ti, uninterrupted connection ; close union of 
parts: contin'ual, a. -u-al, without interruption or 
cessation; unceasing; perpetual; constant: contin- 
ually, ad. -li: contin'uance, n. -dns, duration; per- 
severance ; residence ; uninterrupted succession : con- 
tin'ua'tion, n. -u-d'shun, uninterrupted succession; 
carrying on to a further point, as a line or a story : 
contin'ua'tive, a. -u-a'tiv, that continues: n. that 
which continues or endures. 

contort, v. kdn-tdrt' (L. contortus, intricate, obscure 
—from con, and tortus, twisted : It. contorto), to twist 
together ; to pull awry ; to writhe : contorting, imp. : 
contort'ed, pp. : adj. twisted together; twisted back 
upon itself; arranged so as to overlap each other: 
contor'tion, n. -tor'-shun, a twist or twisting; a 
wresting ; a wry motion ; a wresting or twisting of 
a part of the body out of its natural place, as the 
muscles of the face or a limb. 

contour, n. kdn-t6r' (F. contour; It. contorno, cir- 
cuit, outline— from L. con, and F. tour; It. tor no; L. 
tornus; Gr. tornos, a lathe), the outline ; the line that 
bounds or defines a figure or surface. 

contra, a. or ad. kon'trd (L.), on the other hand; 
on the contrary; opposite; a common prefix, with 
its form counter, signifying against ; in opposition. 

contraband, a. kOn'tra-bdnd' (It. contrabbando, 
illegal traffic— from L. contra, against, and mid. L. 
bannum, a proclamation), contrary to proclamation ; 
prohibited : n. prohibited goods ; illegal traffic : con'- 
traban'dist, n. one who traffics in prohibited goods ; 
a smuggler; also con'trabandis'ta (Sp.). 

contract, n. kon'-trdkt (L. contractus, an agreement 
—from con, and tractus, drawn or dragged : It. con- 
tratto : F. contrat), an agreement ; a mutual promise ; 
a bargain ; the writing which contains the terms and 
conditions of the agreement between two or more 
persons ; an act of betrothment : v. kon-traktf, to 
draw closer together; to draw into a less compass 
or bulk; to abridge; to wrinkle, as the brow; to 
betroth ; to acquire, as a habit ; to incur, as a debt ; 
to bring on, as a disease ; to bargain ; to shrink or 
become shorter: contrac'ting, imp. -trdk'-ting : con- 
tracted, pp. : contrac'tor, n. -ter, one who agrees 
to do a certain service or work at a stipulated price 
or rate: contraction, n. -shun, the act of drawing 
together or shortening; the thing shortened or re- 
duced: contrac'tedly, ad. -Ud-li: contrac'tedness, 
n. : contrac'tible, a. -ti-bl, capable of contraction: 
contrac'tibil'ity, n. -bil'l-tl, the quality of being able 
to be contracted: contrac'tibleness, n. -bine's: con- 
trac'tile, a. -til, having the power of shortening ; 
tending to contract: con'tractil'ity, n. -tll'i-tl, the in- 
herent quality or force by which some bodies shrink 
or contract. 

contra-dance, n. kon'trd-ddns (L. contra, and 
dance), a dance in which the partners are arranged in 
opposite lines : F. contre-danse, corrupted into coun- 

contradict, v. kdn'trd-cllkt' (L. contradictio, a 
speaking against, a reply— from contra, and dictum, 
to speak : It. contradizione : F. contradiction), to 
oppose by words ; to assert the contrary of what has 
been said; to gainsay; to impugn: con'tradic'ting, 
imp.: con'tradic'ted, pp.: con'tradic'ter, n. -ter, 
one who: con'tradic'tion, n. -dlk'shun, a contrary 
statement; an assertion opposed to what has been 
said; inconsistency with itself; opposition in any 
way: con'tradic'tive, a. -dlk'tlv, containing con- 
tradiction ; adverse : con'tradic'tively, ad. -li : con'- 
tradic'tious, a. -dlk'shus, inclined to contradict; 
filled with contradictions; inconsistent: con'tra- 
dic'tionsness, n. : con'tradic'tory, a. -ter-l, affirming 
the contrary ; containing a denial of what has been 
asserted ; inconsistent : n. in logic, a proposition op- 

mdtc, m&t.far, law; mete, mSt, hir; pine, pin; note, not, move; 




posed to another in all its terms : con'tradic'torily, 
ad. -ft. 

contra-distinctive, a. kon'trd-disdlnk'tlv (L. con- 
tra, opposite, and distinctive), distinguished or marked 
by opposite qualities: con'tra-distinc'tion, n. -tink- 
shun, distinction by opposite qualities. 

contra-distinguish, v. kOu'-trd-dis-tlng'giclsh(L. con- 
tra, opposite, and distinguish), to explain not only 
by different but by opposite qualities: con'tra- 
distin'guishing, imp.: con'tra-distin'guished, pp. 

contra-indicate, v. kdn'trd-ln'dl-kdt (L. contra, op- 
posite, and indicate), in med., to point out some pecu- 
liar method of cure contrary to the usual treatment: 
con'tra-in'dicant, n. -kdnt, symptom in a disorder 
forbidding the usual treatment : con'tra-in'dica'tion, 
n. -ka-shiin, a symptom which forbids the usual treat- 

contralto, n. kondrdl'to (It.— from L. contra, and 
alt us, high), in harmonised music, the counter-tenor 
or alto ; one of the middle parts. 

contra-position, n. kdn-trd-po-ztsh'un (L. contra, 
opposite, and position), a placing over against ; in 
logic, conversion in particular propositions. 

contrapuntal, a. kon'-trd-pun-tdl (It. contrappunto, 
counterpoint in music— see counterpoint), pert, to 
counterpoint: con'trapun'tist, n. one skilled in 

contrariety, contrarily, &c— see contrary. 

contrary, a. kon'trd-rl (L. contrarius, lying or being 
over against — from contra, against: It. contrario: F. 
contraire), adverse; opposite; contradictory; repug- 
nant ; in an opposite direction : n. a thing of opp< 
qualities : con'traries, n. plu. -rlz, opposites ; propo- 
sitions that destroy each other : contrary to, opposite 
to: on the contrary, in opposition; on the other side : 
to the contrary, to an opposite purpose or intent : 
con'trari'ety, n. -rl'l-tl, some inherent quality or prin- 
ciple which creates opposition ; repugnance ; incon- 
sistency: contrarily, ad. -trd-rl-ll: contrariness, n.: 
con'trariwise, conj. ad. -rl-wlz, on the other hand; 

contrast, n. kon'trdst (F. contraste, opposition : It. 
contrastare, to oppose — from L. contra, against, 
stare, to stand), opposition or difference of qualities 
made manifest by direct comparison; opposition of 
outline or colour to increase effect: v. kondrdst, 
to oppose different things, qualities, or conditions to 
each other that, by comparison, the superior excellence 
of one of them may be seen ; to set things in opposi- 
tion, or side by side, in order that the superiority of 
one of them may be exhibited in a more striking point 
of view: contrasting, imp. : contrasted, pp. 

contrate-wheel, n. kon'trdtducel (L. contra, against, 
opposite, and u-heel), in a watch, a wheel, the teeth 
and hoop of which lie contrary to the other wheels, 
or parallel to the axis. 

contravallation, n. kdn-trd-vdldd'-shun (L. contra, 
opposite, and vallum, a wall, a rampart), in fort., a 
trench guarded by a parapet, formed to secure the 
besiegers from the sallies of the besieged. 

contravene, v. kon'trd-ven' (L. contra, opposite, and 
venio, I come: It. contravvenire: F. contrevenir), to 
obstruct in operation; to oppose ; to defeat ; todoany- 
thing in opposition to the provisions of a law: con'- 
trave'ning, imp. : contravened', pp. -vend': con'tra- 
ve'ner.n. one who : con'traven'tion, n. -vin'shun, ob- 
struction ; a defeating of the operation or effect, as 
of a law or treaty. 

contraversion, n. kon'drd-ver'-shun (L. contra, op- 
posite, and versus, turned), a turning to the opposite 

contretemps, n. kong'tr-tong (F.— from L. contra, 
against, and tempus, time), an unexpected accident 
■which throws everything into confusion. 

contribute, v. kondrib'ut (L. contributum, to con- 
tribute—from con, and tribuere, to grant or give: 
It. contribuire : F. contribuer), to give or grant in 
common with others, as to a common stock; to 
pay a share ; to give a part or share ; to impart 
aid or influence to a common purpose: contrib- 
uting, imp. : contributed, pp. : contrib'utable, a. 
-td-bl: contrib'utar'y, n. -tdr'l, paying tribute to 
the same sovereign : contributor, n. one who : con'- 
tribu'tion, n. -tri-bu'shiin, anything given to a com- 
mon stock ; the payment of each man's share of some 
common expense ; the act of imparting or lending aid 
or influence for a common purpose : contrib'utive, a. 
\-trfb'u-tiv, having the power or quality of partly pro- 

moting any purpose : contrib'utor'y, a. -tor'-l, promot- 
ing the same end ; bringmg aid to the same stock or 

contrite, a. kon'drlt (L. contritus, bruised, much 
used— from con, and tritus, rubbed: It. contrite; F. 
contrit, contrite), deeply affected with grief and sorrow 
for having offended God; penitent; humble: con- 
tritely, ad-li: contrition, n. -trlsh'-un, deep sorrow; 
penitence ; grief of heart for sin. 

contrive, v. kondriv' (F. controuver, to devise— 
from L. con, and F. trouver, to find; It. trovare, to in- 
vent or seek out), to plan out ; to frame or devise ; 
to scheme: contri'ving, imp. : contrived', pp. -trlvd': 
contriver, n. one who: contri'vable, a. ■ra-hl, capa- 
ble of being planned or devised: contrivance, n. 
•trl'vdns, the act of planning or devising ; the thing 
planned or devised ; a scheme. 

control, v. kon-trol' (F. contrerolle, the copyof a roll 
of accounts— from contre, against, and role, a roll), to 
check by a coutra-account ; to restrain ; to govern ; 
to subject to authority : n. check ; restraint ; power ; 
command ; that which restrains, as Board of Control: 
controlling, imp.: controlled', pp. -trold' : control'- 
ler, n.— spelt also comptroller, one who : control lable, 
a. -ld-bl, that may be checked or restrained: con- 
trollership, n. the office of a controller. 

controvert, v. kon'tro-vert (It. controvertere, to 
controvert — from L. contra, and vertere, to turn), to dis- 
pute ; to contend against in words or writing; to 
deny and attempt to confute or disprove: contro- 
verting, imp. : con'trovert'ed,pp. : controvertible, 
a. -tbbl, disputable : con trover'tibly, ad. -tl-blt: con- 
trover'tist, n. one who: controversy, n. -vtr-si (L. 
contra, and versus, turned), debate or dispute, generally 
carried on in writing ; an agitation of contrary opin- 
ions ; quarrel ; strife : con'trover'sial, a. -ver'shdl, re- 
lating to disputes: controversially, ad. -II: con'- 
trover'sialist, n. -1st, a disputant ; one who. 

contumacious, a. kwi'-tu-md'-shus (L. contumacia, 
haughtiness, pride— from L. con, and tumere, to swell, 
to be puffed up : It. contumacia ; F. contumace), stub- 
born ; perverse ; unyielding ; disobedient to lawful 
authority: con'tuma'ciously, ad. -II: con'tuma'cious- 
ness, n. ■shus-ne's: con'tumacy, n. -md-sl, stubborn- 
ness ; contempt of lawful authority ; disobedience. 

contumelious, a. kon'tu-me'li-iis (L. contumelia, a 
bitter taunt, an affront — from can, and tumere, to 
swell : It. contumelia), insolent ; haughtily reproach- 
ful ; rude and sarcastic in speech : con'tumeliously, 
ad. -II: con'tume'liousness, n. : con'tumel'y, n. -mel'i, 
insolence ; excessive rudeness in order to affront ; con- 
temptuous language. 

contuse, v. kon-tuz' (L. contusum, a bruise — from con, 
and tusus, beaten: It. contuso; F. contus, bruised), to 
bruise ; to beat ; to bruise or injure any fleshy part of 
the body without breaking the skin: contu'sing,imp. : 
contused', pp. -tiizd': contusion, u. -tu'zhun, an injury 
on anypart of the body from a blow without breaking 
the skin ; a bruise. 

conularia, n. kon'u-ld'rl-d (L. conulus, a little cone), 
a genus of fossil pteropod shells having a tapering 
conical outline. 

conundrum, n. ko-nun'-driim (AS. cunnan, to know ; 
cunned, crafty), a sort of riddle in which some fanci- 
ful or odd resemblance is proposed for discovery be- 
tween things totally unlike. 

convalesce, v. kon'-vddes' (L. convalescere, to grow 
quite strong— from con, and valesco, I grow or get 
strong), to be gradually growing